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Passer (3e), to do without, L. 39, 1.
Passive voice, § 113, (1).
Passive verb, § 43, (4); L. 46. Con-
jugation of, § 54. Rule, § 55. Its
participle, L. 46, 2; L. 98, 2.
Past anterior, § 45, (2), 5.
§ 122; L. 55.

Use of

Past definite, § 45, (2), 3. Use of
§ 120; L. 51. Its terminations
and irregularities, L. 52.
Past indefinite, § 45, (2), 4. Use of,
§ 121; L. 41.

Past of subjunctive, § 45, (5), 3.
Payer, to pay, its government, L. 50.
Personne, no body, § 41, (6); L.7, 7.
Persons, 31, (3.)
Place, of subject, L. 56, 1, respective
place of noun, direct and indirect
regimen, L. 56, 1, 2, 3; § 76,(7),
(8), (9). In interjected sentences,
$76, (3). Of noun in interrogative
sentences, 76, (4), (5); L. 56, 1;
L. 6, 4. Of adjective, L. 8, 5; L.
15; 85; S 86. Of pronoun
subject or nominative, & 98. Of
regimen pronoun, L. 9, 1; L. 27;
L. 28; § 101; § 102. Place of
en and y, § 104; L. 57. Of adverb,
§ 136; L. 34; L. 41, 4, 5. Of verb,
$144.

Plaire (se), to take pleasure in, L. 40.
Used unipersonally, comme il vous
plaira, as you please, L. 89, 3.
Pleuvoir, to rain, L. 33, 3.
Pluperfect of indicative, § 45, (2), 6.
Use of, § 123; L. 55, 4.

Nouns

of subjunctive, § 45, (5),
4; L. 75, 6.
Plural of nouns, § 8; L. 11.
pound nouns, $9; L. 59.
having no plural, § 10.
having no singular, § 11. Plural
of adjectives, § 17; L. 14, 3. Moral
or physical properties of man,
single in the individual, not put in
the plural, L. 66, 5.

Of com-
Nouns

Plus de, more than, before a number,
L. 20, 7.

Plusieurs, several, § 30, (9); L. 18, 7.
Pour, in order to, L. 28, 8.
Porter, to carry, to wear, L. 23, 10;
L. 44, 6. Se porter, to be, to do,
L. 36, 3.
Preposition, § 71. Table of princi-

pal, 72. Regimen or govern-
ment of, 130. Governing with-
out another preposition, § 139.

By means of de, § 139, 2. By d,
§ 139, 3. Rules on goverment of,
$140. Repetition of, § 141.
Observations on, § 142.

Present tense, used in French, where
past used in English, L. 57, 2.
Promener (se), to walk, ride, etc., for
pleasure or health, L. 36, 5.
Prendre, to take, its government, L.
50, 1.

Prendre garde, to take care; prendre
le deuil, to go into mourning;
prendre la peine, to take the trou-
ble; prendre les devants, to go be-
fore; prendre un parti, to take a
resolution; prendre du thé, du
café, to take tea, coffee, L. 71, 3.
Prendre le thé, to take one's tea,
L. 71, note.
Pronouns, § 31. Personal, § 32. Re-
marks on, § 33. Use of moi, toi,
instead of subject or nominative
pronouns, § 33, (8), etc. Use of re-
flective, L. 37. Reflective pro-
noun se, § 33, (12), (13). Soi,
(14). Possessive pronouns, § 34;
L. 9. Remarks on, § 35. Demon-
strative pronouns, § 36; L. 9. Re-
marks on, $37. Ce, demonstra-
tive pronoun, § 37, (6); § 108;
§ 116; L. 81. Used for he, she,
L. 82. Celui, celle, celui-ci, celle-ci,
$ 20; 10. Ceci, cela, L. 10, 6.
Relative pronouns, § 38; L. 31.
Remarks on, $ 39. En, § 39,
(17); § 95, (5); § 110; § 103,
(1). Place of En, S 104. Y,
$39, (18); § 103 (2); Place of
y, 104; 111. Dont, L. 31, 8.
Syntax of pronouns, § 98. Place
of subject or nominative, § 98.
Repetition of, 99; L. 87. Place
of regimen pronouns, § 100;
L. 9, 1; L. 27. Respective placo
of regimen pronouns, § 101; L.
Rule on this subject, § 102.
Repetition of regimen pronoun,
105; L. 27, 7. Rules on pos-
sessive pronouns, § 106. On
demonstrative pronouns, § 107.
On relative pronouns, § 109.

28.

QUE, rel. prn., § 109. Never sup-

pressed, L. 19, 1; L. 31. 3. Que,
interrogative, L. 18, 5; L. 31, 5.
Que, conj., never suppressed, L. 19,

1. Que, idiomatic, L. 82, 3.

Quel, which, what, § 30, (10); § 109;
L. 18, 4.
Quelque, 30, (12); § 97; L. 18,
7; L. 88.

Quei-que, quelque que, govern
the subjunctive, L. 88, 3.
Quelque chose, something, anything,
L. 7, 6. Require de before an
adjective, L. 18, 3. Not used in
negative sentences, L. 7, 6.
Quelque part, somewhere, anywhere,
L. 25, 8.

Quoi, what, L. 31, 6.
Qui, who, whom, used absolutely,
§ 39, (5).

L. 80. Important rules on regi
men, 92; 133; § 140; L. 80, 5.
Regimen of prendre, to take; voler,
to steal; acheter, to buy; deman-
der, to ask; payer, to pay, L. 50, 1.
Réjouir (se), to rejoice, L. 40, 5.
Remettre, to set a dislocated bone,
etc., L. 93, examples.
Repetition of demonstrative adjec
tives, § 93. Of possessive adjec-
tives, § 21, (4). Of articles, § 80,
L. 6, 5; L. 86. Of subject or
nominative pronouns, § 99; L.
87. Of regimen or objective pro-
nouns, 105; L. 87. Of adverbs,
$137. Of prepositions, § 141.

Quelqu'un, § 41, 7; L. 7, 6.
Qu'est-ce que, used idiomatically for
what? L. 82, 2.

Quiconque, whoever, § 41, (9).
Quitter, to leave, abandon, etc., L. Rester, used unip., to remain, to have
86, 3.

left, L. 85, 4.

Reste de, left, L. 85, 4.

Retarder, to lose, to put back, said of
watches, etc., L. 92, 1.

Rappeler (se), to remember, recollect,
L. 37, 2.

Reading Lessons, p. 474.
Recevoir des nouvelles, to hear from,
L. 35, 6.

Reflective verb, § 43, (6). Conju-
gation of, 56; L. 36. Often
used in French for the English
passive, L. 36, 2. Its auxiliary is
être, L. 45; § 46. Its participle,
135; L. 45; L. 98, 5: L. 99, 4.
Regarder, to concern, L. 94, 5.
Remercier, to thank, Je vous remer-
cie, equivalent to a refusal, L. 89, 2.
Résumé of rules on participle past,
L. 98; L. 99.

Rien, nothing, etc., L. 7, 7; L. 18, 3.
Régime, regimen or object, § 2.
Direct, § 2, (2); § 42, (4); L. 56,
2, 3; 76. Indirect, § 2, (3);
§ 42, (5); L. 56, 2, 3; § 76.
Regimen or government of adjec
tives, 87; L. 79. After être
unipersonal, 87, (4); L. 79, 3.
Adjective followed by de, § 88.
By à, 89. By different preposi-
tions in both languages, $ 90.
Regimen of verbs, § 129; L. 21, 4;
L. 50; L. 76, 77, 78. Verbs fol-
lowed by no preposition, § 130; L.
76, 1. By d, § 131. By de, § 132;
L. 21, 4; L. 77. By a preposi-
tion in French and by none in
in English, L. 78, 1, 2. By a
different prep. in both, L. 78, 3.
Regimen of propositions, § 139;

Servir,

SAVOIR, to know, and connaître, to
be acquainted with, L. 30, 5.
Seoir, to suit, become, L. 47, 3. Used
unipersonally, L. 49, 1.
Servir (se), to use, L. 39, 2.
to help at table, L. 89, 1.
S'il vous plaît, if you please, L. 89, 3.
Si, conj., § 125, (3). Should not pre-
cede conditional mode, L. 62, 6.
Souvenir (se), to remember, recollect,
L. 37, 2.

So, rendered by le, L. 46, 4.
Speech, parts of, § 1, (1).
Stem of a verb, L. 23.
Subject or nominative, § 2, (1); § 42,
(2). Verb having several sub-
jects in different persons, L. 83, 2.
Agreement of verbs with subjects,
L. 83, 1; L. 84; § 114; § 115.
Subjunctive mode, § 45, 4th, (5).
Use of, § 127; § 143; L. 72, 8, 9,
10. Present of, 45, (5), 1. Ter-
minations of, L. 72. Subjunctive
used after verbs expressing con-
sent, command, etc., followed by
que, L. 72, 8. After several uni-
personal verbs followed by que, L.
73, 1. After certain conjunctions,
§ 143; L. 73, 4. After croire, espé-
rer, etc., interrogative or negative,
L. 74, 2. After another verb, un-
certain, and preceded by relative
pronoun or a superlative, L. 74, 3,
Past of subjunctive, L. 72, 7.
See Noun.

4.

Substantive.

Superlative absolute, § 14, (11); L.
17, 1. Superlative relative, § 14,
(9); L. 17, 2.

Syntax, 75. Of noun, S 76. Arti-
cle, § 77. Adjective, § 83. Pro-
noun, 98. Verb, § 114. Parti-
ciple, 134. Adverb, § 136. Prepo-
sition, § 139. Conjunction, § 143.

UN, une, a, an, one, § 13, (4), (11);
L. 6, 2. Not used. before nouns
placed in apposition, L. 30, 4.
Unipersonal verbs, L. 33; § 43, (7).
Paradigm of, § 61-2. Auxil. and
partic of unipers. verbs, L. 45, 3, 4.
VALOIR, to be worth, L. 49, 3; to be
better, L. 49, 6.

Venir, to come, used to indicate past

Venir

just elapsed, L. 26, 2.
trouver, to come to, L. 26, 3.
Verbal adjectives, § 65; L. 97.
Verbs, Four Conjugations of, L. 21;
$42. Subject or nominative of,
42, (2). Regimen or object
of, § 42, (3). Different sorts of
verbs, § 43. Active, 43, (2).
(3); L. 43. Passive, § 43, (4); L
46. Neuter, § 43, (5); L. 43.
Reflective, 43, (6); § 56; L. 36.
Unipersonal, L. 33; § 43, 7;
S61-2. Auxiliary verbs, § 43,
(8). Use of, 46; L. 43, L. 45.
Modes and tenses of, § 45. See
Different Modes and Tenses. Ir-
regular verbs, L. 24. Table of,
§ 62. Syntax of the verb, § 114.
Agreement of the verb with sub-
ject, $ 114; L. 83; L. 84; L. 85.
Verb after a collective noun,
S115; L. 85, 1, 2, 3. Number
of verb after ce, § 116. Verb
after several subjects in different
persons, 117. Use of tenses,
$118. See Different Tenses. Regi-
men or government of verbs. See
Regimen.
Veuillez, be so kind, L. 70, 4.
Vocabulary to the Reading Lessons,
p. 493.

Voici, here is, L. 34, 4.
Voilà, there is, L. 34, 4.
Voler, to rob, steal, its government,
L. 50, 1.

Vouloir dire, to mean, L. 32, 5, 6.
(en), to bear a grudge, etc..

L. 94, 6.
Vowels, L. 2.

WHAT, rel. prn., ce que, L. 31, 4; que,

L. 31, 5.

TAIRE, to conceal, L. 96, 5. Se taire,
to be silent, L. 96, 5.
Tarder, to tarry, to long, L. 58, 3.
Tel, such, 41, (12), (13). Monsieur

un tel, Mr. such a one, § 41, 13.
Tenir, to hold, used in the sense of to
keep. Tenir sa parole, to keep
one's word, tenir la porte ouverte,
to keep the door open, etc., etc., L.
90, 1. Tenir un langage, to make
use of language, expressions, etc.,
L. 90, 2. Tenir, to be attached,
etc., L. 90, 3. Faire tenir, to for-
ward, L. 90, 5. Se tenir, to re-
main, to abide by, etc., L. 90, 6.
Tenses of verbs, § 45. Formation
of, (§ 61). See Different Tenses.
Terminations of regular verbs, § 60.
Of indicative, L. 23, 5. Of imper-
fect of indicative, L. 53, 5. Of
past definite, L. 51. Of future,
L. 60. Of conditional, L. 62. Of
imperative, L. 70. Of subjunc-
tive, L. 72. Of imperfect of sub-
junctive, L. 75. Of infinitive, L.
21, 1. Of present participle, L.
23, 3. Of past participle, L. 23, 4.
Time of day, L. 20.
Times, number of, in a given space,
L. 68, 4.

Tout, all, etc., § 30, (15), (16); § 97,
(4), (5), (6). Tout, every, L. 26,
8. Tout, the whole, L. 26, 9.
Tout, entirely, quite, variable by
euphony, L. 88, 4.
Tromper, to deceive, L. 38, 1. Se
tromper, to be mistaken, etc., L. Will, used in the sense of wish, ren-
dered by vouloir, L. 60, 5.
Words, variable, § 1, (3). Invariable,
§ 1, (4).

interrogative, rendered by,
qu'est-ce que, L. 82, 2.
Whole (the), le tout, L. 26, 9.

38, 2.

Y

AVOIR, to be there, § 61-2; L.
33, 4. Used for ago, L. 41, 6.
Y avoir, followed by the present,
when the action continues, L
57, 2.

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Y, prn. & adv. § 39, (18); § 103,
(2). Place of S 104; § 111.
L. 24. 11.

NEW FRENCH COURSE.

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LEÇON I.

THE LETTERS.

THE French alphabet contains twenty-five letters:

New names.

с с Ꭰ d

U

V

X

Y

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y

Z

PART FIRST.

Old names.
ah

bay

say

day

a

eff

jay'
ash

e

jee1
kah

ell

emm

enn

0

pay

ku

err3

ess

tay

u*

vay

eeks

e grec

zed

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1 The new names of the French letters are seldom used. "Like s in pleasure.

3

6

No corresponding sound in English.

6 Nearly like ke and de in cake and grade. the same sound.

7kse.

Examples.

amas.

barre.

cas, cil, dard.

8

effet.

frère.

grêle,

haie.

idée.

jais.

kali.

lit.

mât.

natte.

orge.

père.

quadre.

rat.

soie.

tort.

urne.

vase.

rixe.

W, called in French double V, might be added, as many foreign words which have that letter, have been adopted into the French language.

yeux.

zèle.

Nearly like err in error.

Nearly like be in globe.

The e of the other letters has

se in rose.

LEÇON II.

LESSON II.

THE

VOWELS.

VOWELS are rendered long or short by certain marks placed over them. These marks, which are three in number, are called accents. The acute accent (') is placed over e, to give it a sharp or close sound. (See 4. é.)

The grave accent (') is placed over e, to give to that vowel a grave or open sound. (See 5. è.) It is also put on à, at, or to, là, there, and on the u of où, there, to distinguish those words from a, has, la, the, and ou, or. The grave accent, however, does not change the sound of a and u.

The circumflex accent (^) is placed over a, e, i, o, u, to give to those letters a long and broad sound.'

1. a like a in mat, rat. Examples, face, face; bateau, boat; tableau, picture; patte, paw; malade, sick.

2. â like a in bar, far. Ex. âge, age; château, castle; pâte, paste; blâme, blame; crâne, cranium.

3. e nearly like u in cur, and frequently silent at the end of polysyllables. Ex. le, the; me, me; te, thee; que, that; meuble, piece of furniture; peuple, people; rime, rime.

4. é like a in fate. Ex. été, summer; amitié, friendship; élevé, raised; épée, sword.

5. è like e in met. Ex. père, father, frère, brother; mère, mother; élève, pupil.

6. ê nearly like a in dare, fare. Ex. rêve, dream; extrême, extreme; crême, cream; crêpe, crape; forêt, forest.

7. i nearly like ee in reed, creed. Ex. midi, mid-day; ici, here; fini, finished; crédit, credit.

8. ↑ like ee in eel, feel. Ex. ile, island; gite, lodging; épitre, epistle; dime, tithe; abîme, abyss.

9. o between the o in rob and that in robe, or that of nor and no. Ex. robe, robe; globe, globe; cachot, dungeon; haricot, bean. 10. ô like o in bone, no. Ex. dépôt, deposit; prévôt, provost; bientét, soon; suppôt, supporter.

11. u. The exact French sound of this letter is not found in English. The position of the lips in whistling, is very nearly the

This accent indicates the suppression of the letter s after the vowel on which it is placed; fête, téte, bête, were formerly written, feste, teste, beste; the s was not sounded, but gave to the preceding vowel that prolonged sound, now represented by the circumflex accent.

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