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French. English. French. English.
Samuel, m. Samuel.
Hosea. Samson, m. Sampson,
Sara, f. Sarah.
Silvestre, m. Silvester.
Paulina. Silvie, f. Sylvia. Pénélope, f. Penelope, Siméon, m. Simeon. Pernelle, f. Pernel. Simon, m. Simon. Phillippe, m. Philip: Simonne, f. Simona, Philippine, f. Philippa. Sophie, f. Sophia. Phinées, m. Phineas. Sophonie, m. Zephaniah, Phillis, f Phillis. Susanne, f. Susannah. Pierre, m. Peter.
Suson, f. Poline, f. Polina. THEODORI THEODORE. Priscille, f, Priscilla. Théodose, m. Theodofius. Prudence, f. Prudence. Théophile, m. Theophilus. Rachel, f. Rachel.
Thérèse, f. Theresa. Radegonde, f. Radegunde. Thibaud, m.
Theobald, Raimond, m. Raymund. Thomas, m. Thomas. . Randolphe, m. Randal. Timothée, m. Timothy. Raoul, m. Ralph. Tobie, m.
Rowland. Ursule, f. Ursula. Rosamonde, f. Rosamund. Zacharie, m. Zachariah. Rose, f. Rose.
Zachée, m. Zaccheus.
By Way of QUESTION and Answer.
Of Grammar in general; of Letters, Accents, and other
Marks used in the French Language. Question. WHAT is Grammar?
Answer. It is an Art which teaches the proper mainer of speaking and writing a Language. It has therefore, for its object, the consideration of Letters,
Syllables, Words, and Sentences. Q. How many Letters are there in the French Language ?
· A. There are twenty-five ; namely, six Vowels, and nineteen Consonants ; see p. 1 and 2.
. I Q. Do they always retain the vocal and articulated Sounds
ascribed to them in the Alphabet? A. No; for these being insufficient to represent, of them
selves, all the vocal sounds and articulations of the French
Q. How many sorts of figured Accents are there in the French
hand towards the left, is placed on the vowel e only, to
indicate a sharp sound; as in été, been ; &c. Q. What is the use of the Grave? A. The Grave, which, on the contrary, is a short line drawn
from the left hand towards the right, is chiefly used on the vowel e to denote a clear and
as in accès, access : après, after ; &c. It is also used upon a and u,
c in the three following words, viz. à, at or to; là, there ; où, where; merely to distinguish them from a, has; la,
the ; ou, or. Q. What
is the use of the Circumflex ? A. The Circumflex, which consists of the two former Ac
cents, is occasionally set on the Vowels, a, e, i, o, u, to point out that such Letters are to be pronounced long; as in måtin, a mastiff-dog; tempête, a tempeft; gite, a lodging; côte, a side; flûte, a flute; whereas they are
short in matin, morning; trompette, a trumpet, &c. Q. What are tbe other marks used in the French language? A. There are three forts of them; namely,
The Cedilla, ( La Cédille.
curve line, is put under the conly before a, e, i, to divert it of its strong articulation, and give it the sharp hisling found of thes; as in il menaça, he threatened; une leçon, a leffon ; je reçus, I received ; &c. See p. 124.
Q. What is the use of the Diæresis?
the last of two vowels that meet together in a word, to
, la-ic, &c. Q. What is the use of the Apostrophe ? A. The Apostrophe, which is like a Comma set at the top of
a Consonant, ferves to indicate the omission of one of these Vowels only, viz. a, e, i; as inl'ame for la ame, the soul ; l'esprit for le esprit, the mind; s'il for si il, if he: it is likewise used before an h mute or not aspirated, as in l'homme for le homme, the man ; &c. and after qu' instead
of que, when this word occurs before any of the Vowels. Q. What is the meaning of the letier h being aspirated in some
words, and mute in others ? 1. When the letter h is said to be aspirateil, it implies that it
inust be uttered in as strong a manner as in the English words, hard, host; for instance, it is aspirated in hardi, bold; honte, shame : but when it is mute, or not aspirated, it is no more uttered in French, than that of the English words hour, heir, honour; therefore we read abile for ha
bile, clever ; omme for homme ; man, &c. 0. What is the use of the letter y in French? A. The letter y often serves to denote thc Etymology of
words derived from the Greek, wherein it stands for a single i; as in Analyse, Analysis ; Syllabe, fyllable ; &c: but, between two vowels, in French words, it indicates, in some of them, the sound of two i’s; as in el ayer, to try; envoyer, to send ; &c: and in others, that of a liquid
i as in Ayeul, Grandfather ; &c Q. What is the best way to acquire the different Sounds and
Articulations of French Syllables? A." There are general rules prefixed to most French Gram
mars for that purpose, but, from all the attempts that have hitherto been made, it does not appear, that written directions will sufficiently answer the views of an inqusitive learner, without the aflistance of a good Teacher.
C H A P.
CH A P. 11.
Of Words, and their Grammatical Distinctions. Q. WHAT is meant by a word?
A. A word is one or more syllables put together to signify something. Q. Are there many different forts of words in a Language ? À, There are several distind kinds of Words in Languages;
but Grammarians do not agree about their respective
denominations, nor even their number.* Q. What is the usual denomination of those which serve to
compose the English and French Languages ? A. The various Words, made use of in speaking or writing,
may be denominated and claffed as follows; viz.
Q. Are not these denominations suitable to the various claffes
of words, in all Languages? A. No; for the Latin Language has no Articles ; therefore
it is more ambiguous than modern Languages are.
* The different forts of Words, that constitute a Language, art generally called Parts of Speeche, but they are not uniformly distinguished by modern Grammarians; some reckoning ten of them, which they call and range thus; Nouns, Adječtives, Articles, Pronouns, Verbs, l'articiples, Adverbs, Prepohtions, Conjunctions, and Interje&tions ; fome nine, by leaving out the Participles; others eight, by omitting the denominations of Adjectives and Participles, and fo down 10 four ; viz. Nouns, Adnouns, Verbs, and Particles or invariable words.