« PreviousContinue »
NOMINATIVE NOUS, vous, EUX,
them. 57. The disjunctive personal pronouas are often connected with the word "même," self : moi-même, myself.
nous-mêmes, ourselves. toi-même, thyself.
vous-même, yourself. lui-même, himself.
vous-mêmes, yourselves elle-même, herself.
themselves. soi-même, one's self.
elles-mêmes, 58. The disjunctive pronouns are found after a verb or a preposition, and sometimes are used alone for the sake of emphasis ; as, “C'est moi.? It is I. "Parle-t-il de moi ?? Does he speak of me?'"Lui, il est Allemand." He is a German.
58. Personal pronouns are placed after the verb in the imperative affirmative ; as “Prenez-le." Take it. “Parlez-leur.” Speak to them.
60. After the imperative affirmative, mot and toi are substituted for me and te, except when followed by EN ; AS, "Donnez-moi un livre.” Give me a book.
61. The following, being always used with nouns, are called pronouns adjective: SINGULAR
OF BOTH GENDERS.
his, her, its, one's, notre,
leurs their. 62. The following; having a reference to nouns understood, are called disjunctive possessive pronouns :
le inien, la mienne, les miens, les miennes, mine.
J. bis, her, its,
one's own. le nôtre, la nôtre,
les vôtres, yours.
les leurs, theirs. 63. Possessive pronouns agree in gender and number with the object possessed, and never, as in English, with the posseggor; as, “son mari," her husband ; "sa soeur," his or her sister,
64. MON, TON SON, are used instead of MA, TA, SA, befere nouns feminine beginning with a vowel or h mute; as, “mon âme," my soul; "son épou. e," his wife.
65. The relative pronouns are those which relate to a preceding noun or pronoun, which is called antecedent, and with which they agree in gender, number and person. They are :
“qui," who, which, that. "de qui," of or from whom, whose; “dont," of or from whom, of or from
which, whose; "de quoi," of or from what. “à qui,” to whom; “à quoi,” to what. “que,” whom, which, that. "lequel, m. s., laquelle, f. s., lesquels, m. pl., lesquelles, l. pl.," which,
whom, that. 66. The following are iaterrogative : "qui"? who or whom? "qui est-ce qui? de qui”? etc. "quoi? que? qu'est-ce que”? what? “de quoi”? etc. 'Slequel? m. s., laquelle? f. s., lesquels? m. pl., lesquellės”? f. pl., which ? 67. The following are always used with a substantive: “quel, m. s., quelle, f. s., quels, m. pl., quelles, f. pl.,” what ? which ?
68. The demonstrative pronouns serve to point out the thing or things spoken of. The following are called pronouns adjective :
OF BOTH GENDERS.
ces, these, those. cet, 69. Cet is used before a noun masculine beginning with a vowel or a silent h.
70. Ce is much used with est, is, and corresponds with the English it; as, C'est vous. It is you. C'est un livre. It is a book.
71. Ci, here, and ld, there, are sometimes added to the noun after, ce, cette, ces ; as, ce livre-ci, this book,;" cette plume-là, that pen. 72. The following demonstrative pronouns refer to an object not named: ceci, this ; as, Ceci est utile,
This is useful. cela, that ; Cela est inutile, That is useless. 73. The following point out an object previously mentioned :
celui, m. s., celle, f. s., this, that.
ceux, m. pl., celles, f. pl., these, those.
celui-là, m. s.
celle-là, f. s.
ceux-là, m. pl.
those celles-ci, f. pl. s
celles-là, f. pl. 74. Ce, celui, ceux, and celles, are also used with a relative pronoun in reference to a noun previously expressed ; as, Celui qui fait son devoirHe who does his duty. Celui que j'aime---He whom I love.
PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES INDEFINITE. 75. Pronouns and adjectives indefinite have a vague and general signification; as, ON, L'on, one, they, people.
QUICONQUE, whoever. PLUSIEURS, several.
QUELCONQUE, whatever, any. AUTRE, other.
QUELQUE, AUTRUI, other people, others. QUELQUES, S
some, a few. CHACUN, each, every one.
QUELQUES-UNS, some PERSONNE, anybody.
QUELQUE...QUE, however. PERSONNE (NE), nobody.
L’UN Ļ'AUTRE, one another. TEL, he, who, such, such a one. L'UN ET L'AUTRE, both. QUELQU'UN, somebody.
L'UN OU L'AUTRE, either. AUCUN, any one.
NI L'UN NI L'AUTRE, neither. CERTAIN, certain.
NUL, no one. CHAQUE, each, every.
TOUT, every thing. QUI QUE CE SOIT, whoever.
TOUT...QUE, however. QUOI QUE CE SOIT, whatever.
76. AUTRE, CERTAIN, CHAQUE, QUELQUE, QUELCONQUE, PLUSIEURS, TEL, TOUT, AUCUN, nul, are used adjectively.
VERBS. 77. The verb étre, to be, as it expresses existence, is called a verb substantive; all other verbs, as they contain an attribute or quality, are called verbs attributive. These are divided into verbs active or transitive; verbs passive ; verbs neuter or intransitive ; verbs reflective, and verbs unipersonal or impersonal.
MOODS AND TENSES.
78. A verb has five moods : 1. The infinitive, which denotes an action or state in an indefinite manner; as, aimer, to love. %. The indicative, which affirais positively; as, Je parle-I speak. 3. The conditional, which affirms conditionally; as, Je parlerais si, etc.—I would speak, if etc. 4. The imperative, which implies command, request; as, Parle-Speak. 5. The subjunctive, which denotes an action or state in a manner dependent on a preceding verb, which implies doubt, fear, or desire, and to which it is connected by the conjunction que; as, Je doute qu'il vienne—I doubt whether he will come.
The tenses express the division of time. The simple tenses are expressed by a single word ; as, Je travaille-I work. The compound are formed by the verbs avoir, to have, and être, to be, which are then called auxiliary; as, J'ai travaillé-I have worked.
J'ai, I have. ,
J'avais, I had. Tu as, thou hast.
thou hadst. be has.
Il avait, he bad. we have.
Vous aviez, you had. Ils ont, they have.
Ils avaient, they had. 81. PASTE DEFINITE.
FUTURE. J'eus, I had.
J'aurai, I shall have. thou hadst.
thou wilt have. Il eut, he had.
Il aura, he will have. Nous eûmes, we had.
we shall have, Vous eûtes, you had.
Vous aurez, you will have. Ils eurent, they had. ,
Ils auront, they will have.
J'avais eu, I had had,
FUTURE ANTERIOR, J'eus eu, I had had.
J'aurai eu, I shall have had.
Que j'eusse, that I might have. 84. PRESENT or FUTURE.
Que tu eusses, that thou mightest
Que nous eussions, that we might
have. Que nous ayons, that we may have. Que vous ayez, that you may have.* Que vous eussiez, that you might
have. Qu'ils aient, that they may have.
that they might
have. 85. PAST PERFECT.
87. PLI PERFECT. Que j'aie eu, that I may have had.
Que j'eusse eu, that I might have
88. To conjugate a verb interrogatively, the pronoun nominative is placed after the verb; as, AVEZ-VOUS DE L'ARGENT? have you any money?
89. If the nominative is a noun, it is placed at the head of the sentence, and IL, ELLE, ILS, or ELLES, after the verb, according to the preceding rule: as, vos FRÈRES ONT-ILS DE L'ARGENT? have your brothers any money?
90. The interrogation can also be formed by EST-CE QUE (is it that); as, EST-CE QUE VOTRE FRÈRE A DE L'ARGENT? has your brother any money? EST-CE QU'IL A DE L'ARGENT? has he any money?
91. The letter -T-, between two hyphens, is placed after a verb ending with a vowel and followed by IL, ELLE, or on, in interrogations; as, A-T-IL DES PLUMES? has he any pens?