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phoric changes, to illustrate objects totally different. Burke, in
of the malady which he undertakes to remove. If generality of description is a crime in our reporters of common law, and material facts have been totally omitted, or inaccurately stated, by which means the decisions of the court have been misrepresented and false inferences drawn, how much more important is it in the history of a disease to have every symptom faithfully recorded. There is a wide difference between a narrative incumbered with mass of irrelevant matter and a minute detail of facts and circumstances appurtenant to the case. The two last lectures are a philosophical analysis of the pleasures of the senses and of the mind. The volume is not to be looked upon as exclusively professional. It has a more dignified cast of character, and without indulging that haughty spirit which has done nearly as much injury in the literary as in the political commonwealth, it embraces and es. pouses the interests of the whole community of letters. It shows that the author, notwithstanding he has visited the vari. ous regions of science, still retains an attachment for his own, an attachment not founded on superstitious bigotry, but on a liberal and enlightened view of the respective advantages of each. We take no sort of pleasure in that minute and pedling curiosity that hunts for a fault with the same anxiety it would search for a diamond; nor do we conceive it belongs to the genuine character of a critic to censure, at all events. If the author writes hereafter, in the strain of his last volume, we hope, without any knowledge of the man, that his life may be long spared for the interests of the community of letters.
It becomes Americans now, at a time when European critics deem it a point of honour to degrade our productions, to appreciate themselves, to feel that elevation of soul which our adversaries are incapable of, and not to be niggard and parsimonious to genius. If we join in European anathemas, we are guilty of the crime of suicide. Let the stain of literary murder rest on the hands of our critics on the other side of the Atlantic. We do believe that the present volume will be sufficient to reclaim the American character from such dastardly assaults, and we could wish our European critics before they undertake so to depreciate our characters as scholars, would regard their own characters
FOR THE PORT FOLIO.
INFLUENCE OF CHRISTIANITY ON THE DURATION OF OUR
Of the many causes which make modern republics less factious than the ancient, it is evident that the influence of the christian religion on the morals of mankind is far the most efficacious. The ancients had but faint motives for the practice of virtue, except such as arose from the human glory which was gained by it, and the slight obligation which ethical speculations imposed on the considerate few. Their religion required but little moral goodness, and was almost entirely content with offerings, libations and the blood of bulls and goats. Their religious festivals were often scenes of disgusting debauchery or of murderous frenzy:—What else could be expected from that preposterous mythology which decked the genius of every vice with the adored insignia of a blissful immortality? Every drunkard was a devout worshiper of Bacchus, and every thief a votary of the crafty Mercury,
Callidum quidquid placuit, jocoso
Moreover the future punishment of crimes was but faintly discriminated from the reward of virtue. Those who strolled in the Elysian Field, were discontented with a wearisome immortality, which afforded them only the negative happiness of an exemption from the misfortunes of human life. They were still a prey to mortal passions,* and were anxiously desirous of revisiting the checkered light and shade which illumine and obscure the path of man toward eternity.
Thus the foundation of morality was feeble and the superstructure tottered. Rome, in her best days, was radically vicious,t and perhaps the nurse of more and greater crimes than dis
Virg. 6 ver. 4. 91–8. 654, et passim.
† Let those who doubt the truth of this assertion, read the history of the Catilinarian-war, the orations of Cicero against Catiline, and the lives of the emperors Galba, Otho and Vitellius, by the greatest of the Roman historians. During the prætorship of one man, three thousand persons were found guilty
honour any christian city even at this period of infidelity, wealth, luxury and vice. The admirer of ancient glory, who tells us with enthusiasm of the virtues of Rome, is deceived by an empty name; falsely supposing that martial excellence is moral virtue; and that, as was thought at Rome, he is a man of preeminent merit who resists the allurement of a bribe.
Whenever the people become corrupt, they are more easily infected by the arts of demagogues, and more prone to revolutions. Rome was seldom entirely free. At one time a dictator, at another some powerful and profligate patrician swayed the rod of empire. The people were prodigal of their power, and obedient to the impulse of largesses and popular eloquence; how unlike the freemen of America, who know their rights and will long maintain them-whose morality rests on the firm basis of the christian faith, which allow to no man the commission of a favourite sin, but teaches him to reverence his God and
of murder by poison! The rape of the Sabine women, and the predatory valour of expatriated banditti were the foundation of the glory of Rome. No one thought of imputing any moral turpitude to rapine, robbery, and murder. “ Hitherto (says Florus) tie Romans were excellent, pious, holy and magnificent." Lib. 11. cap. xix.
FOR THE PORT FOLIO-ORIGINAL POETRY.
When Mr. Cooke was on the eve of finishing his late engagement on the Philadelphia stage, some of his friends were desirous that he should, on the last night, take leave of the audience in an appropriate address, in order that he might receive, in the form of a testimentary epitome, those valedictory marks of applause, to which he was so amply entitled, and which they were so universally anxious to bestow. The following lines were prepared for the occasion. And though we understand that Mr. Cooke highly approved of them, yet, for reasons quite satisfactory, he declined delivering them. They are now published with a view to make known, and perpetuate the sentiments en. tertained by that great actor-that modern Roscius, with respect to the people of the United States, particularly in relation to the citizens of Philadelphia.
While from Erin remote, where an infant I've play'd,
And remote from the white-clifft Britannia, I roam,
I have found all the sweets and endcarments of home.
I have found Truth and Friendship ennobling the mind,
In the soul I have found hospitality's glow,
With all that from Science and Virtue can flow.
Nor unjust let me be to the fame of the Fair,
To that beauty so radiant that breaks on my sight,
As it sparkles around like the gems of the night
Such charms have I found in sweet unison join’d,
Through the land where my wandering footsteps have led, From the lofty, whose brows are with honours entwin'd,
To the lowly, who tenant the cottage or shed.
But to me--here* the choicest of treasures I've found,
That treasure my soul never ceases to prize-
From the boxes, the pit, and yon gods in the skies!
* On the Philadelphia stage.
+ The gallery