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presented to it, and a copious precipitate fell down, indicating magnesia.

From these few, with some other experiments, the presence of a salt of iron, by sulphuric acid of sulphur, perhaps of sulphuretted hydrogen, and the carbonates of magnesia, and lime, have been detected. The sulphate of iron is in small quantityThe proportion of carbonate of lime, very small—That of carbonate of magnesia, great. Alumine is believed to be contained in them also.

During the warm season of several years past, many hundreds of people have resorted to these springs, in quest of lost health, sought in vain from the skill of the physician. From their recent discovery, little was known of the extent of their influence upon disease, except from casual observation, and the reports of their visitants, until last season; when a regular plan was adopted to ascertain, with precision, how far their effects may be depended on. It has been found by impartial observation, made with as much care as circumstances permitted, that they have a salutary effect in destroying the various species of intestinal worms in children and adults in removing incipient consumptions of the lungs, or checking a tendency to that disease-in removing chronic obstructions and inflammations of the viscera, particularly of the liver; especially those which follow autumnal fevers, and protracted intermittents. Indeed they have been effectual, in either curing or retarding, all cases of deranged excitement of the viscera, conscquent on bilious fever, remittent, or intermittent; whether in their acute or chronic states.

Dyspepsia--constipated bowels from torpid liver-incipient dropsies-calculus-diabetes-chronic nephrites-hemorrhoids --rheumatisms-cutaneous eruptions—ulcers, in which the system has been brought to sympathise, or which follow systematic disorders-partial paralysis-the obstructions and profluvia, which too often afflict females, are diseases, in which these waters have been found to possess the most salutary healing virtues. Good effects are experienced in almost all cases of debility, whatever their cause, which not unfrequently bafflc the physician, and from year to year teaze the patient.

At first view it may appear astonishing, that this mineral fountain should be possessed of powers sufficient to vanquish, and erect trophies over such a formidable phalanx of maladies. It is not indeed to be expected, that the waters alone can extend their influence over so wide a scope of disease. Yet physicians know how important are the effects, and how extensive the use of laxatives, when they combine, with their usual operation, tonic virtues; and frồm the extent of their healing powers, they hope almost every thing. In the present case, however, much of the effect produced, is to be attributed to the pure, elastic air of the mountains, where there are tio stagnant waters to emit putrid effluvia-to the very high situation of the country, which checks and counteracts the morbid effects of the sun, and gives us in the summer and autumnal months, a climate never oppressive, but always grateful to our sensations. Who is ignorant of the happy effects resulting from mere change of situation, even without an improved atmosphere? How much more salutary then must be these effects, when the change is to an atmosphere always cool and temperate always pure-always animating! The rugged passages, over which the patient necessarily travels, whether from the east or west, to arrive at these springs, come in for their share in advancing the medicinal reputation of these waters. The good consequences of agitation on rough roads, and of the tossings on a tempestuous ocean, in such diseases as have been mentioned, physicians have long and duly appreciated. Hence, in estimating the medicinal virtues of these springs, we ascribe to them effects, which they would not produce, unaided by such potent auxiliaries.

The water, in almost all cases, operates as a laxative and diuretic-sometimes, as an emetic, and sudorific. It uniformly strengthens the digestive organs, and sharpens the appetite. When used moderately, its usual effect is to exhilarate the spirits, and animate the countenance: taken in excess it causes languor, and stupor of the head; and from its rapid depletion, general debility. When prescribed with judgment, its successful operation can be made to extend over the two great classes of disease those of debility, and those of strength; and hence another means of its extensive usefulness.


The IMPROVEMENTS, shall now, be concisely noticed. There are, at present, a large reservoir under groundwo commodious cold baths, two warm. A large boarding house, and two small detached buildings for lodging rooms. Besides which, the proprietor is now engaged in erecting large additions to the means of accommodation at the springs. The inns and boarding houses of the town, will also be rendered more convenient and comfortable to those who may visit the springs during the ensuing season.

The sequestered vale contiguous to the mineral springs, is now, though almost in a state of nature, a delightful spot; the enjoyment of which, alone, one would think almost sufficient to impart vigour and cheerfulness to the body and mind, labouring under disease and despondency. Nature has done much for it; yet from the hand of art, it is susceptible of very high degrees of embellishment. Who can withhold his grateful admiration of that gracious—that liberal provision, which Nature's God has made to remedy those physical evils, which afflict his creatures!

If men will take the trouble carefully to compare the means narrated in this plain statement of facts, with those which books and long experience have taught, they will require nothing more to bring conviction to their minds. They will here see detailed the whole catalogue of efficient remedies, in the treatment of chronic diseases-remedies which strengthen the system, without alarming the feelings—which conciliate health, whilst they amuse-which exhilarate the heart, whilst they invigorate the muscles, and sooth the nerves with new sensations.

Here amid the mazy forest, or rugged landscape, they steal the roses of youth from the zephyrs of the mountains and vallies, and purify their feelings, whilst they lave their bodies in the translucid streams, sparkling with the richest gems of Hygeia.

J. W. Bedford, Pennsylvania, April 11, 1811.

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Sixteen Introductory Lectures, to courses of lectures upon the Institutes and

Practice of Medicine, with a Syllabus of the latter. To which are added, Two Lectures upon the Pleasures of the Senses and of the Mind; with an inquiry into the proximate cause. Delivered in the University of Pennsylvania. By Benjamin Rush, M. D. Professor of the Institutes and Practice of Medicine, in the said University. Philadelphia, published by Bradford and Inskeep.

We might justly be regarded as impertinent and obtrusive if, unacquainted as we profess to be with medical subjects, we. should venture an opinion on the merits of the volume now before us, when considered in a medical point of view. Here the author might claim the benefit of the common law, a trial by his peers, and to a tribunal so constituted, we cordially resign the task of investigating, and of deciding on the professional merits of the volume. The work is divided into sixteen lectures, comprehending a variety of subjects. The necessary connection between observation and reasoning in medicine; the character of Dr. Sydenham; the causes of death in diseases that are not incurable; the influence of physical causes in promoting the strength and activity of the intellectual faculties; the vices and virtues of physicians; the causes which have retarded the progress of medicine, and the means of promoting its activity and greater usefulness; the education proper to qualify a man for the study of medicine; the construction and management of hospitals, form the important subjects of the first eight lectures. The remaining eight comprehend the following topics: the pains and pleasures of a medical life; the means of acquiring business, and the causes which prevent the acquisition and occasion the loss of it, in the profession of medicine; the utility of the knowledge of the faculties and operations of the human mind in a physician; the opinions and modes of practice of Hippocrates; the duty and advantages of studying the diseases of domestic animals, and the remedies proper to remove them; the duties of patients to their physicians; the means of acquiring knowledge and the study of medical jurisprudence. To these are added, a syllabus of a course of lectures upon Physiology, Pathology, Therapeutics, and the practice of medicine, and two lectures on the pleasures

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of the senses and of the mind, with an inquiry into the proximate cause. The venerable professor here occupies ground inaccessible to us; and we must profess ourselves to be utter strangers to that system of chivalry that assails with a certainty of defeat. We wish not to resemble the valorous knight of antiquity who held it the very perfection of chivalry to suffer without revenge, who deemed courage to be merely a passive virtue, and whose own broken bones were the only testimonials of his knightly valour he was able to produce. Had this book been exclusively confined to professional gentlemen, we should have passed it by without a comment. It has been too much the custom of professional men to endeavour to fence off the scientific grounds they respectively occupy. Not satisfied with those boundaries which nature has so visibly drawn between the several sciences, they have superadded imaginary obstacles, as if their particular science was a totally distinct and independent territory by itself. If their dogmas are entitled to implicit credit, there is no commerce or good fellowship between the sciences whatever, they are so many separate provinces, each of which must assert its own sovereignty, and without any common league must defend the integrity of its own dominions. The more liberal and enlightened members of these different coinmunities have had the boldness to advance quite a different language. Adopting the good old opinion of the Roman orator, they have endeavoured to fraternize the warring sciences, and to introduce something like a cosmopolitan spirit. Nay, those very champions who so stoutly defend the independence of every science, call in the aid of all the others for its defence. The moment the enemy is by their combined efforts beaten off, they refuse to acknowledge the good services of their allies, and assume to themselves the exclusive glory of the triumph. We are inclined to suspect that those very gentlemen who surround their professions with so much solemn mystery, are not themselves the most eminent members of their profession. Recollecting with what difficulty they acquired whatever portion of knowledge falls to their lot, they assume an air of inscrutable mystery to monopolize with the greater ease and certainty the profits. This auspicious and imposing reserve prevents all inquiry, and is an

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