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A NEW “LADY OF THE LAKE."
It is a curious fact, though the some shop ; some one anticipates people of Geneva have such a beau- her, and away she runs to the water : tiful lake that foreigners fock to it another fair" lady cannot raise the from all parts of the world, yet they money to buy a handsome shawl, themselves derive but little or no which she covets, and plunges enjoyment from it. Versoix, Cop- forthwith into the lake. One of pet, Nyon, Rolles, Ouchy, Cully, these determined females recently Vevey, Villeveuve, and, on the met with a most severe disappointSavoy side, Evian and' Thonon, ment, for she was fished out again have delightful walks along its in spite of herself, and carried on shore : Geneva has none. This shore. I know not ‘whether my has not always been the case. It British country women have such a is known from documents, and old decided horror of what Toricelli books, and drawings, that, a hun- calls a vacuum. Here, at any rate, dred years ago, there were foot- that horror is entertained. Hence paths running along the southern the women eke themselves out at all and northern side, and that the peo- points with buckram, whalebone, ple of Geneva were fond of walking cork, and wadding, and with these there in the evening. These paths aids they produce beautiful contours, have all disappeared : enclosed and an appearance of plumpness, gardens, and plots of ground, fre- where there is scarcely more than quently separated from each other skin and bone. These imitations by walls, extend to the water's are so perfect, and the additions so edge. Would you know how this adinirably rounded, as to deceive has happened, you need only look even the eye of the connoisseur. at the water in calm serene wea- But to the point-One of these bether, and you will see heaps of corked and be-wadded females, havstones lying in the lake, and posts ing had a tiff with her lover, found standing up in it to a considerable life absolutely intolerable, and away distance from the bank. If records she posted to the water. To her did not inform us, we have ocular no small discomfiture, however, two demonstration that, on the south prodigious gigots, and a vast cork west, where the current of the tournure, kept her upright. She Rhone is very impetuous, the water made the most furious exertions to has gradually washed away the sink hersell—but the thing was iinbank, undermined and overthrown possible. The two gigots floated the stone dykes, along which the like blown bladders on the surface foot-paths were carried, and ad- of the lake, and the cork below vanced to the margin of the gardens forcibly propelled her upward. In and private enclosures.
this awkward predicament, she fell Perhaps, however, it is a fortu- to scolding and raving at such a nate circumstance that the Gene- rate as to attract the notice of some vese cannot get at their lake without fishermen, who hastened to her some trouble ; otherwise the prac- assistance. Chance led me to the tice of drowning themselves might spot just as they were bringing this be more common than it is at pre- “lady of the lake" ashore. She sent. One might almost say that it presented a most pitiable sight; has become the fashion, especially for the whole curious fabric was with the female sex, who in other now visible through her wet and respects cannot justly be charged closely adhering garments, and with any excesses of passion. A plainly showed what a difference milliner resolves to take a hand- there is between nature and art,
INDEPENDENT EXISTENCE OF MIND.
We have, in truth, the same kind through the means of bodily organiof evidence for the existence of sation. They do not admit of being mind, that we have for the existence brought into comparison, and have of matter ; namely, from its proper- nothing in common.
The most exties—and of the two, the former quisite of our bodily senses are enappears to be the least liable to de- tirely dependent for their exercise ception. “Of all the truths we upon impressions from external know,” says Mr. Stewart, “the things. We see not without the existence of mind is the most cer- presence both of light and a body tain. Even the system of Berkeley reflecting it ; and if we could supconcerning the non-existence of pose light to be annihilated, though matter, is far more conceivable than the eye were to retain its perfect that nothing but matter exists in condition, sight would be extinthe universe.” A similar mode of guished. But mind owns no such reasoning may be applied to the dependence on external things, exmodification of materialism more cept in the origin of its knowledge prevalent in modern times, by which in regard to them. When this mind is considered as a result of knowledge has once been acquired, organisation, or, in other words, a it is retained and recalled at pleatumction of the brain ; and upon sure ; and mind exercises its various which has been founded the conclu- functions without any dependence sion, that, like our bodily senses, it upon impressions from the external will cease to be, when the bodily world. That wliich has long ceased frame is dissolved. The brain, it to exist is still distinctly before it ; is true, is the centre of that influ- or is recalled, after having been ence on which depend sensation long forgotten, in a manner even and me ion. There is a remarka- still more wonderful ; and scenes, ble connexion between this organ deeds, or beings, which never exand the manifestations of mind ; and isted, are called up in long and by various diseases of the brain harmonious succession, invested these manifestations are often mo- with all the characters of truth, and dified, impaired, or suspended. We all the vividness of present exist shall afterwards see that these re
The mind remembers, consults are very far from being uni- ceives, combines, and reasons form ; but even if they were uni- loves, and fears, and hopes, in the
; form, the facts would warrant no total absence of any impression other conclusion than that the brain from without that can influence, in is the organ of communication be- the smallest degree, these emotions; tween the mind and the external and we have the fullest conviction world. : When the materialist ad- that it would continue to exercise yances a single step beyond this, the same functions in undiminished ho plunges at once into conclusions, activity, though all material things which are entirely gratuitous and were at once annihilated. This arunwarranted. We rest nothing gument, indeed, may be considered more upon this argument, than that as only negative ; but this is all that these conclusions are unwarranted; the subject admits of. For when but we might go farther than this, we endeavor to speculate directly and contend, that the presumption on the essence of mind, we are imis clearly on the other side, when mediately lost in perplexity, in conwe consider the broad and obvious sequence of our total ignorance of distinction which exists between the the subject, and the use of terms peculiar phenomena of mind, and borrowed from analogies with mathose functions which are exercised terial things. Hence the unsatis:
is ; it
factory nature of every physiologi- consistent with the idea of an imcal or metaphysical argument res- pression made upon a material orpecting the essence of mind, arising gan, except he has recourse to the entirely from the attempt to reason absurdity of supposing that one sethe subject in a manner of which it ries of particles, as they departed, is not susceptible. It admits not of transferred the picture to those any ordinary process of logic ; for which came to occupy their room, the facts on which it rests are the If the being, then, which we call objects of consciousness only; and mind or soul, be, to the utmost exthe argument must consist in an tent of our knowledge, thus dissimiappeal to the consciousness of every lar to, and distinct from, anything man, that he feels a power within that we know to be a result of boditotally distinct from any function of ly organisation, what reason have the body. What other conception we to believe that it should be afthan this can he form of that power fected by any change in the arrangeby which he recalls the past, and ment of material organs, except in provides for the future-by which so far as relates to its intercourse he ranges uncontrolled from world with this external world. The efto' world, and from system to sys- fects of that change which we call tem--surveys the works of all-cre- the death of an animal body, are ating power, and rises to the con- nothing more than a change in the teniplation of the Eternal Cause ? arrangement of its constituent eleTo what function of matter shall he ments ; for it can be demonstrated, liken that principle by which he on the strictest principles of chemisloves and fears, and joys and sor- try, that not one particle of these rows-by which he is elevated with elements ceases to exist. We have, hope, excited by enthusiasm, or in fact, no conception of annihilasunk in the horrors of despair ? tion"; and our whole experience is These changes also he feels, in opposed to the belief of one atom many instances, to be equally inde- that ever existed having ceased to pendent of impressions from with- exist. There is, therefore, as Dr. out, and of the condition of his bo- Brown has well remarked, in the dily frame. In the most peaceful very decay of the body, an analogy state of every corporeal function, which would seem to indicate the passion, remorse, or anguish, may continued existence of the thinking rage within ; and, while the body is principle, since that which we term racked by the most frightful dis- decay is itself only another name eases, the mind may repose in tran- for continued existence.
To conquillity and hope. He is taught ceive, then, that anything mental by physiology, that every part of ceases to exist after death, when we his body is in a constant state of know that everything corporeal conchange, and that, within a certain tinues to exist, is a gratuitous asperiod, every particle of it is renew- sumption, contrary to every rule of ed. But, amid these changes, he philosophical inquiry, and in direct feels that the being whom he calls opposition, not only to all the facts himself remains essentially the relating to mind itself, but even to same. In particular, his remem- the analogy which is furnished brance of the occurrences of his by the dissolution of the bodily early days, he feels to be totally in- frame.
What a poor, starveling, unsubstan- name : only think of the “watery tial thing is " WATER.” What soli- element,” and “watery grave,” of tariness and sadness are in its the newspapers ; and those unenvia
ble attributes of health, toast and tar.-Oh! the “glassy essence water, barley-water, and warm wa- that enabled them to ter. Allied with something else, it
“ Play such fantastic tricks before high heaven is barely tolerable : sugar and wa- As made the angels weep." ter is an elegant French drink, and brandy and water may be a palata
-The mystery-mongers of our day ble English beverage ; but nothing are those who adulterate our drink can be more anti-social than water.
with water : they affect the same You have but to think of Parnell's consideration for our bodies that the hermit
monks did for our souls ; and both
made and make the study an equal “ his drink the crystal well,”
source of profit. and
you may fancy yourself insolat- At page 47, there is mentioned a ed from all that is good in life. You frightful fact, that “ Dr. Lambe has feel an unpleasant vacuum in your lately revived the idea of arsenic imaginative enjoyments, and inclin- being present in all natural waters, ed to leave the man of the cell to and particularly in the waters of the his monastic nunnery, and to, be- Thames.” This is as alarming as take yourself to better things. a drop of the same water seen
Perhaps, however, no subject is through Carpenter's microscope, more intimately connected with our with its myriads of animalculæ. existence and well-being than wa- For a month after we had seen this, ter, and a knowledge of its proper- we drank nothing weaker than ties. It constitutes our food and Spanish wine, and took care not to physic. It is our best friend, and sit next to a water-drinker. not unfrequently enables us to pre- A page of pleasant romance sucvail over stronger enemies. ceeds. Thus, says Mr. Booth :
Before us is a thin half-crown “ Various remarkable accounts of Trealise on Water. The subject is particular waters are on record, patriarchal ; the author is Abraham which, although they must be deemBooth, and the volume is dedicat- ed fabulous, we shall just enumeed “to his revered father, Isaac rate. The Stygian water, said to Booth.” Here the natural and be the death of Alexander the Great, chemical properties of water are is supposed to have contained fluoric briefly treated of, and the British acid gas. A spring of this kind is mineral waters duly considered. said to have been, discovered in There is little new in the work, but Prussia, and closed by order of the considerable industry has been used government. A river is named at in collecting its materials. We Epirus that puts out any lighted looked for more on the Thames wa- torch, and kindles any torch that ter; though our expectations were was never lighted. Some waters, those of a Londoner attaching all being drunk, cause madness, some importance to his great city. drunkenness, and some death. The
Mr. Booth's Treatise is too thin river Selarus was said in a few to allow us to say we have waded hours to turn a root or wand into through it. Here and there we stone. There is also a river in pick out some amusing facts. Thus, Arabia where all the sheep that what tricks our forefathers were drink thereof have their bair turned enabled to play off on the ignorant, to a vermilion color; and one, of no through the wells round London, less credit than Aristotle, names a several of which were impregnated merry river, the river Elusina, that with carbonic acid gas. The monks dances at the sound of music ; 'for of the Holy-well, near Shoreditch, with music it bubbles, dances, and turned this property to good ac- grows sandy, and so continues till count by selling the water as spiria the music ceases ; but then it pretus mundi, or a kind of spiritual nec- seatly returns to its wonted clear
ness and calmness.' Josephus like- use. At page 86, Mr. Booth says : wise names a river in Judea that “ Pure waters are found most ruos swiftly all the six days of the valuable in bleaching wax, and in week, and stands still and rests all the manufacture of white paper ; the Sabbath."
in consequence that such waters reRain water is next in purity to quire the less alkali and soap in distilled water ; but its 'drinkers cleansing and whitening the rags, have a chance of their insides be- and the paper made with soft water ing plastered and white-washed. is thus found firmer and to require “ Řain, collected in towns, acquires less sizing than that made with hard a small quantity of sulphate of water. This circumstance is said lime, and carbonate of lime, ob- to give the French paper a prefertained from the roof and the plasterence to the English or Dutch, of houses.” Hippocrates knew whose waters being harder, require this, although Mr. Booth tells us more soap and lime, become more some chemists do not ; for the fa- tender, and require more sizing than ther of physic states that rain wa- the French.” We fall in with these ter should always be boiled and observations; for nothing can be strained when collected near large more vexatious to fast writers than towns.
some English floccy paper, where Dr. Perceval observes that bricks the pen becomes furred every twenharden the softest water, and give it ty minutes. an aluminous impregnation. Mr. The chapter on mineral waters is Booth adds, “the common practice interesting ; but that on the dietetic of lining wells with them is therefore properties of water exceeds it. Notvery improper, unless they be co- withstanding all we have said vered with cement : ” would not the against the stream, we must give cement have a similar hardening place to the following :property?
“ Water drinkers are in general Hard water introduces Burton longer livers, are less subject to ale, the excellence of which has decay of their faculties, have betbeen found by chemistry and law to ter teeth, more regular appetites, be owing to a gypsum rock over and less acrid evacuations, than which the Trent water flows. We those who indulge in a more stimuhave therefore to thank Nature for lating diluent as their common this delicious sophistication, and drink. This liquid is undoubtedly the drinker may double his nips or not only the most fitted for quenchtankard accordingly : for, what na- ing the thirst and promoting true ture and the law sanction, let no and healthy digestion, but the best man eschew,
adjutant to a long and comfortable Mr Booth tells us, “ At Paris, life. Its properties are thus sumwhere the water is hard, the same med up by Hoffman : Pure wabaker cannot make so good bread ter is the fittest drink for all ages as at Gormes. The purity of the and teinperaments : and, of all waters at Beaume, in Burgundy, the productions of nature or art, is the cause why this bread was comes the nearest to that universal long celebrated as the whitest and remedy so much sought after by besť bread in France.” We al- mankind, and never hitherto disways thought the Paris bread ex- covered : ' an opinion in which he cellent ; but the French bakers is supported by most scientific and have more varieties than we have. intelligent men. The crisp-crusted roll, napkin, sil- The reader will pardon our prover, and china of the Restaurateur, lixity ; the subject is of current inwill never fade away from our re- terest, and one which all who thirst collection.
after useful knowledge must enjoy. Bleaching is another important