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hats of the crusaders! Linnæus is generally thought to have been about as sceptical, when he says, that he had not discovered any sure evidence of the deluge in the present appearance of the earth-'cataclysmi universalis certa rudera ego nondum attigi, quousque penetravi.' But in another part of his writings, in speaking of fossils in regular strata, he says-Qui haec omnia diluvio adscribit, quod cito ortum, cito transiit, is profecto peregrinus est in naturae cognitione, et ipse caecus, aliorum oculis videt, si quid videt:' he who imputes all these phenomena to the deluge, which rapidly rose and rapidly subsided, is inexperienced in the examination of nature, and blind himself, he sees with the eyes of others, if he sees at all.' Linnæus then had the sagacity to perceive even in his day that the fossils imbedded in solid rocks could not have been deposited there by the deluge-'ci to ortum, cito transiit:' at least, we are disposed to impute his opinion to superior discernment, rather than to scepticism. And even the visionary Robinson, after proving the earth to be a great animal, with 'skin, flesh and blood,' has the following sagacious remark:-"It cannot be imagined, that those shell fish should be lodged and petrified to stone, upon the tops of high mountains, and enclosed in the middle of hard rocks, by that general flood." Robinson wrote in 1694; and as far back as 1517, Tracastoro had expressed the same opinion. It is well known likewise, that William Smith, the celebrated English geologist, who has thrown more light on fossil remains than any other man, entertained similar views.

But to come to living authors. Foremost among these is Cuvier, whose preliminary Essay on the Theory of the Earth, is to be regarded as constituting a new epoch in the science of world-making. And the leading feature of his mode of treating the subject is, that he

rigidly and closely adheres to facts, making these the foundation of his reasonings: whereas former geologists made up in imagination, what was wanting in tangible data. In Cuvier's Essay on the Theory of the Earth, he endeavours to show, not how the world was originally framed and arranged, but that it has undergone numerous revolutions, chiefly by the action of water. He then proves that it cannot be more than 5000 or 6000 years since the last great diluvial diluvial catastrophe which our world has undergone. And whoever will read his work, will see that he refers all the organic remains found in the regular consolidated strata of the earth, to revolutions that happened anterior to this last catastrophe ; and we may add, that he has incontestibly proved these positions. Hence it is obvious that Cuvier imputes none of the fossils in the earth to the Noachian deluge, except those occuring in diluvium.

Mr. Parkinson, an able writer on this subject, after having endeavoured to prove "that the formation of the exterior part of this globe and the creation of its several inhabitants, must have been the work of a vast length of time, and must have been effected at several distant periods," adds as proof of Noah's deluge; "nor is there a single stratum of all those which have been mentioned, that does not exhibit undeniable proofs of its having been bro. ken, and even dislocated, by some tremendous power, which has acted with considerable violence on this planet, SINCE the deposition of the strata, of even the latest formation."

The Edinburgh Review, whose literary character is well known, contains the following remarks.


Many of the earlier naturalists, and more recently Catcott, not perceiving, or neglecting this important distinction, (between di

*For October, 1823. p. 216.

Juvium and the solid strata,) assumed that no more than one great action of water had contributed to the present condition of the earth; confounding the production of the two epochs just mentioned, and ascribing the occurrences of organized remains in both to the same period-an error which occasioned great embarrassment, and led, as we have already intimated, to much controversy. But all geologists, we believe now agree in regarding the latter gravel as the product of a revolution comparatively recent, and leave the events of prior date in the history of the globe to be illustrated, if ever they shall be, by future and more fortunate inquiries." In another part of the same volume the writers say, that "the phenomena in question (fossils in regular strata) are now universally regarded as of antediluvian production." Their universally,' however, we presume, was not intended to embrace any thing but Europe, for in this country, the reverse of this statement would come nearer the truth.


In the Mosaic Cosmogony of the learned and pious Rev. G. S. Faber, in his recent work on the Genius and Object of the Patriarchal, the Levitical, and the Christian Dispensations," we are presented with a summary of several of the arguments that prove the fossils of regular rock strata not to have been deposited by the deluge of Noah. His first evidence is, that since Moses expressly informs us that pairs of all the land animals were preserved in the ark, and modern discoveries prove unquestionably that a large proportion of the fossil remains in regular strata, belong to extinct species and genera, they must have become extinct by some catastrophe anterior to the Noachian deluge. His second proof is, His second proof is, that in the strata of rocks containing fossils, numerous rents, ruptures, and

* See Christian Observer, for July 1829, p. 419.

disarrangements are are seen, which must have resulted, either from the last general deluge, or some preceding convulsion; and it is obvious, that the strata themselves must have existed before the period in which they were rent and disarranged; and to impute the formation and dislocation of the strata to the same transient convulsion, is unphilosophical. The third argument is the fact, that among all the fossil relics hitherto collected, no human subject has been found, except in the most recent formations-such as have evidently accumulated since the deluge.

We do not think Mr. Faber has been very happy in his exhibition of this subject. We feel confident that he has omitted the strongest evidence on the point, and presented only the weakest nay we think his first proof amounts to nothing? More to our mind is the following extract from the late able work of Rev. W. D. Conybeare, and W. Phillips Esq. on the Geology of England and Wales.

1st. Had these remains (organic remains in the regular strata) been brought to their present situation by diluvial currents, they ought to be mingled confusedly together; we ought to have found the same genera and species in the lowest limestones and the highest beds above the chalk, and those remains of land animals which appear undoubtedly to be diluvial, should have been mixed amongst them; but the fact is notoriously otherwise, the

organic remains being distributed in dis

tinet assemblages, in such a maner, that each formation is characterized by its peculiar assemblage, without, confusion or intermixture. No transitory inundation can account for the circumstances of this distribution; they are such as indicate beyond the possibility of reasonable doubt,

that the animals imbedded in the strata lived and died in the spots where they are now found, while these continued for a long period under the waters of the ocean; and that they were buried under successive deposites formed beneath those waters during the progress of many ages. The perfect state of many of the most fragile shells, also proves that they could not have been drifted from a distance by any violent convulsion."

"2nd. There is every reason, as we have seen, to ascribe the gravel debris de

rived from the partial destruction of the strata to the action of the deluge; but the strata must evidently not only have been formed, but also consolidated, before solid fragments, such as could have assumed the present form of the gravel pebbles, could have have been torn off from them. Now it does not seem within the limits of physical probability to ascribe the formation of these strata and their consolidation (a process which must have evidently required time) to one and the same transient convulsion with their subsequent partial destruction; this argument becomes stronger when we remember that there are interposed among the strata themselves many beds of similar gravel (for instance beds consisting of rounded fragments of carboniferous limestone, associated with the most recent deposits of the second red sandstone); the unavoidable inference is, that the rock whence these pebbles were formed, must in every instance have been consolidated before the rock containing them was deposited; yet in the instance before us the deposition of the conglome rate rock must have preceded that of the highest strata, by the whole interval necessary to account for the formation of all the constituent beds of the polite, sand, and chalk series, and all these again must have been consolidated before they were exposed to the action of the deluge. It matters not whether the time assigned to these effects be comparatively long or short, it seems manifest that a single year must have been totally inadequate."

p. 57 Introduction.

If any of our readers are not familiar with the terms and details of modern geology, we fear they will not feel the full force of the second of the preceding arguments. Partially to illustrate it; we beg liberty to state the following case, which occurs in Northampton in Massachusetts, at Mount Tom; trusting that we shall be excused, for devoting a paragraph or two, to details that would more properly occupy the pages of a scientific journal.

A few miles south east of the vil lage of Northampton, the stage road to Hartford passes across the northern extremity of Mount Tom. In rising from the meadows we first meet with old red sandstone. This rock passes under the mountain which consists of a very different rock, called green stone; the same as that constituting East and West Rock,


near this city. Proceeding easterly, we find this greenstone surmounted by a reddish slaty sandstone. few rods farther, this last rock is succeeded by another stratum of the greenstone. Immediately beyond this, lies a singular rock, called trap tuff. This rock consists of rounded masses, often a foot or two in diameter, of the greenstone, and the slaty sandstone, cemented by portions of the same rocks, pulverized and forming a kind of paste. Above the trap tuff, is found another stratum, of reddish slaty sandstone, similar to the stratum before mentioned.

Now all the rocks mentioned above contain organic remains, either vegetable or animal; although sparingly dispersed. And if the fossils were deposited by the deluge of Noah, the rocks containing them

were the result of the same catastrophe. But after the waters had deposited the old red sandstone, a very sudden and entire change must have been produced in the matter they held in solution, before they could deposit the greenstone; for no two rocks are more unlike in appearance and composition, than this and the old red sandstone. Another change, equally great, must have taken place before the deposition of the slaty sandstone, and the evenness and regularity of this slate indicate that it must have been formed in still water. A counter change was next required for the production of the greenstone. After all this was done, and these several rocks had become hard, a violent agitation must have taken place in the waters, by which numerous fragments of the greenstone and slaty sandstone were broken off and rounded; since we know of no agent, but water, that abrades, and rounds pebbles and bowlders. This agitation having ceased, the trap tuff, which consists of these abraded and rounded masses with a cement of the same character, was deposited. The waters must then have returned to precisely the same state, in which they were, when the

first mentioned stratum of slaty sandstone was produced, in order to deposit the second stratum of the same kind. Moreover, above all the preceding rocks, there is spread a confused covering of sand pebbles, and rounded stones, derived from the strata beneath; so that after these several rocks, were deposited and had time to consolidate, another violent action of the waters must have followed, tearing off and rounding and mixing together this diluvuim. Now that all these changes and processes took place during the year and ten days in which the water of Noah's flood were upon the earth, is incredible; and let it be recollected, that the records of Geology contain numerous analogous cases, equally difficult to be explained on such a supposition.

We have but one more argument to present on this subject; but it is one, which, until the premises can be disproved, we think puts the question concerning the origin of fossils in regular strata entirely at rest. It is derived from the discoveries of Professor Buckland, as described in the work at the head of this article; and we must so far anticipate our account of that work as to present in this place.


Mr. Buckland has proved beyond all reasonable doubt, that certain caves in England and on the continent of Europe, were for a long period, before the deluge of Noah, the

dens of hyænas. Now these dens occur in a species of limestone abounding in petrified shells, corals &c. and which lies above many other

rocks full of fossils. The most remarkable of these caves. that at Kirkdale, has its roof and sides filled with projecting petrifactions. But if these caves, thus in the midst of or

ganic remains, were inhabited by hyænas before the Noachian deluge, most certainly the rock in which their dens occur, could not have been deposited afterwards by that catastrophe and we trust no man at this day is extravagant enough to say


that the petrifactions were inserted after the rock was consolidated.

We are now prepared to take up the subject of Professor Buckland's work, and to state positively what are the evidences of a universal deluge derived from the records of geology. The first important proof of such a catastrophe is afforded by caves and fissures in the earth: the second results from certain phenomena occurring upon the earth's surface. The former of these, which by the way, is the most conclusive and interesting, is derived almost wholly from the personal researches of Mr. Buckland. These have been quite extensive for as soon as he had seized upon the clue to the argument, he followed it up with all the enthusiasm of a devoted naturalist, spurred forward, as we have reason to believe, by the hope of adding a new item to the mass of evidence on which Christianity rests. The principal point in this evidence, and the basis of all the rest, is derived from the cave at Kirkdale. We shall be pardoned, therefore, if we dwell with considerable particularity upon its history, although in a former number we have given a summary of the facts.*

This cavern was not known to exist till the summer of 1821, when it was laid open by working a quarry in a hill of limestone. It was found to be not far from 245 feet in length, and of variable diameter, from fourteen feet high and seven broad, to a few inches. From its roof, as is usual in limestone caves, were sus

pended numerous stalactites, formed by the infiltration and dripping of water through the rock; and the floor was partially covered with an incrustration of stalagmite.† The

*Vol. VI. p. 96.

+ Our readers are aware that water, in

passing through limestone, becomes impregnated with carbonate of lime; and that this, on exposure to the air, is again deposited in pendent masses, like icicles, which are called stalactites: but if the deposite take place on the floor of the carern, it is called stalagmite.

original entrance of the cave was very small and had been entirely filled with rubbish, so as to prevent the discovery of its existence.

Little was it suspected at first, that this subterranean cavity would prove a store house of antediluvian history. Professor Buckland's attention was excited to the subject by a circumstance that would have es


caped common observers. In the bottom of the cave were found some bones of the hyæna, lying in mud and stalagmite, as they were known to occur in caves on the continent of Europe but those of Kirkdale were worn in a peculiar manner, very differently from the effect of running water. He immediately conjectured that they must have been thus worn and polished by the frequent tread of living hyænas upon them, and that this cave must have been at a former period a den of these animals. Roused by so interesting a thought, he hastened to the spot, and found his conjectures fully verified; and many attendant circumstances proved that the period in which this den was inhabited, must have been immediately preceding the deluge. We ask our readers' particular attention to the phenomena of this cave, as they were developed and unravelled by the industry of our author. The plates accompanying the work, render these facts perfectly obvious to inspection. But we fear that mere verbal description will leave a much less definite and perhaps confused impression on the mind.

As has already been observed, numerous stalactites were suspended from the roof or upper part of the cave, while the floor was partially covered with a coating of stalagmite When we speak in this connexion of the floor of the cave, we mean the original bottom before the formation of the stalagmite. Immediately above this partial stalagmitic incrustation, was spread in every part of the floor of the cave, a covering, to the average depth of a foot, of soft mud, or argillaceous loam,

composed of such materials as would readily be suspended in water by agitation. In this mud and in the stalagmite beneath it, was found a large quantity of bones, belonging to various animals, most of which do not now exist in a living state, although their congeners are found. Twenty three species were identified in this single cave, viz. the Hyæna, Tiger, Bear, Wolf, Fox, Weasel, Elephant, Rhinoceros, Hippopotamus, Horse, Ox, Deer, (3 species,) Hare, Rabbit, Water Rat, Mouse, Raven, Pigeon, Lark, Duck and Partridge. These bones were confusedly mingled together, and in nearly every instance, broken into angular fragments and splinters. None of these fragments appeared to be worn in the least by the action of water, although some of them exhibited a peculiar abrasion and polish, as if from the tread of living animals. They were in general in a good degree of preservation. Those occupying the lowest position, however, were in various stages of decomposition; and it appeared as if they had been successively accumulating previous to the introduction of the mud, which tended to preserve them; and subsequently to that period, it does not appear that any animal, except perhaps a few rats, mice, weasels, rabbits and foxes, made this cavern their home.

Above the deposite of mud containing the bones lay a second crust or plate of stalagmite, shooting over the surface like ice upon water, or cream upon milk. This was deposited after the introduction of the bones, since none or very few of these were found in it.

Thus the contents of this cave, reckoning in order from the bottom, were 1. an incrustation of stalagmite; 2. a deposit of mud, containing most of the bones; 3. a second coating of stalagmite spreading over a part of the mud, and 4, numerous stalactites suspended from the roof.

The enquiry of the greatest interest, that presents itself in view of

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