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scale and at a cheap rate, has not, I am sorry to say, found many imitators—but hear the result in a single locality. I had long coveted a court in a sad part of London, because I knew it to be a hotbed of fever, violence, and immorality. One house alone had produced twenty-two cases of fever in twelve months. At last, by the liberality of a widow lady, I obtained possession of it. The society went to work and achieved its parpose. Turbulence and disease were banished. The medical man of the district writes, 'Fever is unknown in this once pestilential court;' the police officers assure us that, whereas in former days the constables never dared to enter it but in twos and threes, they now rarely find it necessary to go there at all. And the whole of this has been done in such a way that the inmates enjoy a vastly increased accommodation, with no increase of rent; and the society receives upon its outlay a return of at least nine per cent.
“It is now time to conclude. But there are some, I fear, who will reply that I have entered on a high flight of speculation, and have left terrestrial difficulties too far below. Nevertheless, “it is good for us to be here. It is good for murmuring man to see how much of the misery that he suffers or inflicts is due to himself, and how little to the decrees of a merciful Creator. It is good for him to see how the principle of self-control is the grand principle of all social and individual freedom ; that the sense of responsibility to God and his fellowman, whether it be the sovereign on the throne or the labourer at the plough, is the source of all that is virtuous and dignified, and considerate and true. Neither is there any hope of attaining excellence unless our aims be directed by our highest standard, 'Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect. Surely this was said by our blessed Lord rather to elevate the efforts and the prayers than to declare the actual powers of fallen man.
And have we no guide ? When at night we lift up our eyes, and contemplate the peace and splendour of the host of heaven, how each one is copforming to the law of its nature, and, as it were, rejoicing to subserve the universal order, we recognize an omnipotent, yet gentle principle, that demands and receives a willing and an exact obedience. When we turn our thoughts to the globe on which we dwell, we see, in all the works of the Great First Cause, the same invariable principle. It ruled at the creation, has prevailed throughout all time, and will bless the countless ages of eternity. It is the law of kindness and of love, the law that
• Lives through all life, extends through all extent,
Spreads undivided, operates unspent.' Here, then, is the law for our ardent but humble imitation. It is rich in promise, joyous in operation, and certain as truth itself. Of such a law how can we speak but in the noblest language that ever fell from the pen of uninspired man ?- Of this law there can be no less acknowledged than that her seat is the bosom of God, her voice the harmony of the world : all things in heaven and earth do her homage, the very least as feeling her care, and the greatest as not exempted from her power ; both angels and men, and creatures of what condition soever, though each in different sort and manner, yet all with uniform consent admiring her as the mother of their peace and joy.'"-(Hooker's “ Eccles. Pol.," Book I.)
As president of the fourth department, Sir James Kay Shuttleworth gave “ A Sketch of the Laws of Social Progress, illustrated by the Growth of the Freedom and Political Capacity of the Manual Labour Class in England." The following passage is elegant, eloquent, and important:
"Perhaps no regenerative effort is more important, or has to grapple with so formidable an evil, as the Temperance Alliance. Between sixty and seventy
millions of money are every year spent in beer, spirits, and tobacco. Every intelligent inquirer is conscious that the eighteen millions of money which we annually apply to the support of indigence and the repression of crime are, to a great extent, absorbed by the consequences of the demoralization, misery, and want caused by intemperance. Our commercial prosperity will feed this frightful source of degradation so long as the evil is not combated by a system of obligatory national education, elevating the intelligence and the moral and religious principles of those classes who are now the victims of intemperance. Meanwhile 70,000 of the manual labour classes have enrolled themselves members of the United Temperance Alliance. They have created an active propagandism-assembling meetings characterized by the most enthusiastic outbursts of feeling. They establish local societies in almost every town or large village, circulate periodicals, and enrol members; they found benefit societies, bands of hope for children, employ missionaries and teachers, and have established about twenty county unions. There are several associations aspiring to national influence, whose aggregate annual income is about £15,000. There are four widely diffused temperance newspapers and about twenty monthly publications, two of which have an aggregate circulation of about half a million. By the influences of these agencies their members assert that the pledged or practical abstainers from the use of intoxicating liquors now number some millions, among whom are 2,500 ministers of religion, in England alone ; and they trace the efforts of the association in the greater moderation in the use of intoxicating drinks, which is becoming a sign of good breeding and reputable life, and is rapidly spreading in all ranks except the lowest. Too impatient, however, to wait for the slow influence of education, and the gradual infiltration of better habits from the more intelligent classes to the mere sensual, the United Kingdom Alliance despair as to the power of purely moral restraint to resist the attractions with which the trade in drink combats, by an enormous outlay of capital, the influence of the school, the congregation, and the church, and makes the beerhouse, the gin-palace, and the tavern English institutions for the demoralization of the people, the spread of disease, the increase of mortality, and the promotion of panperism and crime. They therefore in this despair appeal to the Legislature to transfer the power of granting licences for the sale of intoxicating liquors, from the magistracy and the Inland Revenue Department, to twothirds of the inhabitants of any parish or township. Whatever opinion we may entertain of the justice, expediency, or sufficiency of this form of interference, we must acknowledge that we owe to the upper portion of the manual labour class, apart from all religious or political feeling, the vigorous and persistent protest which, in spite of all failure in and out of Parliament, they have continued to make against the facilities afforded by the law to the unregulated sale of intosicating drinks. It will be an auspicious day in the history of the United Kingdom, when the organization and enthusiasm of the Alliance are diverted from their hitherto fruitless effort to restrict or probibit this trade in drink, and are applied with equal force and perseverance to demand from Parliament a national system of obligatory education, in order to create a power of moral restraint capable of resisting the temptations of a trade which flourishes by the demoralization and mortality of the people.”
Our Collegiate Course.
THE LITERATURE OF ENGLAND; CHRONOLOGICAL,
BIOGRAPHICAL, AND CRITICAL.
Events and Works.
in Lochleven, which office he is known to have held 1. ANDREW OF WYNTOUN
in 1395. The “Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland
was begun at the request of Sir John Wemyss, and 1350—1420 ?
was completed some time after 3rd Sept., 1420, and before the return of James I. from England. r
Son of Sir John Bourchier and Anne, daughter of Thomas, Edward III.'s youngest son. He succeeded his grandfather as Lord Berners in the seventh, and was elevated to the Order of the Bath in the eleventh year of his age. Educated at Balliol College, Oxford, and travelled thereafter. He was called to the eleventh parliament of Henry VII., and gained distinction by putting down an insur
rection in Corowall in 1497. He was a favourite 2. BERNERS, LORD JOHN BOURCHIER
minister of Henry VIII's, whose Chancellor of the
Eschequer he became for life. He was Governor 1469-1532.
of Calais till his death, 19th March. His great work, “The Translation of Froissart's Chronicles," was undertaken at the command of Heary VIII., and printed by Pynson--vol. i. in 1523, vol. ii. in 1525. He wrote a medley of translations from French, Spanish, and Italian novels ; also a comedy, “Go into my Vineyard”—which was performed often in the Great Church of Calais after vespers,which has not been preserved.
Born in the Weald of Kent; apprenticed to a mercer in London, on whose death he went to the Netherlands, where he gained a knowledge of the art of printing, which he introduced into England, where he was established in Westminster as a printer, prior to 1477. He used "black letter” type,
and, having a good knowledge of Dutch, German, 3. WILLIAM CAXTON and French, was the translator of many of the 1412 ?-1492.
works he issued from the press, amounting to not fewer than five thousand closely printed pages. Among these were Raoul le Févre's “ History of Troy," “ The Game and Play of the Chesse,”
Reynard the Fox,” “Æsop's Fables," &c. He printed the works of Chaucer, Gower, Lydgate, &c. He was the printer altogether of sixty-four books.
Third son of Sir Henry Fortescue, Lord Chief Justice of Ireland. Educated at Oxford, probably at Exeter College, and also at Lincoln's Inn, where he became famous for his knowledge of law. In 1430 he was Serjeant-at-law; in 1441, King's Sergeant-at-law ; in 1442, Chief Justice of the King's Bench; he was afterwards Chancellor of England ; in 1463 he went with Queen Margaret to Flanders, and there wrote for the guidance of Prince Henry (who, however, was murdered before its publication) his “ De Laudibus Legum Angliæ.” Having returned to England, he was taken prisoner at the battle of Shrewsbury, 1471 ; he passed the remainder of his life in retirement, after being pardoned at Ebburton, in Gloucester. He was also the author of a treatise on “The Difference between an Absolute and a Limited Monarchy.”
Descended from a northern family, and admitted into the service of Sir Henry Percy at the age of twelve ; fought with him as a volunteer at Homildon, Cokelaw, and Shrewsbury. He enlisted, after his patron's death, under Sir R. Umfraville, who made him Constable of Warkworth Castle. He was next engaged in some "secret service" in Scotland for three and a half years at the peril of his life. He accompanied the king to Harfleur, and marched to Agincourt ; he was present at the sea-fight, 1416, at the mouth of the Seine. In 1424 he was at Rome ; thereafter he was sent again to Scotland. He became Constable of Kyme Castle, in Lincolnshire, and re-wrote his “ Chronicle "/ in his old age. He is often spoken of as a notable and dexterous forger of charters and legal instruments, though it is quite possible he may have been either duped or mistaken.
Eldest son of Thomas Westcote and Eliz. Lyt. tleton, whose name and arms he subsequently took. Educated at one of the universities and at the Inner Temple, in which he gained the appointment of Reader, he was made Steward of King Henry VI.'s household, King's Serjeant, and Justice of Assize. He was afterwards Judge of the Court of Common Pleas and a Knight of the Bath. He died at Frankley in Worcestershire. His " Book of ( Tenures " was written during his judgeship.
Educated at Oriel College, Oxford, of which he was made Fellow, 1417 ; Bishop of St. Asaph, 1444 ; of Chichester, 1449. He denied the Pope's infallibility and repudiated transubstantiation, and suggested persuasion rather than persecution in dealing with heretics. He was tried for heresy, and ordered to recant, which he did at St. Paul's Cross. He was, however, deprived, and confined in Thorney Abbey, where he died.
4. SIR JOAN FORTESCUE
Died about 1485,
5. JOHN HARDYNG
6. THOMAS LYTTLETON...
7. REYNOLD PECOCK
8. THOMAS OF WALSING
Born at Walsingham, Norfolk, and became a Benedictine monk in the Abbey of St. Alban's ; appointed Historiographer to Henry VI., 1440, in which character he composed his “ Brief History," and his “ Normandy till Henry Vi's Time.”
Epitome of Critical Opinions. 1. “A long poem of nine books, written in the same octosyllabic rhyme with the ‘Bruce' of Barbour, to which it was, no doubt, intended to serve as a kind of introduction. Wyntoun, however, has very little of the old archdeacon's poetic force and fervour ; and even his style, though in general sufficiently simple and clear, is, if anything, rather ruder than that of his predecessor.
The • Cronykil' is principally interesting in an historical point of view, and in that respect it is of considerable value and authority, for Wyntoun, besides his merits as a distinct narrator, had evidently taken great pains to obtain the best information within his reach with regard to the everts both of his own and of preceding times." -G. L. Craik.
2. “In the class of romances of chivalry we have several translations in the black letter : such are the “Mort d'Arthur," "Huon of Bordeaux,” &c. The best translations, now very rare and high-priced, are those of Lord Berners, the admirable translator of "Froissart,' in the reign of Henry VIII. ; and not the least of his merits is now the genuine antique cast of his style.”—Isaac Disraeli. "His version is faithful, but not servile ; and he imitates the spirit and simplicity of the original, without allowing us to discover, from any deficiency in either of these particulars, that his own work is a translation."--E. V. Utterson. The fifth writer among the nobility in order of time."- Horace Walpole.
3. As a translator he ranks among the most laborious, and not the least successful of his tribe.”—Dibdin. “ Has a fluent and really good style. Volumes which are the delight of our collectors.
More adapted to the general than the learned reader, and indicate upon the whole but a low state of knowledge in England.”—Hallam. "He employed his press in the multiplication, and his pen in the translation, of the kind of books most in request among the reading portion of his countrymen.”-G. L. Craik.
4. " Bracton and Fortescue are the two most learned, and almost the only learned, of the ancient lawyers.”—Bishop Warburton. “An admirable treatise, which, for the excellence of its method, solidity of matter, and justness of views, excels every work on that subject.”—R. Henry.
5. “ He had drunk as hearty a draught of 'Helicon' as any in his age.”Thomas Fuller. “ The metre is melancholy enough ; but the part of the work relating to the author's own times is not without value."-G. L. Craik. " Almost beneath criticism, and fit only for the attention of an antiquary.
The most impotent of our metrical historians.”—Thomas Warton.
6. “Froin the lapse of centuries since it was written, and the consequent revolutions in the law of real property, “The Treatise of the Tenures' is now chiefly historical and antiquarian ; but with the commentary on it of Sir E. Coke, the author is likely to live as long as English jurisprudence.”—Francis Espinasse.
7.“ The language of Bishop Pecock is more obsolete than that of Lydgate or any other of his contemporaries.
He preserves the old terminations, which were going into disuse perhaps, from a tenaciousness of purity in language." -Hallam.
8. “Derives its chief value from what the author writes of his own time.”— Robert Harrison. “Rude and unpolished, but full and circumstantial.”—G. L. Craik.