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gram, or complex character upon it, confifting of eight letters, may be found, upon a clofe and attentive examination, to exhibit the word ROMANORO,' which was, it seems, the mafculine genitive cafe plural of ROMANUS, in the days of C. Duihus, and L. Scipio, toward the clofe of the fifth century of Rome; fome time after the completion of which, the Romans converted the last fyllable Ro into RUM. The further lights, reflected by this Quinarius on other Quinarii, and on their monograms and legends, are amply difplayed, as is ufual with the Author, in the remainder of this article.
In this clafs we fhall comprehend fome experiments contained in Article 4, made by Mr. James Clegg, with a view to determine whether lime, which increases the folvent power of water on aftringent vegetables, for medical purposes, would be equally useful in the art of dying black. From fome of these experiments it appears that though lime water tends to deepen the colour produced by certain aftringents and martial vitriol, it does not add to its durability.
In the 5th article are contained some useful observations on the ftate of population in Manchester, &c. by Dr. Percival; and in the 6th, fome remarks on the bill of mortality in Chester, for the year 1772, by Dr. Haygarth; together with fome comprehenfive and accurate tables, which prove how erroneous and unjust calculations on the probabilities of life, which are fo interefting and ufeful on many accounts, that are formed on the London tables, muft be, when applied to places in different circumstances and fituations. In one parish of Chefter, the proportion of those who died, to the living, in 1772, was lefs than 1 to 68; whereas in London 1 in 20 dies annually. In the fame year, above half the inhabitants, in the whole city, who died, were 20 years old; whereas half the inhabitants, born in London, die under two years and three quarters old.This fhort article contains many curious remarks, and much ufeful information on this matter, and on the subjects connected with it.
The 10th article contains an account, communicated by Lieutenant-colonel Ironfide, of the Son or Sun-plant, which is cultivated in Hindoftan, and of the various proceffes by which the Hindoftan paper is manufactured from it-In the 16th, Dr. Matthew Dobfon gives a defcription of the origin and progrefs of a large ftratum of stone, formed by the waters of Matlock in Derbyshire; of which entire houfes have been built, and which is 500 yards in length, near 100 in breadth, and between three and four yards deep in its thickest part. The 19th article contains fome remarks, by Dr. Winthrop, of Cambridge in New-England, on a passage in Caftillione's Life of Sir Ifaac Newton;
Newton; in which the Biographer has, either through inad vertency or ignorance of our language, thrown an undeferved reflection on Sir Ifaac's character. The volume is terminated, according to our diftribution of its contents, with the annual catalogue of 50 plants from Chelsea garden.
ART. IX. Further Obfervations on Lightning; together with fome Experiments, &c. By Benjamin Wilfon, F. R. S. &c. 4to. 1 s. 6 d. Davis. 1774.
E annex these additional obfervations of Mr. Wilfon's, to the preceding article, not only on account of their particular relation to one of the papers contained in it, but as they were communicated to the Royal Society with a view to their being printed in the Tranfactions. It appears however, that in the committee of the Society for determining publications, this paper was rejected: eight of the members voting against its being printed in the Tranfactions, and seven, for its being published in that work; fome of the former advancing, as we are told by the Author, that the paper in question had neither argument nor experiment to fupport it.' The Author therefore, confidering the importance of the queftion difcuffed in it, chofe to lay it before the public, in the same state it was read, that it may anfwer for itfelf; and that it may appear whether it deferved to be rejected:' further obferving, that the reputation and existence of the Royal Society depend on a due regard and attention to a free inquiry into philofophical truths.'
The intention of the Author is to fupport his former objections against the ufe of pointed conductors; and particularly to controvert those arguments in favour of them, which are drawn from Mr. Henley's experiments, fome of which we have related in the foregoing article. Of thefe experiments he principally confines himself to the fifth, or the first in our preceding extract from Mr. Henley's paper; in which two chains, differently terminated, were fixed at equal distances from a large copper ball, on which the charge of a jar was afterwards delivered. This charge is there faid immediately to have ftruck the chain that had a knob at its extremity; while no part of it seemed to pafs through that which terminated in a point.
After many preliminary obfervations, and fpecifying fome doubts with regard to the accuracy of this experiment, the Author obferves that, admitting the facts, particularly that the charge did not pafs through the point and its chain, he is afraid that Mr. Henley has proved a little too much.'
* An account of the Author's former Obfervations on this fubje&t may be seen in our laft volume, May 1774, p. 386. • If
If the point, he obferves, did not receive the discharged fluid, it did not protect the blunted end placed in the neighbourhood of it :-how are we then to conceive that the fame point, when in another fituation, fhould be any protection, where metal fpouts, &c. are connected with the building which is proposed to be fecured?'-In fhort he affirms, that all that is proved by this experiment is, that the point, oppofed to the copper ball (which represents an electrified cloud) did not protect the rounded end.
This is far from being a fair inference from the experiment, nor does it convey a juft idea of the defign of it, which is further profecuted in the 6th of Mr. Henley's experiments; (or the fecond in the preceding extracts from them) viz. to fhew that a perfect conductor, with a rounded extremity, will be ftruck, when a pointed conductor, under fimilar circumftances, will escape. But the entering into the merits of this objection, and of the Author's preliminary obfervations, fome of which appear to us very foreign to the queftion in difpute, would lead us into difcuffions for which we have not room. We fhall only add a remark or two on the fubject.
Repeatedly throughout this paper Mr. Wilfon difallows the force of arguments founded on experiments made with coated glafs; and requires that Mr. Henley, before he had drawn his conclufions, thould have fhewn, that the effects produced by charged glafs were exactly fimilar' to those caused by a charged cloud in a thunder-ftorm: for that, though the fluid or agent is undoubtedly the fame in both cafes, it is probably governed in its motion by different laws.
though we most readily there is no fuch medium
This is furely requiring too much; acknowledge, with the Author, that as glafs, &c. attending the production of lightning.' Even in Mr. Nairne's experiment, related in the preceding Article, though there is no coated glafs employed in it, and though his Conductor, only fimply electrified, more nearly resembles a charged cloud, than Mr. Henley's coated jars; yet that too owes its charge to an excited glas cylinder.-But if conclufions are not to be drawn from our experiments, till we can actually make clouds, and charge them, after Nature's own method, there is feemingly an end to all reafoning and experimenting about the matter; for we may wait for ages before the question can be determined, without the help of glafs, or its usual subftitutes.
As the Author is fo ftrict, in requiring an exact fimilarity between the experiments in natural and artificial Electricity, when the latter are produced in favour of pointed Conductors; one who prefers that manner of constructing these preservatives has a night, we think, to inquire, with equal ftrictness, into the
grounds on which he declares that great dangers may attend their erection, and that they invite or folicit an explosion. If this opinion be founded on mere theoretical reafoning, every genuine philofopher will defervedly reject it :-but if on experiment, and if thofe made with glass, &c. are not to be admitted; let the Author produce his thunder cloud, and, with a decifive argument drawn from its explofions, as with an Ultima Ratio, at once and for ever filence thofe deduced from the mimic thunders of Mr. Henry's little battery, and the fnappings of Mr. Nairne's, otherwise refpectable, conductor.
After all, though there is reafon to believe that the advantages fuppofed to attend the ufe of pointed conductors are not so great, when they are affixed to buildings, as they appear to be in our trials in miniature, made with artificial electricity; yet no argument has yet, we think, been adduced to fhew that the benefits of this conftruction are not worth accepting; much lefs, after reducing them to their minimum, has it yet been proved that they become negative, or, in other words, that they degenerate into nuifances, or tend to provoke that mifchief, which, from all our trials, they appear, in fome degree at leaft, calculated to prevent.
ART. X. An Essay on Public Happiness, investigating the State of Hu man Nature, under each of its particular Appearances, through the feveral Periods of Hiftory, to the prefent Times. 8vo. 2 Vols. 12 s. Cadell, 1774.
N the appendix to our 46th vol. we gave our readers a fketch, by way of analyfis, of the original of this workDe la Félicité Publique. On the prefent occafion, we shall lay before them a few detached paffages, from which they will be enabled to judge of the merit of the tranflation.
The Tranflator, contrary to the ufual cuftom, in advertisements and prefaces, fays not a word of his Author till he has clofed the first Volume; but in one of his various notes (which add confiderably to the value of this publication) he informs us, that after he had finished the first volume of this Tranflation, a fortunate accident brought him acquainted with the French Author, viz. Monf. le Chevalier de Chatellur, Brigadier of the armies of his Moft Chriftian Majefty, and late Colonel of the regiment of Guienne. He gives a most advantageous character of this gentleman, chiefly drawn from the information of those who have long known him. • On his abilities as a writer, fays he, his book is a more elegant panegyric than any which I could poffibly compofe; and the qualities which he poffeffes as a foldier, and the virtues which he hath displayed in the more exalted character of a citizen, are as public as his writings.
The first Volume of his work is divided into two fections; the first is entitled, Confiderations on the Lot of Human Nature in the earliest Ages of Antiquity; and contains remarks on the Egyptians, Affyrians, Medes, Greeks, and Romans, and the means of eftimating their national happiness. The following is a very good fpecimen of the Author's manner of treating these subjects:
Here, fays he, is matter fufficient to convince us, how reasonably the Roman government was, hitherto, supposed to have been intermixed with monarchy, ariftocracy, and democracy. Now what claim hath this complicated, this modified government to our esteem? doth it furnish us with any conftitutional plan? In fine, what was it, in its firft principles? let us not fcruple to call it a fimple polity, the interior arrangement of a city. I entreat the reader to pay fome attention to these words; in my opinion, they not only contain a new idea, but caft a great light upon the fyftem of politics.
Upon the fyftem of politics! the expreffion which hath just dropped from my pen, may ferve to prove the truth of what I am going to unfold. It is, that all the governments of antiquity, except the great ancient monarchies, the origin of which we are ignorant of, owe their birth to a town, to a city. A little reflection would convince us, that it could not have been otherwife. In fact, men were not known under the name of a people, but when they equally enjoyed the fame laws, adhered to general cuftoms, and felt thofe mutual dependencies, which united them, and, as it were attefted their identity. Now, mankind flood in no need of laws, and conventions, except when great numbers were affembled in a small space. The more individuals are diffeminated over the surface of the earth, the more are they occupied in procuring their fubfiftance, either by the chace, or the cultivation of the ground; the lefs, alfo, do they want a legislation. On the other hand, the more they are united, the more the circumstances which draw them to each other are multiplied; the more are they constrained to have recourfe to treaties and conventions. The refult, therefore, is that the first want of every fociety, muft have been the want of a polity; and that all governments began by being no more than a fimple polity. In this inftance it par ticularly appears, that language ferves to explain facts, and not that facts ferve to explain the language. Пole among the Greeks, and civitas amongst the Romans, fignified, originally, only the government of a city, although they were afterwards fuppofed to mean every thing which appertained to an adminiftration in general; and, in the prefent times, by the word polity, may be understood, the government of men, in