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GROUND OF FORGIVING AN INJURY. By vital question is, what has God acan injury, is here intended, a blame- tually done, what method of atoneworthy failure of a duty. The atone

ment and reconciliation has he in ment is in all cases something done or

fact adopted. This is merely a suifered, either by the offender, or a third party in his behalf. If it is some

matter of investigation in the scripthing done, the offended consents to tures, and as such cannot be decireceive it as an adequate reparation, ded by any reasoning a priori. and if suffered, as an adequate expres

In regard to the adequacy of an sion of his displeasure, for the injury. atonement, we must again let Mr. The effect of it is, where it is uncon- D. speak for himself. ditional, or the condition is fully complied with, to take from the offended

To render the atonement adequate, party the right either to enforce repa- the suffering thus inflicted on the third ration or to inflict suffering.–p. 115.

person need not, of course, be exactly

the same in kind, or equal in degree, Again ; after some further re- with that which would have been inmarks illustrating his general defi- flicted on the transgressor as a punishnition of the word atonement, Mr. ment. The kind of suffering may be D. proceeds,

different ; for, if two kinds of suffering

are equal in degree, they equally anIn cases of transgression, atonement

swer the end in view. The degree of takes the place of punishment. If the suffering necessary to render the atonepunishment merited be substantial suf- ment adequate, will depend on the com. fering, atonement cannot be made by parative importance of the third person the offender himself. He cannot make and the transgressor, in the view of it by fulure obedience ; for that he is the subjects at large; and may be, in hound to render without any reference different cases, greater, equal, or less to past transgressions, merely to satis- than that threatened in the penalty. fy the future demands of the law. He All that is necessary to render the eannot make it, by enduring a less de- atonement adequate, is this—thatăthe gree of suffering ihan the threatened suffering inflicted be seen to be as full penalty; for that would not be an ade

an expression of the lawgiver's disquate expression of the law giver's dis- pleasure against the offence, or as depleasure: nor, by enduring a greater cisive evidence of his determination to degree; for, when he has eni ured a support his law, as would have been degree of suffering equal to the penal- furnished by the actual punishment of ty, the claims of the law are satisfied, the transgressor. When this is done, and any farther infliction is unjust. In the whole design of punishment is fulevery such case, therefore, atonement ly answered; and, with perfect safety if måde at all, must be made by a third to the authority of the law, the transperson.--p. 116.

gressor may go unpunished. Such an

atonement however, in order to be All will admit that, as the dispen- the third person; and in order to be

just, must be voluntary on the part of sation of the gospel now is, the sin- valid, must be consented to by the lawner cannot make atonement for

giver.-p. 117. himself. But Mr. D. has here laid down a universal proposition That such an atonement is ad(if we understand him aright); and missible, on the part of a wise and respecting such a proposition, some virtuous lawgiver and judge, is cerhave their doubts. That God could tainly capable of being satisfactorily not have so ordered it, that the re- shown, to every man who has an conciliation of the sinner to himself enlightened understanding. The should have been brought about object of punishment, certainly its without the intervention of a third object with a wise and benevolent person, nor in any other way than ruler, is not revenge but example in that which he has actually adopted, terrorem. Now if the example of they would hesitate to affirm. The suffering is of an adequate nature

Vol. I.--No. VI.

such a

to accomplish this end, then atone- a thing put in the room of something ment, in the best sense of the word, else. Now such a thing may be is made ; an adequate or sufficient specifically the same ; or it may be atonement is made.

a literal equivalent, (as where a We cannot agree with our author, man owes gold coins and pays sil. in the next paragraph, when he ver ones of the same value ;) or it makes a substitute to be only a may be a conventional equivalent, third person, suffering specifically, that is, such an one as previous conboth as to kind and degree, the tract has stipulated to accept; or a penalty which the offender had in- concessive equivalent, that is, such curred. Much less can we sub- an one as the person or ruler offendscribe to the declaration, that in ed thinks proper to accept, in lieu

case, the third person of the punishment which had been “ takes the identical place of the merited. Now whatever this may transgressor." Either of the cases be, in any of these cases, it is a here stated, are absolutely impossi. substitute; that is, it comes in the ble, in regard to a moral offence, room of something else which might and a consequent penalty of a moral have been exacted. Surely the nature. For how is it possible, to “identical place” of the transgresmake a transfer of the guilty con- sor cannot possibly be taken by any science of the offender to the sub- substitute. Nay, Mr. D. himself, stitute ? Mr. D. himself has most after all, coincides with what we fully asserted that this cannot be are labouring to establish, when done, p. 49.

And is it not, must he says : it not be, forever true, that the “ worm which never dies" is a If the sufferings of the third person guilty conscience, in the world of are different in kind or degree, from woe? How then can any substitute those which would otherwise have been ever take his “identical place,” in inflicted on the transgressor; though the this respect, unless absolute trans- substitute of the transgressor, as he does

third person is not strictly speaking the fer is practicable ? Indeed, such a

not while suffering take his precise substitution is an utter impossibility. place; yet the sufferings of the third

We do not at all assent to the person are a substitute for the sufferings doctrine, that a substitute must be of the transgressor. In every case of an identical quid pro quo, in all re- atonement, therefore, the sufferings of spects. Nay, so far are we from the third person are a substitute for the this, that we maintain quite the con- transgressor's sufferings; and where

the former are specifically the same in trary. In common parlance, we

kind and degree as the latter, the third call that an “exact equivalent,” person himself is also, in the strictest or a “mere exchange,” which is an sense, the substitute of the transgresidentical quid pro quo. We em

pp. 117, 118. ploy substitute in a much wider latitude. Thus a subtitute for bread, In conclusion of his explanations, is not bread of the same kind, and Mr. D. thus sums up his view of in the same quantity. A substitute

atonement : for wine, is not wine of the same kind, and in the same quantity.

Adequate Atonement for a moral And so we speak in regard to most transgression, is therefore such a deother things. A substitute is any gree of suffering, inflicted on a third perthing which another voluntarily ac- son, with his consent, as shall be an ade. cepts, in lieu of that which he had a quale expression of the largier's dispica. right to demand. Of itself, the substitute for his punish ment, or the ground

sure against the transgressor, and thus a word denotes, and merely denotes, of his forgireness. p. 118.

sor.

his might.

Having thus prepared the way to we have already had occasion to restate his own views of the doctrine mark. They might well be omitof atonement, Mr. D. proceeds, ted; indeed, they should by all

means be omitted.

The recurIt (the doctrine of atonement] sup

rence of them with such frequency, poses that the sins of men were so laid diminishes the effect of sober arguon Christ, that his sufferings were in- ment. They are an appeal to the conceivably intense and overwhelming; imagination and feelings of the and that, being inflicted by God on a

reader, rather than to his underperson of supreme exaltation and dig. nity, the object of God's supreme affec- standing. We recommend to Mr. tion, “ God manifest in the flesh,” they

D. to compress these last eleven were as full and as adequate a manifes. heads into less than half the humtation to the universe, of God's dis- ber, and to make them specific and pleasure against the sins of the whole definite, and to urge them with all human race, as would have been made in their everlasting punishment. As such, it supposes them to be an offered deem the attention we have paid to

We hope our readers will not substitute for the everlasting punishment of all mankind, and the actual substitule these interesting discourses, too for the everlasting punishment of all great or too particular. The subwho shall be saved; so that if all man- ject is of such high moment, and kind had been saved, no more suffering especially at the present time, when on the part of Christ would have been there is so much sensibility awanecessary; although none will be act

kened respecting it, that we could ually saved in consequence of it, ex

not make up our minds to dismiss it cept those who repent and believe. The scriptural doctrine of Atone

with a brief and slight review.. On

all the main points, if we rightly unment, as we understand it, is therefore this—That the sufferings and death of 'derstand our author, we are altoChrist were inflicted by God, and volgether accordant in his views. untarily endured by himself, as an ade- The exceptions we have made apquate manifestation of the Divine dis- ply only to particular paragraphs, pleasure against the sins of the human face, on the condition that they should fecting the fundamental principles

or to minor views, in no degree afbe offered to all men, as a sufficient ground for their forgiveness, or a sub- of the discourses ; and if our stitute for their punishment; and that marks should seem in any respect they should actually prove the substi

to have assumed an under minutetute for the punishment of all, who re- ness of criticism, it is because nothpent and believe. pp. 119, 120. ing occurred to us as susceptible of

improvement, except on points of Mr. D. then proceeds, in the minor importance. We regard the elose of his discourses, to compare work as a highly original and trihis doctrine with the various facts umphant defence of a fundamental and declarations of Scripture, which doctrine of the gospel. We trust he had considered in the first and the author will do himself the jussecond part of his discourses, and tice to perceive, that if we had refinds them not only accordant with garded his performance otherwise it, but rendered very plain and in- than with high respect, we should telligible by it. The pneumatology, never have bestowed so much pains under Numbers 3 and 10 of this in criticising upon it. A worthless comparison, shews the strong ten- or inferior production could have dency of the writer's mind to dwell no just claim to the space and laon subjects of this nature, on which bour which we have given this.

re

LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE.

1 Commentary on the Epistle to the professors and tutors, and the emHebrews is in preparation by Professor barrassed state of its funds, the trusStuart, of Andover. It will, we under tees of the Columbian college, Wash. stand, be prefaced by an Historical and ington city, have declared a vacation Critical Introduction, containing a refu- in that institution, to continue from the tation of the arguments of the Ger- 1st inst. to the 2d Wednesday of Sepman critics who have questioned its tember next. Pauline origin.

Mr. Sotheby, the translator of VirThe Baptist Preacher.-The Rev. gil has brought out a magnificent polyWilliam Collier, of Boston, Editor of glot edition of the Georgics, in folio ; the National Philanthropist, announces which is not only a superb specimen of his intention to engage in the publica- typography, but affords an interesting tion of a work under the above title, to opportunity of contrasting the powers be conducted somewhat upon the plan of the several European dialects. The of the “ National Preacher," published Georgics are printed in five languages in the city of New York, by the Rev. besides the original. The German, Mr. Dickinson.

by Voss, is the most powerful and close,

being given line for line, throughout Liberal Preacher.-Rev. T. R. the whole. The version of the Eng. Sullivan, of Keene, N. H. proposes to lish poet yields only in this point ; and edit a monthly publication of Sermons surpasses most of them in giving a by living ministers of the Unitarian faithful and spirited version of the oridenomination, with the above title. ginal. The Spanish is the most peri.

phrastic—and the Italian and French Malte Brun's Universal Geogra. most frequently fail in rendering the phy.—The publication of this valuable true sense. work has been commenced in Philadelphia, with additions, in a handsome Per kins's Steam Engine.-The Lonform, to be afforded to subscribers at don Literary Gazette states, that Mr. the cheap rate of $8 in boards. It is to Perkins has at length got rid of the onbe comprised in four royal octavo vol- ly obstacle which presented itself umes of about 500 pages each, and the against the action of his immensely first contains several engraved sheets. powerful steam engine--that of effect The editor intends to add the results of ing nearly a perfect vacuum under the the most important recent expeditions foot of the piston, by which means the for discovery, &c. &c.

whole power or elasticity of the steam

from the induction pipe is allowed to Columbian College.-In consequence operate without resistance: of the resignation of the president,

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