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from Billingfgate, cries about the ftreets "Sprats as big as herrings, ho-but then she is not fo filly as to imagine that any body believes her.
Art. 41. The Child of Nature improved by Chance, a Philofophical Novel. By Mr. Helvetius. 2 Vols. 6 s. bound. Becket. '1774. We were not acquainted with the impofture of this title page (the book will not impofe on any body) till it had wrought all the effect it is likely to have. Those who have read this philofophical novel, as it is called, need not be told that it was not written by the late çelebrated Helvetius*. It consists of characters not well drawn, and very improperly placed; and the morality and language of it is probably defigned to injure the principles and manners of the Public. LA W.
Art. 42. The genuine Arguments of the Counsel, with the Opinion of the Court of King's Bench, on Cause fhewn why an Information fhould not be exhibited against James, Clarke, Aldus, Miles, Sparks, and Leigh; for a riotous Confpiracy to deprive Charles Macklin, Comedian, of his Livelihood, &c. &c. 8vo. I s. 6d.
This publication relates to the famous riots which happened at Covent Garden theatre, laft winter, in confequence of Macklin's at tempting the character of Macbeth.-It is to be hoped that the cenfare paffed by the Court of K. B. on the behaviour of the perfons against whom M. exhibited his complaint, will have fome tendency toward putting a stop to the illiberal, tyrannical, and unmanly conduct of fome play-going people, who call themselves The Town, and think they have a right to infult, and treat with the most wanton cruelty, any actor against whom they have a private pique, or whofe public performances do not happen to please these noily and boisterous critics. In all these cafes, the cause of the player is, undoubtedly, the cause of humanity.
Art. 43. The Petitions of Mr. Bollan, Agent for the Council of the Province of Maffachufet's-Bay, lately prefented to the two Houses of Parliament; with a brief Introduction relating to the Law of Naure, the Authority of Human Rulers, and the Subject's common Right of Defence; with fubfequent Obfervations, refpecting the Nature of the Principalities eftablished in Europe, by the Northern Conquerors, and of the English Constitution; to which is fubjoined the Council's Defence against the Charge of certain Misdemeanors. 4to. Is. 6d. Almon. 1774.
This publication will naturally excite in the mind of the philofo phic reader, uninfluenced by the little fluctuating unfyftematic politics of the times, reflections fimilar to that of Lord Clarendon (here quoted, by way of motto), viz. "Men pay too dear for their want of providence, and find too late that the neglect of justice infallibly, though undifcerned, undermines that fecurity which their policy
• It is now supposed to have been the work of a noted writer lately deceased; and who feems to have formed an artful scheme not only to impofe on the Public, but to take in even the bookfeller.
would raife in the place of what wisdom and juftice had provided for them." Survey of the LEVIATHAN.
Art. 44. An Appeal to Reafon; or, Thoughts on Religion. Wherein the Interference of the Civil Power, and the Matter of Subscription, are candidly confidered. By a Layman, of Hampfhire. 8vo. 35. 6 d. Devizes printed, and fold by Rivington in London. 1774.
This treatise chiefly confifts of a fummary of the nature, evidence, contents, and history of natural and revealed religion, delivered in plain, unadorned language, and without any novelty of fentiment. In the latter part of the performance, fome Arictures are made upon the Diffenters, and the conduct of the establishment is vindicated, in requiring fubfcriptions of its minifters. Whether the Author be always right in his opinions, and whether he does not fometimes fail in precifion of ideas, may, we think, be juftly questioned. But one thing is certain, that he is never defective in candour and moderation. He evidently appears to be a man of unaffected piety, of real benevolence, and enlarged charity. His fentiments, on the whole, are judicious and liberal. He is a friend to fome farther reformation in the Church of England; but wishes, nay, and ftrange to tell! expects it to proceed from the ruling clergy themselves. One would imagine that he had not heard of the Archbishop of Canterbury's answer to the application lately made to him upon that fubject.
To the AUTHORS of the MONTHLY REVIEW. GENTLEMEN,
IN your Review for laft month you confider Mr. Wefley's Thoughts
not either his or your exa
mination of them. I own that the behaviour of the Planters, in general, towards their flaves, is harsh; but I muft, for myself, fay, that although I have refided many years in the Plantations, and have been, and still am, owner of many of thofe poor wretches, I never was deftitute of tender feelings for them; and I can with great truth, and with much inward satisfaction, declare, that I cannot charge myfelf with any act of cruelty or inhumanity towards one of them. What I mean particularly to obferve, is with regard to that part of your Review where you fay "the murder of flaves is by our plan tation laws punished only by a pecuniary fine, and Mr. Wefley, &c." I inclose a clause of an Act now in force in one of our plantations, where
"And whereas cruelty is not only highly unbecoming those who profefs themselves chriftians, but is odious in the eyes of all men who have any fense of virtue or humanity, therefore to reftrain and prevent barbarity being exercised towards flaves, be it enacted that if any perfon or perfons fhall wilfully murder his own flave, or the
where Mr. Wefley's refidence is proved upon record, that will, I hope, convince you, the legislature of that province have fome tender feelings, that fomething more than a pecuniary fine is inflicted upon the murderer of a flave, and that every fuch murderer must be tried by his country. As to the fact of a flave being roasted alive, I must believe Mr. Wefley. I can only fay that a very few years after Mr. Wefley left America, I went there, and pretty near to the Province where he refided, and I never heard of fuch a thing; although from the general knowledge I had of the inhabitants, I am perfuaded that a man guilty of fo horrid an action would have been pointed out, and detefted by the whole community, and muft befides have been amenable to the laws.
The other parts of the Act, had I time to tranfcribe it, would, I am certain, convince that reverend gentleman, as well as yourselves, that it is calculated to inforce a humane behaviour and jurifdiction towards and over the flaves, as far as is confiftent with the safety of the white inhabitants, whofe numbers are not one to three.
I am a conftant Reader,
October 8, 1774.
Dave of any other perfon, every fuch perfon fhall, upon conviction thereof, by the oath of two witneffes, be adjudged guilty of felony for the first offence, and have the benefit of clergy, making fatisfac tion to the owner of fuch flave, and fhall be rendered, and is hereby declared, altogether incapable of holding any place of truft, or of exercifing, enjoying, or receiving the profits of any office, place, or employment, civil or military, within this Province; but if any perfon fhall offend in like manner a fecond time, fuch second offence hall be deemed murder, and the offender fuffer death for the said crime, and thall forfeit as much of his lands, tenements, goods and chattels, as may be fufficient to fatisfy the owner of such slave fo killed as aforefaid: and in cafe any perfon fhall not be able to make the fatisfaction hereby required on committing the first offence, every fuch perfon fhall be fent to any frontier garrifon of this province, of committed to the gaol at Savannah, and there to remain, at the. publick expence, for the fpace of feven years, and to ferve or be kept to hard labour, and the pay ufually allowed by the public to foldiers of fuch garrisons, or the profits of the labour of the offender, fhall be paid to the owner of the flave murthered; and if any perfon fhall on a fudden heat of paffion, and without any ill intent, kill the flave of any other perfon, he fhall forfeit the value of the flave fo killed, to be appraised by any three or more freeholders; and in case any perfon or perfons fhall wilfully cut out the tongue, put out the eye, caftrate, or cruelly fcald, burn, or deprive any flave of any limb or member, or fhall inflict any other cruel punishments other than by whipping, or beating with a horse-whip, cowskin, switch, or small stick, or by putting iron on, or confining or imprisoning fach flave, every fuch perfon fhall, for every fuch offence, forfeit a fum not exceeding fifty pounds fterling,"
and Admirer of your Review.
Further Anecdotes of Sir ISAAC NEWTON.
YOU were fo kind, fome time ago, as to infert in your Review, fome anecdotes I fent you concerning Sir Ifaac Newton. What I then fent you was wrote in hafte, in Mr. Becket's shop, one day, on feeing your extract of a poem, I think Wenfley Dale. Since that time, I have found among my family papers fome farther account of Sir Ifaac, which I know not how to convey to the world better than through the channel of your Review; where it will probably be preferved.
I can depend on the truth of the following particulars, which are in the hand-writing of my mother, whofe grandfather was brother to Sir Ifaac Newton's mother. She wrote thefe memorandums for the information of her children: her words are these:
"Hannah Ayscough, was younger fifter of the Rev. Mr. Ayfcough, my father's father, the married a Mr. Newton of Colfworth, not far from Grantham in Lincolnshire, who had an eftate of about 120 l. per ann. which he kept in his own hands and occupied himself. She had by him one fon called Ifaac; her brother, my grandfather, who lived near her, directed her in all her affairs (after the death of Mr. Newton), put her fon to fchool to Grantham, to a very good mater, Mr. Stokes. When he had finished his fchool-learning, his mother took him home, intending, as fhe had no other (child) to have the plea fure of his company, and that he, as his father had done, fhould occupy his own eftate; but his mind was fo bent upon his improving in learning, that my grandfather prevailed upon her to part from him, and the fent him to Trinity-College in Cambridge, where her brother, having himself been a member of it, had ftill many friends. Ifaac was foon taken notice of by Dr. Ifaac Barrow, who, obferving his bright genius, contracted a great friendship for him: indeed he became fo eminent for his learning, joined with his fingular modefty, that he was courted to accept the honours afterwards conferred upon him, on the calling in of the coin, and the neceffity of a new coinage. He was unwillingly brought from the univerfity into the bufy part of the world, his great averfion: but by his great judgment and ftrict integrity, he faved the nation at that time, on that occafion, 80,000l. as I have had it related by those who well knew the affair, and alfo from himself.
"Ifaac's mother, after her fon went to Cambridge, was courted by a rich old bachelor, who had a good estate and living near her,
* Vide Review, October 1772, P. 332.
+ It does not appear to me, that what has been afferted of Sir Ifaac having been fent to the univerfity by the pecuniary aid of fome neighbouring gentlemen, is at all true. It certainly was not neceffary... His mother had fufficient; fo had his uncle. I therefore fufpect there must have been fome mifinformation as to this point: a point, however, of no importance.
Vide the anecdote in my former letter, relative to Ifaac's uncle finding him employed in working a mathematical problem in a hayloft.
the Rev. Mr. Benjamin Smith, but fhe fettled fome land upon Ifaac before marriage: She had by this Smith, one fon and two daughters; thefe married and had defcendants, to all or many of whom Sir Ifaac, when his fortune increased, was kind and munificent: giving to one 500l. to another an estate of the value of 4000l. or thereabouts, to make up a lofs, occafioned by an imprudent marriage of one of them, and to prevent a law fuit among themfelves. This was done many years before his death. He had a half-fifter, who had a daughter, to whom he gave the best of educations, the famous witty Mifs Barton, who married Mr. Conduit, of the mint, who fucceeded Sir Ifaac in the Mint, and is buried at the weft door of Westminster-Abbey; leaving only one daughter, married to the eldest fon of Lord Lymington. Sir Ifaac bought an eftate of about feventy or eighty pounds a year, and gave it Mifs Conduit (then very young), before he died. He was kind to all the Ayfcoughs, and generous and munificent to fuch (of them) whofe imprudence had made his affiftance neceffary; to one of them he gave sool. to another 200, to another 100, and many other fums; and other engagements did he enter into alfo for them. He was the ready affiftant of all who were any way related to him, and to their children and grand-children. He made no will; his paternal estate of 120 1. a year, went to a diftant relation of his grandfather Newton; he had no relations on that fide, his father nor him- 1 felf had no brother nor fifter. He is faid never to have fold the copies of any (of his) books, published in his lifetime, but gave them freely to the bookfeller. He was generous to his fervants, and had no love of riches, though he died worth 30,000l. which fell to three of his half-brother Smith's children, three of his half-fifter Pilkington's, and his half fifter Barton's two daughters: all these furvived Sir Ifaac.
"He was a person of very little expence upon himself; kept a handfome, genteel, conftant table, never above three men and three women fervants; toward his latter end, when he could not use a chariot, only a chair, he kept but two men fervants, he was exceed→ ingly bountiful and charitable (not only) to relations (but) to acquaintance, or perfons well recommended, and to ingenious perfons (alfo) in any ufeful art or science."
Thus far the extract of the family papers.
It does not appear to be true that he ever became imbecille, he did not, or would not recollect the folution of many of his problems of former years; and perhaps the ill treatment he had met with from fome foreigners, made him rather thy towards the laft, of entering into the difcuffion of any matters about which a dispute might arife; but I know that he converfed with my aunt, in whofe arms he died, and with others, like any other reasonable man, to the last day of his death, and on that day read the news-paper: but I lately met with a letter of the late Dr. Pearce, Bishop of Rochester, to Dr. Hunt, Hebrew Profeffor at Oxford, wrote in 1754, and published in 1770, in Cadell's edition of Sir Ifaac Newton's Chronology, p. 10, 11. which puts this imputation of Sir Ifaac Newton's imbecillity to fhame. "It appears that Dr. Pearce was with Sir Ifaac Newton a few days be
Author of a Treatife on the Gold and Silver Coin: fee last month's Rev. P. 241.