Page images

poetical measures than any unequal divifion, however preferable this may be on particular occafions and for variety. But the triple mea fure, though fometimes fet to common time with due regard to the accentuation, will yet by no means fall into its movements with the fame cafe and fimplicity; and when common measure is fet to triple time with due regard to the accentuation, in which cafe the mufical bar will confift of two notes, one juft double in quantity to the other, it matters not whether the long note be placed in the accented or unaccented part of the bar, but is only requifite that the accented note be affigned to the accented fyllable. I affert this on the authority of the practice of our beft muficians, and of my own obfervation, as far as it goes, that the beft ears are not offended with it. Hence then it is evident, were there no other proof, that our triple measure is not, as it is commonly called, awapeftic, and that our common measure, even in its fimplest form, accented regularly on alternate fyllables, is not iambic for if the triple measure were anapestic it would not accord with triple time, but would require common time with alternately two fhort notes, and a long note equal in quantity to the two fhort ones; and if the common measure were iambic it would accommodate itself most readily to triple time with alternately a short note, and a long note double in quantity to the fhort one; the contrary of both which is notoriously fact.

Having then afcertained the grand bond of union between poetry and mufic, which is cadence, we may easily discover many inferior circumstances of their connexion; and in this connexion we may find an explanation of fome feeming paradoxes in verfification, otherwife inexplicable.

Modern mufic and modern poetry agree in that neither will admit the intermixture of the two cadences: the even and the triple foot can no more appear in the fame verfe than common and triple time in the fame mufical train. It is common indeed in mufic to introduce three equal notes in the time of two equal notes; but then they never form more than a divifion of the cadence; half the common bar at most and one-third of the triple. An anomalous intermixture of diffyllabic and triffyllabic feet is alfo common in our old minstrel fongs, and diffyllabic feet are fometimes introduced in modern poems on ludicrous fubjects in triple meafure, and without materially hurting the harmony. To account for this we must recur to the analogy between the mufical and poetical cadences. Two equal notes will alone mark the common cadence: but melt them together fo as to form one holding note, as the muficians term it, and no particular cadence, or mufical time will be characterized; for this holding note may equally well be analyfed into three equal notes, and become a triple bar, as remain a common bar by its compofition of two equal notes. But if inftead of melting the notes together you divide one of them, the cadence is ftill marked with as much certainty as when they remained two equal notes. Three equal notes again will mark the triple cadence. Form a holding note of all three, and you destroy all diftinguishing character of cadence, just as in the former cafe: but if you form two of them only into a holding note, the cadence is ftill characterized almost as ftrongly as when all were diftinct. But if inftead of melting two of the three notes into one,


you divide one of them into two, you then enter upon a much more complex divifion of the cadence: a divifion ftill fimple enough in mufic, because musical notes unconnected with language, are fimple founds; but too complex for poetry, because moft poetical notes are complex founds, formed of all thofe elementary founds of which fyllables are compofed. Here then appears the reason why verses of the even cadence readily admit the addition of a fyllable, but will never spare a fyllable; and why, on the contrary, verfes of the triple cadence will readily spare a syllable, but will not fo well admit an extraordinary one.'

The work concludes with a genteel apology, which, if it fhews that the Author's opinion of its importance, be fomewhat too high, difcovers at the fame time a becoming modefty and liberality of fentiment.

ART. XVI. Remarks upon the Garianonum of the Romans: The Site and Remains fixed and defcribed. By John Ives, Efq; F. R. S. and F. S. A. 8vo. 3 s. 6 d. Hooper. 1774.


R. Ives begins his remarks on the venerable ruin upon which he treats, by obferving that- There are few remains of Roman buildings in Britain, fo confiderable for its [their] prefervation, and yet fo little noticed by writers, as the ancient Garianonum.-Those who mention it, do it flightly; and most of them difpute its fituation.-Whilst Richborough is celebrated by a Battely, this rival station, equal in antiquity, and fuperior in remains, has met with no hiftorian:-the prefent curfory attempt will therefore be more excufable.'

Camden places the Roman Garianonum at Burgh-Castle, in Suffolk; while Sir Henry Spelman, in his Icenia, endeavours to fix it at Caifter, near Yarmouth, in Norfolk. After a due confideration of what has been alleged on both fides, Mr. Ives agrees with Camden in placing Garianonum at BURGHCASTLE, on the fouth fide of the mouth of the river Yare;a fituation which, he thinks, entirely obviates the objections of the learned Spelman, as well as of Bifhop Gibfon, in his annotations upon Camden, and proves it to have been extremely commodious, and admirably adapted, for those very purposes for which they are difpleafed with it for the protection of that shore which thefe troops were ftationed to defend, for their military exercises, and fudden excurfions.--Upon a ftream whofe largenefs and rapidity must have made it formidable to paffing armies; upon a fhore particularly exposed to the depredations of lawless pirates; and upon the principal entrance of a country poffeffed by a brave and hardy people; Garianonum must have been a ftation of the greatest importance to the Romans.It gave them weight and consequence in See Review, vol. L. P. 318.




the eyes of the Britons, who were deftitute of every idea of mural fortifications;-it eftablished their influence, extended their territories, and afforded them a fecure retreat, and an impregnable defence, against the warlike Iceni, who frequently rofe in arms against the invaders of their native foil.-In each of thefe views did the politic Romans confider their newerected camp; in every refpect it answered their defigns, and in every particular correfponded with their wishes.-From bence they commanded the ftuary of the Yare, the German Ocean, [which he fuppofes, from anchors, &c. being found there, might at that time flow up to the walls] and the interior country; and from hence they derived a power and confequence fufficient to awe, and capable of intimidating, any military attempt the Britons could form against them.'-—He afcribes the erection of this station to the famous Roman general Publius Oftorius Scapula, who firft brought the Iceni under their fubjection.

After having thus fixed the fite of the chief station, our Author is willing to allow Caifter, on the oppofite shore, to have been one likewife, though of an inferior nature only. He fuppofes it to have been one of those fmaller camps, which were frequently dependent on the greater ftations under the denomination of fummer camps; agreeably to the notion advanced by Mr. Whitaker in his Hiftory of Manchester; and for this purpofe Caifter feems to have been at a very proper diftance, and in a convenient fituation to ferve as an appendage to Ga


The few fpecimens we have given of this little work, are fufficient to fhew that the Author writes in a more lively and animated ftyle than is usually met with among professed antiquaries.



For OCTOBER, 1774.


Art. 17. The Sentimental Exhibition; or Portraits and Sketches of the Times. 12mo. 2s. 6d. Lowndes. 1774.


HIS writer, though far from being original, makes fome good obfervations on life and manners, and is one of the most tolerable Imitators, for fometimes he affects the imitation, of Sterne. The following fection will fufficiently characterise the book:

I own I am no friend to Cicifbeism. Whatever romantic flights the fpirit of chivalry may formerly have taken, and after all the pretty tales that are told us of Arcadian fimplicity, and Platonic love, I cannot but think all such refinements are as inconfiftent with the natural emotions of the human heart, as they are irreconcilable with all the obfervations we make on human practice. In short, we are compounded of flesh and blood, and nature has not only endued

[ocr errors]

us with certain paffions, but fiimulates us inceffantly to the gratification of fome or other of them. This, in a state of fimplicity, or Arcadian state, we should yield to without restraint; for even under the regimen prefcribed to us by civilization, we can with difficulty forbear; and to for bear, is to fight against our keenet inclinations, which a few holy and abfteinious men have boafted of being able, but not without much felf-denial, pain, and refolution to accomplish. The Sexes were not created only to gaze on each other; and as an intercourse of companionship and converfation infenfibly lays the ground work of strict intimacy and friendship between man and man, fo the like communications often indulged between a man and wo man, whofe difpofitions attract each other, gradually produce a fimilar effect, together with fuch additional fenfations of a fofter kind, as the omnipotent has defined the one fcx to impart, the other to imbibe. So great is the value of fentiment in female minds, that it not unfrequently ftands in place of perfonal allurements; a woman therefore of but indifferent perfon, may, by the fine turn and polish of her intellect, fo dazzle and captivate her admirer, as to make him utterly blind to distorted features, and an ordinary figure. The mind and perfon are here fo interwoven, that he knows not how to difentangle them; he defires then to enjoy both together, and fenfibility of foul is the more coveted, as it is thought to add a greater poignancy and animation to corporeal pleasure.

Some who have obferved the conftancy and perfeverance of what is called Love, and remarked how tranfient it becomes, and how peevish it grows after enjoyment of its object, have fuppofed that enjoyment extinguishes love, and that love may be kept for ever alive and vigorous, by hope and expectation; hence they would infer, that the Platonic fyftem, which admits this fond hope in all its latitude, and fhuts the door against fruition, is most likely to conftitute a permanent, undecaying love. But this is a romantic conclufion, and renitent to the eternal laws of nature. Were the fair fex all to adopt fuch an unnatural opinion, and if they all had the fortitude to maintain it inviolate, there must be an end of population; but it happens that they too have at least an equal fhare of the paffions, which feldom allow them to play the tyrant long. The men are perfectly fenfible of this, and few of them would be fuch blockheads as to waste their whole lives in purfuit of what they might never obtain. It is the anticipation of future enjoyment which keeps defire alive, and invigorates hope; but defire neceffarily watles away, either by its gratification, or by the impoffibility of being gratified. Take away enjoyment, which is the utmost bound and object of human love, and there is an end of love's existence; for to love is, honestly speaking, nothing more nor less than to defire enjoyment. I do not fay that here is an end to the profeffion of love; fince men may profefs to love what they really do not, and this would be incompatible with Platonifm, which fuppofes a true genuine feeling and perception of love. Efteem is too cold an emotion, and unapplicable to any, except fuch near connections of blood, as excite no other in the mind.

• When love has once got poffeffion of its object, it either capriciously flits to fome new one, or elfe refts fatisfed with its acquifition,


and fearches no further. It is to be wished that, for the peace and Irappiness of fociety, it could more frequently remain constant, and fettled in this latter ftate, and then the nuptial union might generate a real practical fyftem of Platonifm; in which two minds, well attuned to each other, might reach to the highest pitch of felicity and purity that human nature is capable of in this world. This would be a degree, of angelic enjoyment, which your Flirts, Gallants, Macaronis, Cicifveos, and Chaperons, of public places, are neither qualified to talte, nor can even have in contemplation; much inferior rewards too liberally repay the whole series of their despicable affiduity.'

This philofophy has more truth than refinement.

Art. 18. An Account of the new Northern Archipelago, lately dif covered by the Ruffians in the Seas of Kamtfchatka and Anadir. By Mr. J. Von STÆHLIN, Secretary to the Imperial Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburgh, and Member of the Royal Society of London. Tranflated from the German Original. 8vo. 2s. 6d. fewed. Heydinger, 1774.

It is a pertinent remark, curious and well-authenticated, at the beginning of this account of these Argonautic difcoveries, that at the very time when the English and French discovered islands in the South Seas which till then were totally unknown to all the rest of the world, namely, in the Years 1764, 65, 66, and 67, the intrepid Ruffians difcovered new lands in the utmoft limits of the north, and found a cluster of inhabited islands unknown to them, and to the whole world.'

[ocr errors]

From this coincidence, the fenfible Author feems inclined to infer, that, at certain periods, a fpirit of difcovery arifes, which excites univerfal emulation in different parts of the world;' and he refers to several other inftances of a fimilar kind: particularly, that when the new hemifphere of America was discovered by the Spaniards, the Portuguese and Dutch began, at the fame time, to think of navi. gating from Europe to the Eaft Indies.'-This, however, is, in general, very natural. We always fee that difcoveries and improvements excite emulation; and that the fuccefs of one man animates others to become his rivals.

The Archipelago of Iflands difcovered by the Ruffians, in 176; and 1766, in the feas of Kamtfchatka and Anadir, lie between the 56th and 67th degrees of north latitude. There is a neat and feemingly accurate chart of them prefixed to the narrative; and the whole is properly introduced by the ingenious Dr. Maty, of the British Mufeum, in a well-written preface. To the defcription of these iflands, and of their inhabitants, is added, A narrative of the adventures of four Ruffian failors, who were cast away on the defert inland of Eaft-Spitsbergen; together with fome obfervations on the productions of that ifland, &c. By Mr. P. L. Le Roy, Profeffor of Hiftory, and Member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg. This narrative appears alfo to be fatisfactorily authenticated, and is faid to be tranflated from the German original, at the defire of several Members of the Royal Society.-Thefe poor fellows spent fix years and three months in their rueful folitude; at the end of which the three who remained alive (for one funk under the


« PreviousContinue »