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South America. Several tribes of the aboriginal inhabitants yet live here in their primitive state, undisturbed by Europeans, who are gradually spreading themselves in all directions. Prince Maximilian complains of the total want of good maps: that of Arrowsmith, he

says, is full of errors; considerable rivers on the east coast being omitted, and others marked which have no existence. The Portuguese government, however, has ordered an accurate survey of the whole coast, pointing out all the dangers which threaten the navigator, and the work is already in execution by two naval officers of competent ability. A map of the east coast between the fifteenth and twenty-third degree, corrected from Arrowsmith, and enlarged, accompanies this narrative.

After a very short stay at Rio de Janeiro, the traveller and his companions* prepared for their journey into the interior, with sixteen mules, each carrying two wooden chests; and ten men, well armed, to act as hunters: orders having been given by the government of Rio de Janeiro to the magistrates on the coast to furnish every assistance, to provide beasts of burden, and to grant the aid of soldiers if necessary. Of the capital itself, the author has declined to give any more than a very rapid sketch, the term of his residence being insufficient to obtain materials for a full and accurate description. Brazilian manners, style of dress, fashions, and amusements, have gradually given way to those of Europe; while ambassadors from the European powers, and a general influx of foreigners from England, Spain, Italy, Russia, Germany, &c. &c. have introduced a great degree of luxury among all classes of the community.

The village of St. Lourenzo is the only place in the neighbourhood of the capital which still possesses remains of the native Indians, a small strong limbed muscular race, of reddish or tawny colour; with thick, long, coal-black hair, broad faces, eyes placed rather obliquely, thick lips, small hands and feet, and the men having thin strong beards.

Having crossed the great bay of Rio to the village of Praya Grande, the travellers bent their course to Cape Frio; and in order to accustom themselves to the night-air, they bivouacked in an open meadow on the first night, although they found habitations in the neighbourhood. The author, who is rather prone to the picturesque and poetical in his descriptions, is delighted with the novelty of the scene: ' the Cabure, a small owl, hooted among the bushes, luminous insects glistened on the marshes, and the

* Two Gerinans, Messrs. Freyreiss and Sellow, who intend to travel several years in the Brazils: they are acquioted with the language and manders of the country, and are represented as being particularly qualified to penetrate into the interior, to collect scientific information, and to communicate the result of their researches to the public.

frogs gently croaked around us:-our blankets and baggage were wet through by the dew, but the early beams of the sun soon dried them.” The continent of South America, from the great fecundity which every where prevails, exhibits a most extraordinary luxuriance of vegetation, and forms a striking contrast with the bare and arid plains of Africa; while the splendid plumage of many of its birds, the brilliancy of its insects, and the great variety of its animals, unknown to Europe, furnish the naturalist with a rich and rare repast.

• A chain of mountains next rose before us, which bears the name of Serra de Inua. This wilderness surpassed every thing that my imagination had as yet conceived of the grand scenes of nature. On entering a deep hollow, we observed several large pools of limpid water, and a little beyond these an immense forest, of which no comparison can give an adequate idea. Palms and all the magnificent trees of the country, were throughout so interlaced with creeping and climbing plants, that it was impossible for the eye to penetrate through this species of verdant wall. All of them, even thin low stems, were covered with creeping plants, such as epidendron, cactus, bromelia, &c. many of which bear flowers of such beauty, that whoever beholds them for the first time cannot withhold his admiration. I mention only one kind of bromelia, with a deep coral-red flower, the leaves of which are tipped with violet; and the heliconia, a kind of banana resembling the strelitzia, with dark red calyx and white flowers. In these deep shades, near the cool mountain streams, the heated traveller, especially the native of northern regions, finds a temperature that is quite refreshing, and which increased the delight that the sublime scenes presented to our view in this magnificent wilderness incessantly excited. Every moment, each of us found something new that engaged his whole attention. Even the rocks are here covered with lichens and cryptogamous plants of a thousand various kinds: particularly the finest ferns, which in part hang like feathered ribbons in the most picturesque manner from the trees. A deep red horizontal fungus adorns the dry trunks; while a fine carmine-coloured lichen, on the properties of which, as a dyeing matter, some experiments have been made in England, covers the bark of the stronger trees with its round knobs. The colossal trees of the Brazilian woods are su lofty, that our fowling-pieces could not carry to the top of them, so that we often fired in vain at the finest birds; but we loaded ourselves with the most beautiful flowers of juicy plants, which we were unfortunately obliged to throw away afterwards, as they soon perish, and cannot be preserved in an herbal.?

The contributions here made to the science of natural history will be deemed extremely valuable, and constitute a principal and very interesting portion of this work. Indeed, to form an extensive and good collection of specimens in zoology and botany, and to study the manners and customs of the native Indians, were the object of this laborious journey. At Cape Frio, the Prince obtained the skin of the great Boa Constrictor; which, instead of being confined to Africa, as many have erroneously supposed, is the most common of the Brazilian species of that genus; the varieties are generally known on the east coast by the name Jiboya. Many months afterward, as the author was in his canoe on the river Belmonte, he saw the living animal just as it had coiled round and killed a large Capybard (thick-nosed Tapir). His bunters shot at the animal, and placed an arrow in its body, when it quitted its prey, darted under water, and escaped. The shot had lost their force in the stream, and the arrow was found broken on the bank, where the serpent had rubbed it off.

• This reptile, the sucuriuba of the river Belmonte, or the sucuriu, as it is called, in Minas Geraes, is the largest kind of serpent in Brazil, at least in the above-mentioned countries; there are many errors in the descriptions given of it by naturalists. Daudin has mention it by the name of boa anacondo. It is found all over South America, and attains the largest size of any species of this genus, in that part of the world. All the denominations alluding to the abode of the boa serpents in the water belong to this kind; for the others never dwell in the water, whereas the sucuriu or sucuriuba lives constantly in and near water, and is therefore really amphibious in the literal sense of the word. This serpent is by no means beautifully marked: its back is of a dark blackish olive, and down it run longitudinally two rows of round black spots, in pairs, which are for the most part pretty regularly disposed. In solitary places unfrequented by man, it attains the prodigious size of twenty or thirty feet, and even more, in length. Daudin, in his Natural History of Reptiles, considers the serpent which he assumes to be the genuine boa constrictor, as a native of Africa, but this species, if it is also found in Africa, inhabits every part of Brazil, is there the most common land boa, and every where known by the name of jiboya. The Belmonte is the southernmost of the rivers on the east coast, in which the sucuriuba occurs; farther to the north it is universally found. Very fabulous stories have been related concerning the way of life of these immense reptiles; and even in modern times, they have been copied out of old travellers. The accounts also which are given of its sleep in winter are not precise enough. It is said, indeed, that they certainly become torpid during the hot season, in the marshy pools of the deserts, but this does not happen in the woody valleys of Brazil, which always abound in water, where they do not live properly in marshes, but in great lakes, ponds that are never dry, rivers and streams, the banks of which are cooled by the shade of the ancient forests.'

The coral-snake, probably the coluber fulvius of Linne, the most beautiful of its species, is very common here. A brilliant

scarlet alternates on its smooth body with black and greenishwhite rings, so that this innocent reptile may be compared to a string of variegated beads.

From Cape Frio, we proceed to the Villa de St. Salvador, on the banks of the Paraiba. In all this country, sugar is very largely cultivated; and sugar-refiners are established here on so large a scale as to employ more than a hundred and fifty slaves: brandy is also distilled from it. Twenty years ago, the Paraiba, and the little river Muriahe which falls into it, had on their banks two hundred and eighty sugar-refineries; many of them very large and profitable.

A little higher up the river, apparantly not more than twenty or five-and-twenty miles from a populous and even opulent city, reside a tribe of savage Tapuyas, called Puris. St. Fidelis was a village selected for a mission, about thirty years ago, by some Capuchin friars from Italy; and one of the holy fathers still lives there. The Indians inhabiting this place belong to the tribes of the Coroados, Coropos, and Paris; the last of whom wander in a barbarous state in the great deserts between the sea and the north bank of the Paraiba, and extend themselves towards the west as far as the Rio Pomba in Minas Geraes. The two former are settled, and somewhat civilized: their houses are good and roomy, constructed of wood and clay, the roofs covered with reeds and palm-leaves; they are fond of finery, but are decently dressed, and speak the Portuguese tongue. At St. Fidelis is a light and spacious church, belonging to an uninhabited monastery; and these Indians are much indebted to the kindness and judicious attentions of the missionaries. The travellers, however, were desirous to become acquainted with the savage Puris in their forests on the other bank of the river, and accordingly forwarded a mesbage announcing the arrival of some strangers who wished to speak to them.

• Scarcely had we overtaken the rest of the very numerous company assembled at the foot of the hill, when we perceived the savages issuing from a little valley on one side, and advancing towards us. As they were the first of these people whom we had seen, our joy was great as well as our curiosiiy. We hastened towards them, and surprized at the novelty of the sight, stood still before them. Five men and three or four women, with their children, had accepted the invitation to meet us. They were all short, not above five feet five inches high; most of them, the woinen as well as the men, were broad and strong limbed. They were all quite naked, except a few who wore handkerchiefs round their waists, or short breeches, which they had obtained from the Portuguese. Some had their heads entirely shorn; others had their naturally thick coal-black hair cut over the eyes, and hanging down into the neck: some of them had their beards and eyebrows cut short. In general they have but little beard; in most

of them it forms only a thin circle round the mouth, and hangs down about three inches below the chin. Some had painted on their foreheads and cheeks round red spots with urucu (bixa orellana, Linn.); on the breast and arms, on the contrary, they all had dark blue stripes, made with the juice of the genipaba fruit (genipa Americana, Linn.): these are the two colours which are employed by all the Tapuyas. Round the neck, or across the breast and one shoulder, they had rows of hard black berries strung together, in the middle of which, in front, was a number of the eyeteeth of monkeys, ounces, cats, and wild animals. Some of them wore these necklaces without teeth. They have another similar ornament, which appears to be composed of the rind of certain vegetable excrescences, probably of the thorns of some shrub. The men carry in their hands long bows and arrows, which, as well as all their effects, they at our desire bartered for trifles.'

After having given them some bottles of sugar-brandy and a few trinkets, the Prince and his companions took their leave, promising to renew their visit.

•We had scarcely left the house the next morning, when we perceived the Indians coming out of the woods. We hastened to meet them, treated them immediately with brandy, and accompanied them to the forest. When we rode round the sugar-works of the fazenda (country-house), we found the whole horde of the Puris lying on the grass. The groupe of naked brown figures presented a most singular and highly interesting spectacle. Men, women, and children, were huddled together, and contemplated us with curious but timid looks. They had all adorned themselves as much as possible: only a few of the women wore a cloth round the waist or over the breast; but most of them were without any covering. Some of the men had by way of ornament a piece of the skin of a monkey, of the kind called mono (ateles) fastened round their brows, and we observed also a few who had cut off their hairquite close. The women carried their little children partly in bandages made of bass, which were fastened over the right shoulder; others carried them on their backs, supported by broad bandages passing over the forehead. This is the manner in which they usually carry their baskets of provisions when they travel. Some of the men and girls were much painted: they had a red spot on the forehead and cheeks, and some of them red stripes on the face; others had black stripes lengthwise, and transverse strokes with black dots over the body; and many of the little children were marked all over, like a leopard, with little black dots. This painting seems to be arbitrary, and to be regulated by their individual taste. Some of the girls wore a certain kind of ribbons round their heads; and the females in general fasten a bandage of bass or cord tightly round the wrists and ancles, in order, as they say, to make those parts small and elegant.

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