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numbing coldness seizing me in my the Expedition packet, Captain Willame arm, I thought I had only a liam Clies, having sailed about ten few moments to live; but, unwilling days before us with seventeen pasto disturb their scanty_repose, I did sengers. not speak, till Mr Hake, seeing It was constantly a most sensible my condition, called Mr Abraham increase of uneasiness to me to give Hake to my assistance, who setting so much trouble to Mr Hake's family me up, I recovered a little, and by at such a time of general confusion bleeding the next morning was and distress, and I must ever acgreatly relieved, and was forced to knowledge myself greatly indebted have application to this remedy four for my recovery to the particular times more.

care and attention of Mr Abraham On the Tuesday Mr Screfton the Hake. surgeon came to me with great dif- Thus far I have endeavoured not ficulty from Belem ; said he was al- only to describe most minutely all the most pulled to pieces by the people, accidents that happened to me, but and, confirming the former opinion even the hopes and fears occasioned of my case, told me he was very glad by them, whether depressed and magto hear I had fallen into such good nified by my debilitated state of mind hands as he esteemed the bone-setter's I know not. I can only say that after to be.

I got into the street the general Mr Hake from the first assured distress painted in every ghastly me of his assistance and protection, countenance made but little reflection yet when I heard the clamour of the necessary to conclude that even the starving people for bread, threaten- nearest relations would be unable to ing to break in upon us (so that we assist each other; and from the short were forced to eat our victuals almost examination I had made of myself, by stealth), as also the variety of re- I thought it was of little consequence ports of robberies and murders which to me, and therefore at once resolved, were committed all around us, whilst without a murmur, to resign myself all government was at an end, and to the will of the Supreme Governor at the same time the English were of all things, humbly hoping, by my pressing him for his own safety to patience in suffering what He was go on board ship, I expected every pleased to inflict, to make some day necessity would force him to atonement for my faults. compliance, and should that happen How great, then, must be my I knew not whither to look with thankfulness to Divine Providence hope !

for raising me up assistance, not With what gratitude then did my only unasked, but even unhoped for, heart overflow (a gratitude which amongst people almost strangers to no time can ever efface) to hear himme, more especially Mr Jorg (with declare, when earnestly entreated to whom I had but a slight acquaintgo on board a ship of which he him- ance), who, like a guardian angel, self was an owner, and where there appeared always to assist me in the was a place reserved for him, that utmost extremities. Heafterwards ashe could not leave his family. On sured me that it gave him the greatest being told they would make room concern to be obliged to leave me in for his sons, he said he not only the manner he did; but that, finding meant his sons but myself also, all hopes of procuring a boat were whom he could not abandon in so vain, because the moment any came distressful a condition, and therefore near to the shore they were immeit would be in vain to mention it any diately crowded with people who more to him. And indeed in every waited there on purpose, he resolved respect he most fully complied with to get away himself in the same his promise to me, carrying me on manner, and endeavour to send me board the aforementioned ship on the first help he could procure: that Saturday the 29th of November. accordingly, after crossing the river The next day she sailed for England (which took them up a long time), with twenty-four passengers, being he met with a Mr Bride, an English the second ship after the earthquake; shoemaker, who was going over, and who, at his entreaty, promised to in particular, were said to have eslook for me, and carry me away caped by the fire reaching the ruins with him; and that, after making of their house, and lighting them the most diligent search for me with- through passages they would not out success, he rightly concluded I otherwise have found out. The earhad been already removed thence. nest but unheeded supplications of I have been the more particular to the disabled, and the violent, noisy mention this circumstance, because prayers of the people, who thought it sets in its true light a behaviour it to be the Day of Judgment, added I can never reflect on without the to the general distraction. In short, greatest surprise and astonishment, death in every shape soon grew faas well as the deepest sense of grati- miliar to the eye. tude.

The river is said to have risen Some time afterwards, I learnt and fallen several times successively that no part of our house fell except in a most wonderful manner ; at the arada where I was, nor were any one time threatening to overflow the of the family killed ; only the house- lower parts of the city, and directly keeper and one man-servant were afterwards leaving the ships almost much hurt by the falling of the arada aground in the middle of its bed, upon them as they were going out of showing rocks that had never been the house. The ceilings of the upper seen before. story were, however, so much shat- The duration of the first shock tered, that none ventured to enter (which came without any warning, into any of the rooms.

except a great noise heard by the It is universally agreed that all people near the water-side) is varithe mischief proceeded from the first ously reported, but by none is estithree shocks of the earthquake, which mated at less than three minutes and were attended with a tumbling sort a half. At the latter part of it (I supof motion, like the waves of the sea, pose), I was thrown over the wall, and so that it was amazing the houses re- fell about four stories, between the sisted so long as they did.

houses, where I must have lain but No place nor time could have been a little time, if it was the second more unlucky for the miserable peo- shock that I felt in the Portuguese ple! The city was full of narrow man's house—which was said to have streets; the houses strong-built and happened at ten o'clock (though by high, so that their falling filled up all some people it is confounded with the passages; the day of All Saints, the first). I almost think it could with the Portuguese a great holiday, not have been the third that I felt at when all the altars of the churches Mr Jorg's house ; for as that took were lighted up with many candles, place at twelve o'clock, I must have just at the time they were fullest of remained a long time in the street, people! Most of the churches fell im- whereas it appeared to me that, inmediately. The streets were thronged stead of two hours, as it must have with people going to and from mass, been if between the second and third many of whom must have been de- shocks, I lay there scarcely a quarter stroyed by the mere falling of the of an hour. upper parts of the houses.

Before I left Mr Jorg's house on It would be impossible to pretend the Saturday night about eleven justly to describe the universal hor- o'clock, which was in the same street ror and distress that everywhere pre- with ours, called Pedras Nagras, situvailed! Many saved themselves by ated upon the hill leading up to the going upon the water, whilst others Castle, I saw all the middle part of found there the death they hoped to the city to the King's Palace, and have avoided. Some were wonder- from thence up the opposite hill to fully preserved by getting to the tops us, leading to the Baira Alto, conof their houses ; more by retiring to taining a number of parishes, all in the bottoms of them. Others, again, one great blaze. unhurt, were imprisoned under the Three times I thought myself inruins of their dwellings, only to be evitably lost! The first, when I saw burnt alive! whilst two Dutchmen, all the city moving like the water; the second, when I found myself shut nearest garrison for his troops, upon up between four walls ; and the third whose arrival order was restored; time, when, with that vast fire before and the butchers and bakers dispersed me, I thought myself to be aban- about to provide for the people, who doned in Mr Jorg's house; and even were not permitted to move farther in the square, where I remained the from the city without passes. The Saturday night and Sunday, the al- common people were immediately most continual trembling of the forced by the soldiers with swords earth, as well as the sinking of the drawn to bury the dead bodies, the great stone quay adjoining to the stench growing so noisome that bad square, at the third great shock at consequences were apprehended from twelve o'clock (covered, as it was it. The judges were also dispersed said, with three hundred people, or

about with orders to execute upon perhaps more justly with one hun- the spot all who were found guilty of dred and fifty, who were endeavour- murder or theft. It was said before ing to get into boats, and were, we left the place, that there were boats and all, swallowed up, which above eighty bodies hanging upon was the reason so few boats ven- gibbets round about the city. Sevetured on the river for some time ral of the ships were searched, and after), made me fearful lest the none were allowed to ave the harwater had undermined the square, bour without permission. and that at every succeeding shock All the heart of the city (the rich we should likewise sink; or else, as part of it) was burnt. The suburbs, the ground was low, and even with which were very large, escaped, and the water, the least rising of it would have since been repaired. All the overflow us. Full of these terrors, towns and villages round about sufas well as the distresses already inen- fered more or less. Setuval was not tioned, it more than once occurred to only thrown down and burnt, but me that the Inquisition, with all its afterwards overflowed. The shock utmost cruelty, could not have in- was strongly felt at Oporto, 150 miles vented half such a variety of tor- to the northward, and even at Madrid, tures for the mind as we were then 300 miles from Lisbon. suffering

Every place to the south suffered Had the general consternation greatly. The royal palace and conbeen less, not only many lives, but vent at Mafra were not thrown down, even much property might have been nor the grand aqueduct. saved; for the fire did not, till the The royal family were at Belem, Saturday morning, reach the Cus- where they most commonly resided. tom-House, which stood next to the It was said a large stone grazed the water-side, and had large open places Queen's neck as she went down stairs. on each side of it; so that great mul- None of them, however, were hurt. titudes of bundles, which caused us The Portuguese from the first ran so much distress, might easily have into two extremes; making the numbeen saved by boats, as in some parts ber of the inhabitants of their city to be the fire was two days in getting much greater than it really was, and to them. But the King's soldiers, on the other hand as much diminishamongst whom were many foreign ing that of the persons who perished. deserters, instead of assisting the The former they insisted could not people, turned plunderers, adding to be so little as 350,000 ; but Mr Hake, the fires, as some before their execu- from many years' residence in the tion confessed.

place, thinks 250,000 to have been No fire came out of the ground, the outside ; and the latter they were but the whole was occasioned by the desirous of concealing for political fallen houses ; nor were there any reasons, therefore it is unlikely that openings of the earth, unless the the number will ever be known. In sinking of the quay was caused by one of their best accounts since pubone, but everywhere innumerable lished, it is calculated at about cracks, from many of which were 15,000; but Mr John Bristow, junior, thrown out water and sand.

has told me, that he had from the The King sent directly to the very best authority (as I imagine, the Secretary of State), that the number sent sufferings. They almost thought of the dead found and buried was it impious to try to take care of then.twenty-two thousand and some hun- selves, and called it fighting against dreds ; in which case, as there must Heaven-particularly in the case of have remained a yet larger number an officer upon guard at the Mint, under the ruins, the computation who, with the greatest courage and would be moderate at 50,000 people resolution, remained there three days, lost by the earthquake.

and by knocking down the buildings There were sixty-nine British sub- round about it, preserved it from the jects killed on that occasion, most of fire. However, the King rewarded whom were Irish Roman Catholics. him as his merits highly deserved. Only about twelve or thirteen Eng- At last a miracle (performed, as glish out of three hundred-a most was supposed, by a secret order from moderate number in proportion to the Court) brought them tolerably the general loss. This,

This, I suppose, to their senses. In the middle of was greatly owing (next to the Divine the night the Virgin Mary was seen Providence) to the distance they were sitting amongst flames of fire, waving at from the streets, where the destruc- a white handkerchief to the people tion was almost over before they could from the ruins of a church or famous arrive.

convent of hers, called Our Lady of Mrs Hake, sister to Sir Charles Pentrade Franca, situated upon the Hardy, was killed by the falling of top of a very high hill. This was the front of her own house, after she immediately declared to be a forhad got into the street. Her body giveness of their past offences, and a was found under the rubbish three promise of life; however, notwithmonths after, not at all changed. standing this, we had many prophe

It is inconceivable as well as inex- cies of destruction several times afterpressible the joy it gave us to meet wards. with one another, each thinking the It is remarkable that the bull feast, other in a manner to be risen from celebrated two months before the the dead, and all having wonderful earthquake, in a great square called escapes to relate, all equally satis- the Boccio, made an old blind profied to have preserved their lives only, phecy of great mischief to happen to without desiring anything further. Lisbon, in a year with two fires in it, But soon, this first joyful impression to be much talked of; because, some passing away, and cares and necessi- hundreds of years before, in the same ties making themselves felt, many, square, upon a like occasion, the on considering their utterly destitute scaffolds fell and killed great numcondition, almost regretted that the bers of people : the fear, therefore, same stroke had not deprived them that something of that sort would of life which had stripped them of happen then to accomplish the proall means of existence.

phecy, prevented many from going to As for the Portuguese, they were the first day's spectacle. entirely employed in a kind of reli- It was said that the Queen of Spain gious madness, lugging about saints immediately sent her brother a large without heads or limbs, telling one remittance in cash, and that the King another how they met with such mis- wrote a letter with his own hand, not fortunes; and if by any chance they only offering his treasures and troops, espied a bigger, throwing their own but to come himself in person if aside, they hauled away the greater necessary. The French also made weight of holiness, kissing those

some very trifling offers. But the of each other that they encoun- Portuguese people of all denominatered; whilst their clergy declared tions fixed their hopes upon England that the earthquake was a judgment from the very first, most confidently on them for their wickedness — expecting to receive all manner of some saying because they had shown assistance from thence: nor would so much favour to heretics; and, going they have been much deceived, had in a tumultuous manner to Court, de- the winds proved as favourable as the clared that was the cause of their pre- intentions of the English.






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I was strolling one fine afternoon these clearings and run up streets. in February through the Park, by I would, I know, if I had only half way of relaxation after my work, a jumping claim, and I guess it ’ud when I descried immediately before be a grandacious spekilation.” me the tall gaunt figure of Mr Jef- “Why, Mr Ewins, you must referson J. Ewins. Without losing a member that the parks are the very moment I made up to the Yankee, lungs of London, healthy as well as upon whose cadaverous countenance ornamental.

Without them there hovered a grim smile as he returned would be no ventilation." my greeting, protesting that he was "That's all moonshine," said the as happy as a clam at high water to Yankee. “I guess the fólks in the renew the pleasure of our acquaint- City don't draw much breath here;

Mr Ewins was nowise altered but jest you rub their hair back, and in appearance since I saw him last, see if they won't holler as loud as any save that, in honour of the country nigger when he gets a taste of the he had been visiting, he had donned cow-hide. That shows there's no a pair of trousers of the fieriest tartan, want of lung leather among them. which made him rather a conspicuous I don't know what wind's good for, object, and attracted the notice of except to drive a mill or blow up a several butchers' boys, who faceti- pair of bagpipes. But there's a sorter ously inquired if he had been getting conceit about the south Britishers his legs cut up into collops. He told that pulls wool over their eyes, and me that he had recently arrived in makes them as blind as a honeyLondon after a prolonged sojourn in bear after he has plundered a beethe north; and was quite eloquent in tree. They ain't smart hereabouts, his praise of Glasgow, a city which that's a fact

. It's a huckleberry above he vastly preferred to Edinburgh, my persimmon how the onnateral because it was a “rael go-ahead place, old country keeps thriving, with its and no mistake, where the people Lords, and Commons, and rotten inknew how to put the licks in;" where- stitutions such as no free and enlightas the Scottish metropolis was, in his ened citizen would knuckle down to; opinion, “ used up, mighty fine to but I allow it's a wonderful place, look at, but bogus to the backbone; considering its size, and I ain't such and as for doing a streak of business a goney as to run down the land of there, it was as useless trying that my forefathers. Do you know, Squire as whistling psalms to a dead horse.” Sinclair, sir, I've discovered that I'm With regard to London, his mind a kinder countryman of yourn ?". was not yet exactly made up, though "Indeed! I'm extremely gratified from what he had seen he was in- to hear you say so, Mr Ewins. May clined to admit that it was

I inquire if the discovery is a recent pumpkins,” but by no means comparable to New York.

Wall, it's not my way to care a “I say though, mister," he remark. chunk about pedigree or such darned ed, "land can't be very valuable nonsense. I'm not the chap to ring hereabouts, else them there parks my own bell ; still I go for this, that would have been squatted on long decent extraction is some; and as ago. They tell me they are public every man must have had a grandproperty. Wall, then, as you've a father, it's worth knowing what he good jag of public debt, I reckon it was, and where he came from. Mine would be the sensible thing to sell was Enoch Ewins, an awful hand at




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