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time, however did not arrive in sight of Algiers till the morning of the 27th of August.
Being becalmed at some distance off the bay, Lord Exmouth dispatched a boat with a flag of truce to the Dey, carrying a statement of the demands which his government had instructed him to make. These were in substance,-1. The immediate delivery up of all Christian slaves without ransom. II. The restitution of all the money which had been received from Sardinian and Neapolitan captives, since the beginning of the year. III. A solemn declaration from the Dey, that he would respect in future the rights of humanity, and treat all prisoners taken in war according to the usage of the European nations. IV. Peace with the King of the Netherlands, on the like terms as with England. The officer who carried these proposals was directed to wait two or three hours for the answer, at which time, if no reply was sent, he was to return to his lord ship's flag ship. He was met near the Mole by the captain of the port, who agreed upon two hours as the period within which the answer should be ready. In the meantime, the wind springing up, the fleet took advantage of it to reach the bay, and the boats and flotilla were prepared for service as speedily as possible. About two o'clock, Lord Exmouth observing his boat returning with the signal that no answer had been received, the order was immediately given that the ships should proceed to occupy the stations assigned them. The Queen Charlotte led the way, aud was anchored in the entrance of the Mole, at the distance of about fifty yards; the other great ships were arranged immediately around the admiral; and in the rear were stationed the smaller vessels destined to throw bombs and rockets at the enemy's fortifications, over the heads of the other ships. At the moment when the Queen Charlotte took her station at the mouth of the harbour, the whole of the piers were crowded with a multitude of spectators, who seemed to be standing in perfect unconcern, as if unconscious that any fire was to ensue; Lord Exmouth, stationed at the prow of his ship, motioned with his hat for them to retire, but in vain, at length, one or two shots were discharged from the Mole, upon which the Queen Charlotte, being by this time lashed to an Algerine brig immediately without the harbour, opened a most destructive fire, the first round of which carried off many
hundreds of the idle crowd upon the Mole. ". Thus commenced,” says Lord Exmouth, “a fire as animated and well supported, as I believe was ever witnessed-which lasted without intermission from a quarter before three until nine, and which did not entirely cease until half-past eleven.” During the whole of this firing, nothing could exceed the coolness and precision with which the British kept up their destructive attack. Nor did the enemy evince any symptoms of irresolution in their defence. A fire was maintained from innumerable batteries on the Mole itself, and from the higher parts of the city, which occasioned to the besiegers a loss of 800 men, and which could not have failed to produce a far more extensive carnage, had the obstinacy of the Algerines been aided by any skill in the management and direction of their artillery.
About 10 o'clock, the batteries around the admiral were completely silenced, and he began to draw off his feet from the reach of the few shells which the enemy were still throwing on them from a fort in the upper angle of the city. Having removed further out into the bay, he was joined once more by Admiral Van de Capellen, whose squadron had been of considerable service during the action, by keeping various lateral batteries from bearing upon the ships engaged at the mouth of the harbour. The loss of the Algerines was estimated at about seven thousand
Next morning the spectacle of desolation presented by the city and harbour was such as to convince Lord Exmouth that the chastisement inflicted must have lowered abundantly the tone of the Dey and his advisers. He sent in therefore a letter to the Dey, in which, after stating that the destruction of the city had been inflicted, in order to punish him for the massacre of Bona, and the contempt with which the messenger of the preceding day had been treated, he offered him the same terms which had on this last occasion so rashly been rejected. After an interval of three hours, three shots were fired from the citadel, the appointed signal that the Dey, was willing to accept of the terms proposed by Lord Exmouth. The minor parts of the negociation were aranged on board the Queen Charlotte, between the British and Dutch commanders, and the deputies of the Dey. At noon, the whole of the Christian slaves in Algiers were 'marched to the shore and delivered up to the allies, among whom Capellen had the satisfaction to recognise many of his own countrymen. Nearly four hundred thousand dollars were also paid into their hands, being the amount of ransom money received from Naples and Sardinia since the commencement of the year. Some other articles of dispute being arranged to his satisfaction, Lord Exmouth at last drew off his fleet, leaving behind him lasting marks of the severest lesson which the Algerines ever had received—the whole of their navy annihilated, and one half of their city reduced to a heap of ruins.
The news of this event was received in England, and indeed throughout all Europe, with the satisfaction which might naturally be expected to follow so righteous a victory. At home, Lord Exmouth and the officers of his fleet received all the usual tributes of honour; the admiral himself was thanked in his place by the Chancellor, at command of the peers. Abroad, more particularly upon the shores of the Mediterranean, a wide joy was diffused, by the hope that the outrages of the Barbary pirates were now for ever at an end.
Ever since the Congress of Vienna, but more particularly ever since the termination of the expedition under Lord Exmouth, speculators in politics have found a favourite theme, in expatiating on the propriety of some general combination among the powers of Christendom, to conquer and colonise the coast of Barbary. The easy access afforded by six hundred leagues of coast, abounding every where in excellent harbours, the fertility of the soil, which once entitled this region to be called the granary of Europe, but finally, and chiefly, the unpopularity of the present governments, have been enlarged upon, as furnishing the best of motives for the undertaking, and of means for the success of this invasion. Whether any such invasion is likely ever to take place, we cannot pretend to offer any opinion; but the whole condition of this part of the world is such, that it would require greater credulity than we possess, to believe it possible that, at the lapse of another century, the sovereignty shall be found in the same hands which have so long abused it.
There are many things in the present situation of several of the European kingdoms, (above all in that of Spain) which seem to us to render it far from improbable, that the colonization of Northern Africa' may, ere long, be undertaken by some Christian power. Upon whomever the lot may fall, the honour will not surely be inconsiderable, of restoring to Christendom a region which once possessed no less than six hundred Bishops; and which, in the hands of Carthagenians, Romans, and Saracens, has already exhibited so many specimens of all that renders any region either glorious or prosperous.
The Italian traveller, to whom we have already referrerl, mentions most positively the existence of a superstitious belief among the inhabitants of Barbary, that their country i sdestined to be conquered on a Friday by Christian soldiers clothed in red. The influence of this belief is, it seems, so great, that perpetual watch is kept every Friday from the towers sea-ward, and the gates of every city upon the coast are closed with marks of particular precaution. Our readers must remember the effects produced on the empire of the Yncas of Peru, by the existence of a belief among those people, apparently of the very same nature with this. We shall perhaps incur some chance of ridicule by mentioning this superstition at all ; but, if it does exist, it is easy to observe what advantage might be taken of it by à crafty invader.
ART. VI.-Recollections of a Voyage to Italy in the year 1800. MR. OLDSCHOOL,
In the early part of my life, I was accustomed, as you know, to pass my winters in Philadelphia, and the rest of the year in the country. I spent the greater part of 1799 in rambling through the wilderness which now forms the States of Ohio, Indiana,
Illinois and Missouri. I hunted with the Indians, slept in their wigwams, and was half tempted to remain with them. I am not conscious of being unstable in my pursuits; but when a lad, I was suffered to run wild ; and even to those who have been more rigidly trained than myself, there is something very pleasing in changes and transitions, which, whether they are from “ grave to gay," or from “lively to severe," are interesting from their contrasts, and strike our feelings as the lights and shades of a picture do our eyes. Among the Indians, who had seen me bring down a turkey on the wing with a single rifle ball, I had the reputation of being a good hunter, and capable of enduring much fatigue; but my companions in the city considered me as a mere Sabyrite, and seldom found me out of bed before noon.
Your predecessor, Mr. Oldschool, the first Oliver, was the only person whom I have known that equalled me in these indolent propensities; but then, although he never liked to get out of bed, yet he might plead that he never had an inclination to go to it. We lived in adjoining rooms, several winters, and I owe much of the happiness of those seasons to his society and affection. Poor D-! I never think of him without a gush of tenderness about
But to return : One reason of my indolence was, that I had nothing to do, and no one to direct me how to employ the passing hour. We may be “stretched on the rack of a too easy chain.” I found that I yawned much more than those of my acquaintance, who had something to occupy or interest them. I some. times thought myself capable of better things. “I don't know what to do with myself this summer,” said I, to an acquaintance, as we were sauntering along the street," I really do not know where to go. I am tired of the city, and yet I linger here, as if I had something to attach me to it. I have rambled in the country till there is little of novelty to attract me there. I cannot mount my horse without some greater inducement than riding for an appetite ; and as to my horse, I have not seen him since I came here, although that is so long ago, that if he is alive I fancy the charge for his keeping must amount at least to the sum which I paid for him; and, indeed, unless the grooms ride him, he may have forgot the use of his limbs." “If you are tired of both city and country,” said my compan
go to Europe.” “ You are fond of poetry, painting, and music-go to Italy.” “Upon my word,” replied I, " it might be very pleasant, and I think, I should like it." " Then I will make some enquiry about a ship to some port there, and let you know if I can hear of one.” “Be it so," said I; “I will obey your bidding, should you direct me even to “ call spirits from the vasty deep.” A few days afterwards he told me, that a ship was ready to sail, bound to Leghorn. All I had to do was to send my trunk on board.
A ship was new to me. I had seen our great lakes, which resemble the ocean, but I had never seen the ocean. I was not, however, so ignorant of either, as an officer of the western army, who accompanied me to Philadelphia, the preceding autumn. He was born on the frontier of Pennsylvania, and when about ten years of age, his father's family was surprised by the Indians, his father and some others killed, and he taken to one of the Indi za towns, where he was adopted in an Indian family. The boy grew up among them; but his relations discovered him, and with difficulty prevailed upon him to return to his former home, and associates. A lieutenant's commission was procured for him, and be joined the western troops in a campaign against the Indians, in which he was much distinguished for his gallantey. He had obtained a furlough, and accompanied me to the city. We arrived at night; the next morning he was out at day-light, anil. it was with difficulty that he found his way back to his lodging. He said that he could with more readiness have found his way through fifty miles of woods, than through five squares in the city. The following day he told me that he had soen a very large ship marching down the river; but he wished me to go to the Delaware with him, for it was the most singular river he had ever seen ; one part of the day it ran one way, and at another time, it ran another way,-he was sure of it; for he had, been several times at the wharves, and had seen it running different ways with his own eyes. I found he had never heard of the tide, and it was difficult to make him comprehend it. But to return to myself.
On the 23d of June, the ship was ready to sail, and I stepped on board of her at the wharf, and she dropt down to New Castle, where she came to, to take the captain on board, who having something to execute, had been detained at Philadelphia after her sailing. Early the next morning the captain came on board, and I found that he had already met with some adventures on his way. One of the sailors, taking leave of his companions, had got into a frolic, and when the ship left the city, he was missing. As he was an excellent seaman, the captain was unwilling to leave him behind, and after much search had found him, and, to use his own phrase, had chartered a chaise to take them to New Castle. It was dark when they crossed the ferry at Wilmington. The road for a great part of the distance between the ferry and New Castle, passes over the flats, and is bordered on each side by a ditch. The ground in wet weather is knee deep in mud. I was well acquainted with it; for when a boy I had spent many a day in shooting snipes in the marshes in that neighbourhood, and thought it a good feat with a double barrelled gun to kill two rising at the same moment, and flying in different directions. After crossing the ferry, the captain found the darkness increased by a thick fog which covers the fats, so that