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interesting topics; and in particular a cenfure of Berkeley's Minute Philofopher, which well deferves a place in our Review.

The Bishop having, with humour, defcribed his hearing Dr. Delany preach at the King's Chapel, goes on thus "I with both he and his brother Berkeley (who is truly the title of his own book) would keep their minute philofophy to themselves; or at least, would let religion alone, and not blend them into one inconfiftent lump. They both feem to me to be well qualified to dress out a romance. Dean B. in particular, has beautiful imagery, and fine expreffion, and fruitful invention. But as to the native fimplicity of religion, they are made to hurt it; and if they cannot be faid to corrupt it, it is only because it is corrupted already to their hands. They do all they can to keep on the corruption; and I own, I think Alciphron the moft plain attempt to bring obfcurity and darkness into all science, as well as to make nonfenfe effential to religion, that this last age has produced. And I know very well that it was from fuch books, formed on fuch principles, exactly, that Dr. Clarke used to dread and foretell the total fubverfion of all knowledge, as well as of all religion;-of all that Sir Ifaac Newton, Mr. Locke, he himself, and many others, had been endeavouring to bring into fome reputation. I cannot indeed fay that the veil is well made, or well spread. I think it may be very easily taken off, and the abfurdities placed in a glaring light as I have heard acknowledged in many inftances, by the greatest admirers of thofe dialogues. I would not have you think that I put the two on an equal foot. But when I fee even the belt of the two flattered and careffed for thofe very wounds he has given to all that is most worthy of the ftudy or regard of reasonable creatures, I cannot help making an ejaculation-To what purpose are all endeavours to make knowledge and religion plain and amiable-when a few pretty words, either without a meaning, or with a very bad one, fhall, like a charm, diffolve and tear to pieces all the labours of the great."

A fimilar opinion of the Berkleian philosophy is added to the foregoing, and is extracted from a letter written by a " certain Lord, who knew the world of books and men as well as any body, and who thus expreffes himself to the Bishop:

"When I began this letter, I intended to write to you about nothing but Dean Berkeley's book; but have just found out that I have not faid one word about it. I have been in the clouds with him these three laft days; and think his reasoning very often literally like being there; it is fomething very ex

* The word plain is fomewhat unfortunately introduced in this fentence, as it here ftands related to obfcurity and darkness. But we must remember that the paffage is in a private letter.


alted, and very unfubftantial; a fort of fublime fog, that looks bright, and makes one giddy. As to his effay upon vifion, L suppose it is from my want of apprehenfion, and not his want of perfpicuity, but I pofitively understand it no more than if it were in Syriac. Pray tell me, if any one who was not prejudiced against him would not fay, there was wit, fpirit, and learning in the book and any body who was not partial for him, would not allow that there was a great deal of fophiftry, obscurity, and unfairness."

How ftrangely have the learned world divided in their opinion of the merit of Berkeley's celebrated performance! Even in a religious view they have widely differed about it; for its admirers, at the time of its firft publication, every where exclaimed," how feasonably it made its appearance, to stop the general run of the age towards fcepticism and infidelity; and that it would unquestionably be of fingular ufe, if not to cure the infected, yet, at leaft, to hinder the contagion from spreading farther."-In what degree this good end hath been anfwered, is, at this day, fufficiently apparent.

The pieces contained in the first volume of this edition of Bishop Hoadly's works, exclusive of the introductory papers, already noticed, are,

I. Trads, collected into a volume, in 1715.

II. Tras on Conformity to Church and State.

The nature and value of these numerous tracts being too well known to require any particular difcuffion of them here, we fhall content ourselves with transcribing a general obfervation relating to them, and to the reception they met with in the world, as it ftands in p. 700 of the firft volume, viz. "That though the principles maintained by my Lord of Bangor do appear to be the only ones upon which our reformation, or indeed any reformation, can be justifiable; tho' they evidently tend to vindicate Chriftianity from the objections that are unanfwerable by those who contend for the contradictory principles, fuch as that it makes God a Being acting not by reason, or according to the fitnefs of things, but by arbitrary will and pleafure; making his creatures happiness or mifery in the next world depend on the accidental circumftances of being born. and educated in this or that fociety of men; giving them faculties in this world, which they must not ufe; and enduing them with reafon and judgment for no other purpose but to try their faith in renouncing them. Though this and much more be true; yet the number of those who appear in public oppofi

• This refers particularly to the pieces published by the Bishop in the famous Bangorian controversy.


tion to him, increases: as faft as former ones are baffled, new ones of higher ftations and greater dignity fucceed; while many, who are of the fame fentiments with him, content themselves with being well-wifhers to his caufe; and, except those who at firft fided with him, few openly appear to his affiftance."

The remark added by the writer of the letter from which the foregoing paffage is taken, is worthy of particular notice, and is, perhaps, capable of fome degree of application to the conduct of our spiritual Lords, of the prefent time:-" I cannot think ftanding neuter defenfible when points of this weight are debating. I had almoft faid, it was a fhame, that among fo many Bishops, who are heartily friends to the common rights of mankind, and the liberties of Chriftians, not one fhould think himself obliged to fhare the pains and the resentment which a generous attempt to affert and fecure them has brought upon my Lord of Bangor, from the patrons of flavery and ecclefiaftical ambition."

Vol. II. contains:

1. Tracts relating to the Measures of Submiffion to the Civil Magiftrate.

II. Tracts written by Bishop Hoadly in the Bangorian Controversy, as it was afterwards called.

In the third volume we have, I. The Political Pieces. II. An Account of the Life and Writings of Dr. Clarke. III. The Practical Divinity. IV. The famous Letter to Clement Chevalier, Efq; relating to the notable Forgery committed by Fournier, in order to defraud the Bishop of 8,800 1. Of this letter we gave an account in the 18th volume of our Review, to which we refer for farther particulars. It is an animated and fpirited performance; and was, if we mistake not, the laft of his Lordship's public writings: It was published in 1757, about three years before his death. The writer of his life fpeaking of this long letter, which made a very large eighteen-penny pamphlet, juftly fays, "It was the aftonishing performance of a Divine turned of Eighty-one; and he received many compliments on that account, both by vifits and letters, from feveral of the greateft lawyers of the age. Mr. Horace Walpole, of Strawberry Hill, humoroufly faid, "The Bishop had not only got the better of his adversary [Fournier] but of his old age.”

We cannot more properly conclude this article, than by an extract from Dr. Akenfide's Ode, addreffed to the Bishop in 1754:

O nurse of Freedom, ALBION fay,
Thou tamer of defpotic fway,
What man, among thy fons around,
Thus heir to glory halt thou found?


What page, in all thy annals bright,
Haft thou with purer joy furvey'd

Than that where Truth, by HOADLY's aid,
Shines through Impofture's folemn fhade,
Through kingly and through facerdotal night?
To him the TEACHER blefs'd,

Who fent religion, from the palmy field
By Jordan, like the morn to chear the West,
And lifted up the veil which heaven from earth concealed,
To HOADLY thus his mandate he address'd:
"Go thou, and rescue my difhonour'd law
"From hands rapacious, and from tongues impure;
"Let not my peaceful name be made a lure
"Fell PERSECUTION'S mortal fnares to aid;
"Let not my words be impious chains to draw
"The freeborn foul in more than brutal awe,
"TO FAITH without affent, ALLEGIANCE unrepaid."
No cold or unperforming hand

Was arm'd by heaven with this command.
The world foon felt it; and on high,
TO WILLIAM's ear, with welcome joy
Did LOCKE among the bleft unfold
The rifing hope of HOADLY's name,
GODOLPHIN then confirm'd the fame;
And SOMERS when from earth he came,
And generous STANHOPE the fair sequel told *.
Then drew the lawgivers around,
(Sires of the Grecian name renown'd)
And listening afk'd, and wondering knew,
What private force could thus fubdue
The Vulgar and the Great combin'd;
Could war with facred FOLLY wage;
Could a whole nation difengage
From the dread bonds of many an age
And to new habits mould the public mir d.

For not a conqueror's fword

Nor the strong powers to civil founders known
Were his but TRUTH by faithful search explor'd,
And social sense, like feed, in genial plenty fown.
Wherever it took root, the foul (reftor'd

To freedom) freedom too for others fought.

"Mr. Locke died in 1704, when Mr. Hoadly was beginning to diftinguish himself in the cause of civil and religious liberty; Lord Godolphin in 1712, when the doctrines of the Jacobite faction were chiefly favoured by thofe in power; Lord Somers in 1716, amid the practices of the Nonjuring clergy against the Proteftant establishment; and Lord Stanhope in 1721, during the controverfy with the lower house of convocation." Dr. AKENSIDE's note.

REV. Sept. 1774.



Not monkish craft the tyrant's claim divine,
Not regal zeal the bigot's cruel fhrine

Could longer guard from REASON's warfare fage;
Not the wild rabble to fedition wrought,

Nor fynods by the PAPAL genius taught,

Nor ST. JOHN's fpirit loofe, nor Atterbury's rage.

Publications on the Subject of LITERARY PROPERTY continued. N° 3.

ART. VII. The Pleadings of the Counsel before the House of Lords, in the great Caufe concerning Literary Property; together with the Opi nions of the learned Judges on the Common Law Right of Authors and Bookfellers. To which are added, the Speeches of the noble Lords who spoke for and against reverfing the Decree of the Court of Chancery. 4to. 1s. Wilkin, &c. 1774.

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N° 4.

ART. VIII. The Cafes of the Appellants and Refpondents in the Cause of Literary Property, before the House of Lords: Wherein the Decree of Lord Chancellor Apfley was reverfed, 26 Feb. 1774. With the genuine Arguments of the Counfel, the Opinions of the Judges, and the Speeches of the Lords who diftinguished themselves on that Occafion. With Notes, References, and Obfervations. By a Gentleman of the Inner Temple. 4to. 2s. 6d. Bew, &c. T is much to be regretted, that the eloquence of the British fenate should fo often be exhibited before the Public in an imperfect and mutilated state, and that no regular provifion is made for preferving accurate copies of debates and fpeeches on questions of general concern. The two publications now before us pretend to give the Public the genuine arguments of the Counsel, opinions of the Judges, and fpeeches of the Lords, on the late cause refpecting Literary Property; but the former bears evident marks of having been compiled by fome illiterate hand from news paper memorials; and the latter retracts in the preface the promises it makes in the title-page.

From the preface to the first article it appears, that the publifher is fome printer, who is very angry that a few perfons who call themselves bookfellers, about the number of twentyfive, have kept the monopoly of books and copies in their hands, to the entire exclufion of all others, but more especially the printers, whom they have always beld it a rule never to let become purchasers in copy:' it appears alfo, that the publisher is no writer, and therefore can himself have no immediate interest in the decifion of the question concerning literary property. The following fentence fully makes good this charge:

The bill now depending (if paffed into a law) will, it is hoped, in justice to those who have made recent purchases, allow them a fuf

Numbers One and Twe were inferted in our last month's Review.


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