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shares his burthens and alleviates his sorrows. For there is ño toil nor difficulty so insupportable in life, but it may he surmounted by the mutual efforts and the affectionate concord of that holy partnership.”
After we had been settled a short time in our new abode, Anacreon resolved to send an invitation to Lesbos for Sappho Among others the following ode, in which he described the simplicity
of our fare and the warmth of his affection, was composed upon this occasion :
But it was not reserved for him again to enjoy the society of this lovely woman, whose genius was only equalled by her misfortunes. Before the courier had departed, I received information from one of my friends at Mytilene, that Sappho had terminated her life and her sufferings by precipitating herself into the sea from the summit of a mountain in Leucadia. The following fragment of an ode was found on the shore :
The mournful intelligence was unfortunately communicated to Anacreon, while he was engaged in a banquet with a few of his former friends. The sudden dismay which this unexpected information occasioned was such that he did not observe a grapestone which was floating in his wine. He was choked by the contents of the cup, and the melancholy consequences were soon too visible in his countenance. I ran to succour him; but with a smile that bespoke the feeble exertions of nature, he signified that it was too late. I gave him a cup of wine in hopes of relieving him. He took it from me, and, as he held it in his hand, he gave me this ode in which he announced his departure from us in a strain of prophetic inspiration which resembles the plaintive notes of the expiring swan:
Golden hues of youth are fled;
Withering age begins to trace
He then poured out a libation to the Eumenides, the inexorable ministers of the vengeance of Pluto, and having thus endeavoured to appease their fury, he sunk upon his couch. It was in vain that we prayed to Apollo, to whom sudden deaths are imputed. Anacreon likewise would have prayed to Mercury, to whom is confided the mournful office of conducting ghosts to the shades below; but the pangs of death were upon him and the power of utterance was denied. We sounded brazen kettles, to expel those furies which are ever on the alert to carry the unfortunate to places of torment. We crowded around his couch, that we might hear his dying words; we kissed him and endeavoured to imbibe his latest breath into our mouths.
I had heard for the last time the sounds of a voice which had never addressed me but in the language of kindness—the lustre of those eyes which had ever beamed with the refulgent sparkles of mirth and joy became dim, and, after a faint struggle, he sought the shades of Elysium!
He retained his senses so as to be able to depart in a decent posture. As soon as we found that he had expired, his eyes and mouth were closed, and before the body was cold it was stretched; and soon afterwards it was washed by the females of the Household. After it had been rubbed with fragrant oil.and other costly ointments, it was clad in a splendid white robe, by which was indicated the pure spirit of the deceased. It was then covered with green boughs and flowers, the liveliness and brilliancy of whose hues denoted the felicity which was to be enjoyed after this life. Being placed upon a bier, it was carried to the entrance of the door. Here it was exposed to public view in order to prevent any suspicion of his death having been occasioned by a wound. The feet were turned to the door, to signify that he would never return; and the corpse was constantly watched, to prevent the pollution of flies or the violence of rude curiosity: The mouth was filled with cake composed of flour, honey and water, to appease the fury of Cerberus, and a piece of money was placed upon it, as a bribe to the surly ferryman of the Styx.
The hair of Anacreon was cut off and hung upon the door to indicate the house of sorrow to the heart of sensibility; and while the corpse remained there, a vessel of water stood nigh, that those who touched it might purify themselves. After it had been preserved seventeen days and nights we prepared for the solemn ceren
emony of interment. But it was supposed, that the spirit of our departed friend, would be better satisfied if his ashes were deposited in his natal soil, and we therefore determined to burn the body. In the dead of the night, when the silence of nature accorded with the sadness of our souls, and the awfulness of the ceremony, we lighted our torches, to preserve us from the evil spirits which then ventured abroad. As soon as the sun arose, we took our last farewell, and conveyed the body from the house. As we moved along with a slow pace, our uncovered heads bent down, and supported by our hands, attested our respect, and the serious notes of the Carian and Phrygian flutes, bewailed the loss of our friend. Some persons sprinkled their heads with ashes, and muttered the funeral interjection7', ;', while others rolled their bodies in the dust. When we arrived at the pile the body was placed in the middle of it, with a quantity of precious ointments and perfumes, and also the fat of beasts, to increase the force of the flames. The garments of the deceased being thrown in, the sad office of communicating fire to the pile, devolved upon me, as none of the relations of Anacreon were present. Having prayed and offered vows to Æolus to assist the flames, I applied the torch. His immediate friends stood nigh to the pile, cutting off their hair and casting it into the flames, and also pouring out libations of wine. The pile being burnt down, the embers were extinguished by wine. We collected the ashes and enclosed them in a silver urn, which was soon after sent to his relations at Athens.
GRECIANS! his hallowed ashes are covered by a monument which is erected by the altar of the muses on the margin of llyssus. When the mellow tints of the declining sun shall sleep on the waters, and ye assemble on its banks, tread lightly on the sod that covers the silent urn. Violets shall bloom around the sacred spot ; there the lotus shall spread its embowering branches, and the roses of spring shall impart their sweetest fragrance to the breeze that lingers around the tomb of the Teian bard.
There the chords of the plaintive lyre shall often respire the sad and solemn notes of wo, and the virgins who dwell at the foot of the double mountain shall chaunt his dirge.
As the winds of the declining year assail the green-clad trees and strew the ground with their foliage, and the approaching spring bids them revive with renovated beauty, so is one generation of man called from the joys of life, and another succeeds. But long shall Ilyssus roll bis inspiring flood, and many Olympiads shall ye walk in the porticos of Athens, or stray by the side of thesilver Strymon, before your ears shall be gladdened by such sounds as ye heard from the lyre of Anacreon: for the graces presided at his birth, and the muses delighted to inspire his meditations.
ART. IV.-Mr. Cromwell's Memoirs of the Protector, Oliver
[Concluded from page 112.] As civil contention grew hotter, the republicans gained a considerable accession of strength: for in the month of October, 1644, the Commons proposed to the Lords to melt down the King's magazine of plate in the Tower; and though the proposition was much combated by the Upper House, it was carried in the affirmative. Nevertheless, a sort of delicacy was still affected whenever the King was mentioned ; and Cromwell, says Mrs. Macaulay, (vol. iv.p. 159. 8vo.) though void of those talents which command the opinions of popular assemblies, yet by the busy zeal of his nature, the seeming sincerity of his character, the ve. hemence with which he pursued the popular cause, and the intrepidity of his conduct, became an useful instrument in the hands of the republican faction. The Generals of the army, imitating the style of their principals, the Parliament, even when they led on their men to hostile acts against majesty, talked of the sacredness of the King's power and person, and puzzled the honest soldier with the senseless contradiction : but the more ingenuous Cromwell censured the inconsistent delicacy of the Presbyterians; publicly affirmed that tenderness was so far from being due to the King's person, that, as the prime author of the calamities of the times, he ought to be one of the prime sufferers; and declared that he should have less scruple in attacking him in the field than any other man. When, also, others insinuated merely that the officers of the army had shewn remissness and negligence, Cromwell went boldly to the House; charged the military commanders with having purposely spun out the war; and asserted that, for their own honour and dignity, the Commons ought to new-model their army, and purge themselves from the reproaches under which they lay, by a self-denying ordinance which should exclude all its members from civil or military posts. The unexpected bold truths, says Mrs. Macaulay, contained in this speech, so astonished the guilty party, that it produced a more sudden and general acquiescence than the utmost powers of rhea toric.
We may thus fairly account for the popularity of Cromwell among the republicans; and his services were found so great in the army, that probably no suspicion was at first entertained of his sincerity, even when, in the short space of a few weeks, he became the first exception to the self-denying ordinance which he had himself so strenuously enforced. After many objections, and several fruitless conferences with the Lords, this ordinance, declaring the members of either House to be discharged at the end of forty days from all offices and command, civil and miliVOL. II.NO. 3
tary, passed on the 3d of April, 1645. The Earls of Essex, Warwick, Manchester, Denbigh, and many others, then resigned their commands, and the new-modelled army was intrusted to Sir Thomas Fairfax. Cromwell ought to have tendered his resignation with the other members : but he was sent with a body of horse to relieve Taunton, then besieged by the royalist army. His absence from the House being noticed, orders were dispatched for his attendance, and the new General was directed to employ some other officer on that duty; but Fairfax, over whom most of the contemporary historians agree that Cromwell had the greatest influence, sent a letter to Parliament, expatiating on the services of the Lieutenant-General, and requesting that an exception should be made in his favour for the good of the service. This was immediately done ; and Cromwell was the only person who kept his seat in Parliament, together with his command in the army: which would have been a very honourable distinction to him, says Rapin, were there not room to suspect that it was owing to his own intrigues.*
The present author has introduced a long and very minute account of the occasion and origin of this ordinance, and has succeeded entirely to our satisfaction in refuting Lord Clarendon's misrepresentation; which was followed implicitly by Hume, and which derived its consequence only from becoming the ground of a charge of religious hypocrisy, in this instance at least not merited. We have no doubt that Cromwell was influenced by very honest and patriotic feelings, when he urged the measure in the Commons so forcibly, so heartily, and so successfully ; for his ambition was not yet fully blown : but it seems to our view not unlikely that the bud was burst on this very occasion. If he had not the ascendancy over Fairfax which is usually ascribed to him, but which Mr. Cromwell discredits, he must have been the more flattered by Fairfax's solicitation to Parliament for an exception in his favour; and the battle of Naseby, which was on the eve of being fought at this time, while it justified the discrimination of the Commander-in-chief, could not fail to impress on Cromwell's mind his own importance. The author reasons very fairly about this ordinance. Had no suspension of it been made in favour of any particular officers, no suspicion of sinister views in the promoters of it could have arisen; and, he observes, whether the object really was to displace the actual commanders for the purpose of introducing those of their own party, we cannot now know with certainty : but the suspension of its operation in favour of Cromwell, and a few others, certainly affords grounds for such a suspicion.'
Rapin states that he was the only person : but Whitelock says that Sir William Brereton, Sir Thomas Middleton, and Sir John Rich, members of the House of Commons, were ordered to continue in their commands orty days longer, notwithstanding the ordinance.