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Ath was fometimes joined to the ancient title Herm; which the Grecians with a termination made Ens. From Ath-Herm, came Diguas, Degμos, Ogawa. These terms were fometimes reverfed, and rendered Herm athena.'
Though we cannot give a regular abridgment of what Mr. Bryant has advanced under the article of radicals, we fhall, however, take notice of a few incidental circumstances, the mentioning of which will probably be acceptable to our curious readers.
Speaking of Nimrod, our Author fays, that though the history of Nimrod was in a great measure loft in the fuperior reverence paid to Chus, or Bacchus; yet there is reafon to think that divine honours were of old paid to him. The family of the Nebride at Athens, and another of the fame name at Cos, were, as we may infer from their history, the pofterity of people, who had been priefts to Nimrod. He feems to have been worshipped in Sicily under the names of Elorus, Pelorus, and Orion. He was likewife ftiled Belus: but as this was merely a title, and conferred upon other perfons, it renders his hiftory very difficult to be diftinguished.
Under the word, Ad, we are told, that Ham was often ftiled Ad-Ham, or Adam contracted; which has been the cause of much mistake. There were many places named Adam, Adama, Adamah, Adamas, Adamana; which had no reference to the protoplaft, but were by the Amonians denominated from the head of their family.
In treating on the term, Ees, or Is, which related to light and fire, and was one of the titles of the fun, Mr. Bryant makes several curious remarks. He finds the traces of this term in a great number of places, fituated in very different parts of the world. All these places, he affures us, were founded or denominated by people of the Amonian worship: and we may always upon inquiry perceive fomething very peculiar in their history and fituation. They were particularly devoted to the worship of the fun; and they were generally fituated near hot fprings, or elfe upon foul and fetid lakes, and pools of bitumen. It is alfo not uncommon to find near them mines of falt and nitre; and caverns fending forth peftilential exhalations. Afia proper comprehended little more than Phrygia, and a part of Lydia; and was bounded by the river Halys. It was of a moft inflammable foil.-Hence doubtlefs the region had the name of Afia, or the land of fire.It may appear wonderful; but the Amonians were determined in the fituation both of their cities and temples by thefe ftrange
So in Virgil, Comites Sarpedonis ambo,
Et clarus Ethemon Lyciâ comitantur ab altâ,
phænomena. They esteemed no places fo facred, as those where there were fiery eruptions, uncommon fteams, and fulphureous exhalations.
The Amonian religion and customs were carried to a furprifing extent in the first ages. The ancient Germans, and Scandinavians, were led by the fame principles; and founded their temples in fituations of the fame nature, as those were, which have been above described. Above all others they chose thofe places, where were any nitrous or faline waters. * Maxime autem Lucos (or Lacus) fale gignendo fecundos cœlo propinquare, precefque mortalium nufquam propius audiri firmiter erant perfuaf; prout exemplo hermandurorum docet teflis omni exceptione majer + Tacitus.
In confidering the derivatives from the word Ain, the Author, taking occafion to vindicate himself, for not deducing his etymologies from the Hebrew, declares, in a note, that it is his opinion, that there are two events recorded by Mofes, Gen. c. 10. throughout; and Gen. c. 11. v. 8, 9. One was a regular migration of mankind in general to the countries allotted to them the other was a difperfion which related to fome particulars. Of this Mr. Bryant propofes hereafter to treat at large; and we fhall be glad to fee the profecution of the fubject. Being fenfible that the caftern languages, and the western tongues derived from them, have, amidst all their alterations, fuch a refemblance, as by no means coincides with the notion of that radical change which fome di ines fuppofe to have been miraculously produced at the tower of Babel; we have hitherto acquiefced in the conjecture of the late Dr. Gregory Sharpe, that the confufion of language, or lip, related only to a confufion of defigns and counfels.
Our learned Writer, fpeaking of the terms, Shem, and Shamesh, which relate to the heavens, and to the fun, takes notice, that Ham, being the Apollo of the east, was worshipped as the fun, and was alfo called Sham and Shem; and that this has been the caufe of much perplexity and miftake. By the fe means many of his pofterity have been referred to a wrong line, and reputed the fons of Shem; the title of one brother not being diflinguithed from the real name of the other. Hence the Chaldeans have by fome been adjudged to the line of Shem and Amalek, together with the people of that name, has been placed to the fame account.
Under the word, Sar, we learn, that as oaks were filed Saronides, fo likewife were the ancient Druids, by whom the oak was held fo facred. This is the title which was given to
* Gafper Brechenmaker, § 45 P. 457•
the priests of Gaul, as we are informed by Diodorus Siculus; and it is one proof out of many, fays our Author, how far the Amonian religion was extended; and how little we know of Druidical worship, either in respect to its effence or its origin.
The term, Uch, expreffed alfo Ach, Och, was a term of honour among the Babylonians, and the rest of the progeny of Chus; and occurs continually in the names of men and places, which have any connection with their Hiftory. Mr. Bryant wonders that this word has been paffed over with fo little notice, as it is of great antiquity; and at the fame time of much importance in respect to etymology. The traces which he finds of it are very numerous. We shall tranfcribe the conclufion of this article; as it contains an illuftration of Homer, in a matter little understood by his best commentators.
The term Yx, of which I have been treating, was obsolete, and fcarce known in the times when Greece moft flourished: yet fome traces of it may be found, though firangely perverted from its origi nal meaning. For the writers of this nation, not knowing the purport of the words, which they found in their ancient hymns, changed them to fomething fimilar in found; and thus retained them with a degree of religious, but blind reverence. I have fhewn, that of El Uc they formed Auxos, Lucus; which was acknowledged to be the name of the fun of El-Uc-Aon, Lycaon: of El Uc-Or, Lycorus and Lycoreus:
Η κιθαρι, η τοξα Λυκώρεος ενώ τα Φοιβα.
So from Uc-Ait, another title of the god, they formed Hecatus, and a feminine, Hecate. Hence Nicandor fpeaks of Apollo by this tice: † Εζόμενος τριπελισσι παρα Κλαρίοις. Εκάτοιο,
And Herophile the sibyl of the fame deity:
Η Μακράν έχους Εκατῳ της τοτ' Ανακτορίης.
The only perfon who feems knowingly to have retained this word, and to have used it out of compofition, is Homer. He had been in Egypt; and was an admirer of the theology of that nation. He adhered to ancient & terms with a degree of enthufiafm; and introduced them at all hazards, though he many times did not know their meaning. This word among others he has preserved; and he makes use of it adverbially in its proper fenfe, when he describes any body fuperlatively great, and excellent. Thus he fpeaks of Calchas
• Callimachus. Hymn to Apollo, v. 19.
+ Nicander Alexipharmica, v II.
Paufanias. 1. 10. p. 827.
It is however to be found in Euripides under the term exo. Thefeus fays to Acraftus:
12 7e d'eXcuviç inta mgos Cnfas Ox. Supplices, v. 131.
From Uc and Uch came the word euge: alfo sexu, fuxruxi, euxxλn, of the Greeks. Callimachus abounds with ancient Amonian tems. He bids the young women of Argos to receive the geddefs Minerva.
Suit' suaycgiz, curt' euquosi, ou q'shahuyzis. Lavacr. Palladis, v. 139. From Uc-El came Euciea Sacra, and Funkce Zug Exha, Acteurs. Foxhos, Arot iejaus, iy Meyagaię nas u Kogie. Hefychius, fo amended by Albertus and Hemiterhufius.
as far fuperior to every body elfe in prophetic knowledge, and files
him oχ αρισος :
Καλχας Θεσορίδης οιωνοπόλων οχι αξιτος,
Ος ήδη τα τ' εοντα, τα τ' εσσομενα, προ τ εονται
So on the Trojan fide Helenus is fpoken of in the fame light; + Πριαμίδης Ελενος οιωνοπόλων οχ αριςος.
• So 1 Φωκιων οχ αριςον, Η Αιτωλων οχ' αριςος, and. $ Τυχίος-Σκυτοτομων οχ' όξισος.
In thefe and in all other inftances of this term occurring in Homer, it is obfervable, that it is always in the fame acceptation, and uniformly precedes the fame word, agros. It is indeed to be found in the poetry afcribed to ** Orpheus: but as thofe verses are manifeftly imitations of Homer, we must not look upon it as a current term of the times, when that poetry was compofed nor was it ever, I believe, in common use, not even in the age of Homer. It wan an Amonian term, joined infeparably with another borrowed from the fame people. For agros was from Egypt, and Chaldea. Indeed most of the irregular degrees of comparifon are from that quarter; being derived from the Sun, the great deity of the pagan world, and from his titles and properties. Both a and were from agn, the
Arez of the eaft. From Bel, and Baaltis, came CeλTI, and CEXTISOS: αμεινών is an inflection from Amon. From the god Aloeus came Aaos, λειτερος, and λωισος : from κερεν changed to κέρας, κερατος, were formed Αξεσσων, κρείσσων, κρατερος, and κρατιτος.
With regard to the word Ai, or Aia, we are told that it fignifies a district or province; and as most provinces in Egypt were infular, it is often taken for an island. In other parts it was much of the fame purport as aid of the Greeks, and betokened any region or country. It was from hence, that fo many places have been reprefented by the Greeks as plurals, and are found to terminate in ai; fuch as, Athenai, Thebai, Phærai, Patrai, Amyclai, Theraphai, Clazomenai, Celanai. There are others in ia; as Choroneia, Coroneia, Eleia. In others it was rendered fhort; as in Oropia, Ellopia, Ortygia, Olympia, Æthiopia, Scythia, Coenia, Icaria. It is likewile found expreffed by a fingle letter, and ftill fubjoined to the proper name: hence we meet with Etna, Arbela, Lariffa, Roma, Himera, Hemera, Nufa, Nyffa, Patara, Arena ††, Cabafa, and the like. We may from hence prove, and from
Λεύσσει, όπως οχι αρίςα μετ' αμφοτέροισι γενηται,
Alfo Ody ff. e. V. 123 and 2. V. 428.
Iliad. P. V. 307.
**In the hymn to Silenus that god is called Anvay ox' agica.
And in the poem
de Lapidibus, the Foet Speaking of heroic perfons, mentions their reception in heaven:
Αμώμητοι Διος οικοί
Χαίροντας δέξαντο θρηγενέων οχ' αρίστας.
Hymn 35. v. 2. and megi Á‹8wv. Proem. v. 14.
tt The Ionians changed this termination into ". Hence Arene, Camiffene, Cyrene, Arface, Same, Capiffene, Thebe, &c.
innumerable other inftances, that, among the people of the eaft, as well as among other nations, the word in Regimine was often final. Thus the land of Ion was termed Ionia: that of Babylon, Babylonia: from Affur came Affyria: from Ind, India: from Lud Ludia: in all which the region is specified by the termination. To fay Lydia Tellus, Affyria Tellus, is in reality redundant. In the name of Egypt this term preceded; that country being filed Ai-Gupt, AUTOs, the land of the Gupti, called afterwards Cupti, and Copti.
Our Author, under the head of common names relating to places, has a long and curious article upon the word Gau, expreffed Cau, Ca, and Co; and which fignifies a house. Befides the many inftances that are produced of the occurrences of this word in ancient names, Mr. Bryant has taken occafion, incidentally, to fhew, that Gaugamela and Arbela, (which have been supposed to be different cities, at the diftance of five or fix hundred Stadia, and at each of which the great decifive battle between Alexander and Darius is exprefsly faid to have been fought,) were, in fact, one and the fame place. Arbela was probably the city, and Gaugamela the temple; both facred to the fame deity under different names.
Another obfervation which we meet with, is, that it is of great confequence towards decyphering the mythology of ancient times, to take notice, that the Grecians often miftook the place of worship for the deity worshipped. The names of many gods are in reality the names of temples where they were adored. Artemis was Ar-Temis, the city of Themis, or Thamis; the Thamuz of Sidon and Egypt. This the Greeks expreffed Aprεuis, and made it the name of a goddess. Kir-On was the city and temple of the fun in Cyprus, and other places. They changed this to Kironus, which they contracted Cronus and out of it made a particular god. From ChaOpis they formed a king Cheops; from Cayfter, the fame as Ca-After, they fancied a hero, Cayftrius; from Cu- Bela, Cybele; from Cu-Baba, Cybebe. Cerberus, the dog of hell, was denominated from Kir-Abor.
Concerning the term Coel in Ennius, Ianus Gulielmus obferves, that this poet copied the Dorians in using abbreviations, and writing Col for Coelus and Coelum. But herein, fays Mr. Bryant, this learned perfon is miftaken. The Dorians were not fo much to be blamed for their abbreviating, as the other Greeks were for their unneceffary terminations, and inflections. The more fimple the terms, the more ancient and genuine we may for the most part efteem them and in the language of the Dorians we may perceive more terms relative to the true mythology of the country, and thofe rendered more fimilar to the ancient mode of expreffion, than are elsewhere to be found.