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Spondent paffages of fcripture may be reduced, are thefe: 1. Gened"logical regifters, mufter-rolls, &c. doubly inferted. 2. Hifforical narrations repeated. 3. Sentiments, meuages, &c. twice recited. 4. Quotations made by one prophet from another. 5. Quotations or repetitions borrowed by the fame prophet from himself.
The Author, having feparately confidered each of these claffes, and thus affifted Hebraical readers in collecting and afforting their materials, proceeds, in his last fection, to give fome directions concerning the use and application of them. On the whole, he afferts, that the various readings which may be collected (not to speak of the errours that may be rectified) in this way, are full as numerous as they are important. And though, hitherto, fays he, they have been able to gain but little attention; yet I hope the time is coming on, when, for the credit of learning, the Support of truth, and the perfection of the Hebrew feriptures, fome candid and ingenious critic will take the pains to collect them together, and lay them before the public.
This pamphlet, though fmall in quantity, is rich in merit. It contains more ufeful matter than is to be found in many a bulky volume. It opens a vein of valuable and copious criticifm to thofe who ftudy the facred literature of the old testament; on which account it cannot be too warmly recommended to their notice.
Refpectable Correfpondent, from whom we have frequently
A heard, informs us that the Rev. Mr. Gambold, whofe tragedy
of Ignatius we mentioned in our Review for June, wrote that tragedy before he became a member of the Unitas Fratrum. This circumftance, as our Correfpondent obferves, is of no great importance; however he thought it right to mention it, "left fome people fhould "imagine, that the Unitas Fratrum make use of acting tragedies on "religious fubjects."
A Letter figned R. Richardson, has been received. As the Writer's prefumption may be founded on mere ignorance, we fhall not more particularly expofe him, or mention any circumftance that may create uneafiness in the mind of the Gentleman in whose behalf he has taken upon him to addrefs himself, in fo extraordinary a way, to the Reviewers. The money will be returned to the perfon who left it at Mr. Becket's; where he is defired to call for it.
+++ The fecond favour from "A Hinter of Truth," came too late to be duly noticed this month.
SLIPS of the PRESS.
The Reader is requested to correct the mistake, occafioned by an erroneous punctuation, in giving the refult of M. De Luc's calculation of the height of the earth's atmosphere, in our laft Appendix; where he is defired,
At page 569, line 17, for 25,105,450 toifes; to read 25,105.450 toifes. And at line 24, for 35,105,450 toifes; to read 35,105.459 toises.
For SEPTEMBER, 1774.
ART. I. Continuation of the Account of Mr. Bryant's New Syftem or Analysis of Ancient Mythology. See Review for June.
HE ingenious and very learned Author of the extraor
Tdinary work before us, acquaints his readers, that the
materials, of which he purposes to make ufe in the following inquiries, are comparatively few, and will be contained within a fmail compafs. They are fuch as are to be found in the compofition of moft names which occur in ancient mythology: whether they relate to deities then reverenced, or to the places where their worship was introduced. But they appear no where fo plainly, as in the names of thofe places which were fituated in Babylonia and Egypt. From these parts, they were, in procefs of time, transferred to countries. far remote; beyond the Ganges eastward, and to the utmost bounds of the Mediterranean weft; wherever the fons of Ham, under their various denominations, either fettled or traded. Mr. Bryant had, before, mentioned, that this people were great adventurers; and began an extenfive commerce in very early times. They got footing in many parts; where they founded cities, which were famous in their day. They likewife erected towers and temples: and upon headlands and promontories they raised pillars for fea-marks to direct them in their perilous expeditions. All these were denominated from circumftances that had fome reference to the religion which this people profeffed, and to the ancestors whence they fprung. The deity, which they originally worshipped, was the Sun. But they foon conferred his titles upon fome of their ancestors: whence arofe a mixed worship. They particularly deified the great patriarch, who was the head of their line; and worshipped him as the fountain of light: making the Sun only an emblem of his influence and power. They called him Bal, and Baal: and there were others of their ancestry joined with him, whom VOL. LI.
they filed the Baalim. Chus was one of thefe and this idolatry began among his fons.
In refpect, then, to the names, which this people, in procefs of time, conferred either upon the deities they worshipped, or upon the cities which they founded; we fhall find them, fays our Author, to be generally made up of fome original terms for a bafis, fuch as Ham, Cham, and Chus: or elie of the titles, with which thofe perfonages were, in process of time, honoured. Thefe were Thoth, Men or Menes, Ab, El, Aur, Ait, Ees or Ifh, On, Bel, Cohen, Keren, Ad, Adon, Ob, Oph, Apha, Uch, Melech, Anac, Sar, Sama, Semaïm. We must likewife take notice of thofe common names, by which places are diftinguished, fuch as Kir, Caer, Kiriath, Carta, Air, Cob, Cala, Beth, Ai, Ain, Caph, and Cephas. Laftly are to be inferted the particles Al and Pi; which were in ufe among the ancient Egyptians.
Of these, and fome other terms Mr. Bryant first treats. These he calls radicals; and he looks upon them as fo many elements, whence moft names in ancient mythology have been compounded, and into which they may be easily refolved: and the hiftory with which they are attended, will, he informs us, at all times, plainly point out, and warrant the etymology.
As it is abfolutely impracticable to abridge this part of the work, we must, in fome degree, content ourfelves with felecting one radical, as a fpecimen of the united fagacity and erudition which the Author difplays, in the purfuit of his undertaking. The fpecimen has not been chofen for its peculiar merit, but on account of its being of a competent brevity.
AIT. Another title of Ham or the Sun was Ait, and Aith: a term, of which little notice has been taken; yet of great confequence in refpect to etymology. It occurs continually in Egyptian names of places, as well as in the compoution of thofe, which belong to deities, and men, It relates to fire, light, and heat; and to the confequences of heat. We may in fome degree learn its various, and oppolite fignifications when compounded, from antient words in the Greek language, which were derived from it, Several of thefe are enumerated in Helychius. Ale, shaves. Aldin, xx1919. Arzλ (a compound of Aith El), niezuparov. Αιθινος, καπως. Αίθον, λαμπριν. Αίθωνα (of the fame etymology, from Aith-On) μiλara, muguồn. * Albos, xxvpz. The Egyptians, when they confecrated any thing to their deity, or made it a fymbol of any fuppofed attribute, called it by the name of that attribute, or emanation: and as there was fearce any thing, but what was held facred by them, and in this manner appropriated;
The fun's disk fliied Afo:
εππείων ίλι κ δον όλον πολύν ΑΙΘΟΠΙ ΔΙΣΚΩΝ, Nonnus. L. 4ο. ν. 371. Αιθιόπαιδα Διόνυσον. Ανακ των αλλα τον ομών, αλλοι των Αρτέμων Hefychius. Al tered to Alma naida by Albertus.
The Egyptian theology abounded with perfonages formed from thefe emanations, who according to Pfellus were called Eons, Zeng, Avic. See lamblichus, and Pielius, and Damafcies,
it neceffarily happened, that feveral objects had often the same reference, and were denominated alike. For not only men took to themselves the facred titles; but birds, beafts, fishes, reptiles, together with trees, plants, ftones, drugs, and minerals, were fuppofed to be under fome particular influence; and from thence received their names. And if they were not quite alike, they were however made up of elements very fimilar. Ham, as the Sun, was filed Ait; and Egypt, the land of Ham, had in confequence of it the name of Ait, rendered by the Greeks Atia: Ex-9m (n Aiyunтos) xai Asgia, nat. Ποτάμια, και Αιθιοπία, και † ΑΕΤΙΑ, One of the most antient names of the Nyle was Ait, or Aeros. It was alfo a name given to the eagle, as the bird particularly facred to the fun and Homer alludes to the original meaning of the word, when he terms the eagle Autos abv. Among the parts of the human body it was appropriated to the heart: for the heart in the body may be efteemed what the fun is in his fyltem, the fource of heat and life, affording the fame animating principle. This word having these two fenfes, was the reafon why the Egyptians made a heart over a vafe of burning incense an emblem of their country. ή Αιγυπτον δὲ γραφοντες θυμιατήριον καιομενοι Čevexpusi, nav ex KAPAIAN. This term occurs continually in compofition. Athyr, one of the Egyptian months, was formed of Ath-Ur, it was alfo one of the names of that place, where the thepherds refided in Egypt; and to which the Ifraelites fucceeded. It flood at the upper point of Delta, and was particularly facred to Orus and thence called Athur ai, or the place of Athur. departure of the thepherds it was ruined by king Amofis. καψε δε την Αθυριαν Αμωσις.
As Egypt was named Aith, and Ait; fo other countries, in which colonies from thence fettled, were ftiled Ethia and Athia. The fons of Chus founded a colony in Colchis; and we find a king of that country named Aït; or, as the Greeks expreffed it, Ants and the land was also diftinguished by that characteristic. Hence Arete in the Orphic Argonautics, fpeaking of Medea's returning to Colchis, expreffes this place by the terms a Kolxwvi
++ Οι χέσθω πατρος τε δόμον, και ες ήθεα Κόλχων.
It is fometimes compounded Ath-El, and Ath-Ain; from whence the Greeks formed It Aba, and Abx, titles, by which they diftinguished the goddess of wildom. It was looked upon as a term of high ho
+ Scholia on Dionyfius. V. 239. What is alluded to, may be feen from other authors.
Homer. Iliad. O. V. 690. 'O svoegμs, nai πupæồng. Hefychius.
They express it after the manner of the Ionians, who always deviated from the ori ginal term. The Dorians would have called it with more propriety Ath.
§ Horus Apollo. L. 1. c. 22. p. 38.
* Clemens Alexandrinus from Ptolemy Mendefius. Strom. L. I p. 378.
It was called alfo Abur, or Abaris, as well as Athur. In after-times it was rebuilt and by Herodotus it is filed Cercafora. By Athuria is to be understood both the city, and the diftrict; which was of the great Nome of Heliopolis.
++ Orphic. Argonaut. V. 1323.
1 Athenagoræ Legatio. P. 293.
Proferpine (Kog) was alfo called Athela. Ibid.
nour and endearment. Venus in Apollonius calls Juno and Minerva, by way of respect, Har:
* Ηθειας, τις δίωρο νοός, χρειω τε, κομίζει;
Menelaus fays to his brother Agamemnon, † Tipe Tws, HOELE, NOEUTTERI and † Τίπτε μοι, Ηθεση κεφαλη, δευρ' ειλήλυθας, are the words of Achilles to the fhade of his loft Patroclus. Hos in the original acceptation, as a title, fignified Solaris, Divinus, Splendidus: but in a secondary fenfe it denoted any thing holy, good, and praife-worthy. | A μ Hoy xanew nai voo Borra, fays Eumæus of his long abfent, and much honoured master. I will call him good, and noble, whether be be dead or alive. From this antient term were derived the 400; and 0xa of the Greeks.
I have mentioned, that it is often found compounded, as in Athyr: and that it was a name conferred on places, where the Amonians fettled. Some of this family came in early times to Rhodes, and Lemnos of which migrations I fhall hereafter treat. Hence one of the most antient names of § Rhodes was Aithraia, or the Inland of Athyr; fo called from the worship of the Sun: and Lemnos was denominated Aithalia, for the fame reafon from Aith-El. It was particularly devoted to the God of fire; and is hence stiled Vulcania by
** Summis Vulcania furgit Lemnos aquis.
Ethiopia itself was named both ++ Aitheria, and Aeria, from Aur, and Athyr and Lefbos, which had received a colony of Cuthites, was reciprocally filed ‡‡ Æthiope. The people of Canaan and Syria paid a great reverence to the memory of Ham: hence we read of many places in those parts named Hamath, Amathus, Amathufia. One of the fons of Canaan seems to have been thus called: for it is faid, that Canaan was the father of the Hamathite. A city of this name ftood to the east of mount Libanus; whose natives were the Hamathites alluded to here. There was another Hamath in Cyprus, by the Greeks expreffed Auales, of the fame original as the former. We read of Eth-Baal, a king of §§ Sidon, who was the father of Jezebel; and of Athaliah, who was her daughter. For Ath was an oriental term, which came from Babylonia and Chaldea to Egypt; and from thence to Syria and Canaan. Ovid, though his whole poem be a fable, yet copies the modes of those countries, of which he treats. On this account, fpeaking of an Ethiopian, he introduces him by the name of Eth-Amon, but foftened by him to Ethemon.