« PreviousContinue »
New Spelling Book ; or, Second Course of Lessons in Spelling and Reading. Designed as a Sequel to the Author's Primer, and an Introduction to the other parts of his Elementary and Common School Series. Enlarged edition. Boston: Tappan & Whittemore. 1852,
Pulpit Elocution: Comprising Remarks on the Effect of Manner in Public Discourse; the Elements of Elocution, applied to the Reading of the Scriptures, IIymns, and Sermons ; with Observations on the Principles of Gesture, and a Selection of Exercises in Reading and Speaking. By William Russell. With an Introduction by Edwards A. Park, D. D., Prof. in Andover Theol. Sem'y; and Rev. Edward N. Kirk, Pastor of Mt. Vernon Church, Boston. Andover: W. F. Draper & Brother. 1852.
The University Speaker: A Collection of Pieces designed for College Exercises in Declamation and Recitation. With Suggestions on the appropriate Elocution of particular passages. Boston and Cambridge: James Munroe & Co. 1852.
Suggestions on Teachers' Institutes. Manchester, N. H.: William H. Fisk. 1852.
A Manual of Instruction in Reading. Prepared for the use of Teachers' Institutes. Andover, Mass.: Warren F. Draper. 1852.
An Address on the Infant-School System of Education, and the extent to which it may be advantageously applied to all Primary Schools. Delivered in the Representatives' Hall, Boston, Aug. 21, 1830, before the Convention which formed the Am. Ins. of Instruction.
An Address on Associations of Teachers. Delivered at a Meeting held in Dorchester, on Wednesday, 8th Sept., 1830, for the purpose of forming an Association of Teachers, for Norfolk County, Mass.
A Lecture on Reading and Declamation. Delivered before the American Institute of Instruction, at Worcester, Mass., Aug., 1837.
A Lecture on Elocution, introductory to a course of Readings and Recitations. Delivered at the Temple, Boston, 1838.
A Lecture on the Education of Females. Delivered at the close of the Autumn Term of Abbot Female Academy, Andover, Mass., Nov. 21, 1843.
A Lecture on Female Education. Delivered before the Am. Institute of Instruction, at Portland, Me., 2d Sept., 1844.
Hints to Teachers on Instruction in Reading. Educational Tract No. 5, in the series issued by Hon. Henry Barnard, State Commissioner of Schools, R. I., 1846.
Duties of Teachers. An Address before the Associate Alumni of Merrimack Normal Inst., at their First Annual Meeting, Sept. 4, 1850.
Address at the Dedication and Opening of the New England Normal Institute, Lancaster, Mass., Wednesday, May 11, 1853.
Encouragements to Teachers. An Address before the Associate Alumni of Merrimack Normal Institute, at the Fourth Anniversary of the Association, Wednesday, 31st Aug., 1853.
Exercises on Words. Designed as a Course of Practice on the Rudiments of Grammar and Rhetoric. Boston: Whittemore, Niles, & Hall. 1856.
XII. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE.
Tue brilliant meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science recently held at Albany, having increased the general interest felt throughout the country in the progress of American science, we propose to offer a few remarks on the history, objects, and advantages of this institution.
The first of these annual scientific conventions was held at Dresden, in Germany, in 1822; and they were afterwards repeated at Berlin, Heidleberg, and Frankfort. Those meetings gathered the leading men of science, not only from every part of Germany, but also from all parts of Europe, to the number of four hundred and upwards ; bringing into a gratifying personal acquaintance many of the most celebrated philosophers of the day, who had before known each other only through the medium of their writings, or by the celebrity of their names. The meeting at Berlin, for example, in 1828, assembled under the express patronage of the king of Prussia, consisted of four hundred and sixty-seven distinguished savans, from the various states of Europe, including England, France, Holland, and Russia. The meeting was opened by a discourse from the illustrious Humboldt, President, in which he stated the object of the convocation, and pointed out the advantages of such a union of the friends of science, from different parts of the world, and its influence on the propagation and discovery of useful truths.
It was natural that the spirit caught at this meeting by the foreign delegates, should, on their return home, be widely diffused over their respective countries. Accordingly, in 1832, the British Association for the Advancement of Science was formed, which has been continued to the present time, and has become a central point, where the scattered rays of new-discovered truths in the arts and sciences are brought to a focus, whence they radiate to all parts of the earth. The
germ of the American Association was first developed in the Association of American Geologists, formed in Philadelphia, in 1840, a title which, in 1842, was changed to that of the Association of American Geologists and Naturalists; and, in order to be still more comprehensive, this title was again changed in 1845 to the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
The American Association was formed at the right time. It could hardly have been formed at all at an earlier period, from the great scarcity in our country of original investigators. When, in 1818, the American Journal of Science was commenced, the editor, we have heard, proposed to publish, in his prospectus, a list of the names of of Ainerican savans on whom he could rely for contributions; but the list when formed, appeared so meagre, and embraced so large a proportion of names wholly unknown to fame, that it was deemed the most prudent course not to call the roll of our corps scientifique before the world. It is but just to say, that the American Journal itself did more than all other agents to create a body of American investigators. Previous to the publication of that Journal, our men of science had no medium of communication with the scientific world. There was, indeed, a paper sent forth, at long intervals, from the American Philosophical Society at Philadelphia, or from the American Academy at Boston, or from the Connecticut Academy at New Haven, or from the Albany Institute; and the Mineralogical Journal of Dr. Bruce, published in New York, (which expired at the close of one small volume,) opened a transient medium to the small number of devotees to that special branch of science. But all these papers had only a very limited circulation at home, and hardly any abroad. When, therefore, the Edinburgh Review, in their notice of Seybert's Statistical Annals of the United States, in 1820, taunted us with the questions—“ What new substances have their chemists discovered, or what old ones have they analyzed ? What new constellations have been discovered by the telescopes of Americans ? What have they done in the mathematics ?”—we felt, indeed, the contempt and ridicule expressed for our scientific claims to be unjust; and yet, when we looked about us for examples of scientific discoveries or inventions with which to confront our accusers, we could make but a feeble defence.' In addition to a few names well known to the scientific world, we felt conscious of possessing, even then, many more which would one day add lustre to the reputation of our country in the
eyes of foreigners; yet we could not but see that we could present but few names, -rari nantes in gurgite vasto,—that would be accredited abroad for any discoveries which had actually distinguished them, and we had still less to offer in the ornamental arts.* But the
* As a gratifying proof of the progress of our science and literature, during the thirty-seven years that have elapsed since the article in the Edinburgh Review was published, it may be well to keep in remembrance the following passage from that article.
“During the thirty or forty years of their independence, they (the Americans] have done absolutely nothing for the sciences, for the arts, or even for the statesman-like studies of poli. tics, or political economy. Confining ourselves to our own country, and to the period that has elapsed since they had an independent existence, we would ask, where are their Foxes,
American Journal of Science, by furnishing a suitable medium, by which scientific observations and discoveries could be communicated to the scientific world at large, prompted and multiplied greatly those researches themselves. This work was received and read with more interest abroad than at home, for the reason that the taste for new discoreries in science, in art, or in nature, was more cultivated among the learned of Europe than in the United States; and men of science in the old world, expressed their surprise and astonishment at the activity of mind prevailing in a country, where they had been accustomed to look for nothing but inertness and sterility. The unexplored condition of our natural history, and especially of our mineralogy and geology, opened new treasures to the students of nature, and the rapid disclosures successively made in the Journal of Science, of our stupendous geological systems, particularly those embosoming animal and vegetable remains--of our exhaustless stores of granite, free-stone, and marble, and all the materials required for the noblest architecture; of our vast depositories of coal; of our boundless mines of iron and lead, of copper and gold; disclosures so unexpected, unfolding with every new number of the American Journal of Science that crossed the Atlantic, amazed the naturalists of Europe.
Along with the story of American explorations and discoveries, the Journal carried to Europe the names of American scholars, and acquired for them immediate respect and consideration for their attainments in science, and for their genius and originality, in place of the contempt previously entertained for both. If it surprised the men of science of the old world by sudden revelations of the riches of our natural history, it no less astonished them at the wonders of our firmament, at the number and importance of our inventions, and at the rapid progress of our arts both the useful and the ornamental. In short, in place of the sneers and reproaches, which it had been their uniform practice to cast upon the intellect of free-born America, the learned of Europe become suddenly almost extravagant in their encomiums upon the activity of the American mind. We think, then, that to the American Journal of Science, is due the honor of having first redeemed our country from the humiliating attitude in which she stood in the eyes of men of science abroad, at the time when the article which we have copied from the Edinburgh Review was penned ; and also of having raised up and prepared the men who, in 1840, laid the foundation of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
their Burkes, their Sheridans, their Windhams, their Horners, their Wilberforces ? Where are their Arkwrights, ibeir Watts, their Davys--their Robertsons, Blairs, Smiths, Stewarts, Fareys, aud Matthewses--their Porsons, Parrs, Burneys, or Bloomfields-their Scotts, Campbells, Byrons, Moores, or Crabbes-their Siddonses, Kemballs, Keans, or O'Neilstheir Wilkies, Lawrences, or Chantreys? In the four quarters of the globe, who reads an American book? or go to an American play? or looks at an American statue or picture ? What does the world yet owe to American physicians or surgeons? What new substances have their chemists discovered, or what old ones have they analyzed? What new constellations have been discovered by the telescopes of Americans ? What have they done in the mathematics ? Who drinks out of American glasses, or eats from American plates, or Wears American coats or gowns, or sleeps in American blankets ?"
The object of this institution, is strictly the advancement of science. She receives with little favor, and hardly tolerates communications, however meritorious in themselves, which have no tendency to enrich the cabinet of science with new truths, although she allows her specimens to be gathered from any and all of the kingdoms of nature, or from the world of art, or even from the profoundest depths of abstraction. Her only condition is, that the contribution must enlarge the sphere of known truths,--be something new among the productions of nature, or in the laws of nature, or in the phenomena of nature; some explanation of what was before not understood; some solution of a problem, that had either divided the opinions of the learned, or baffled their skill. With this simple object in view, the members of the association are bringing to its annual meetings their varied offerings,--some from the animal, the vegetable, or the mineral kingdom; some from the depths of the earth, the ocean, or the air ; and some from the starry heavens. One develops a new law of nature, and another reveals its hidden cause. Some bring their telescopes of wondrous power and finish, and some their microscopes that rival the best specimens of European art. Some guage the ocean, and some measure the mountain heights. Mathematics, astronomy, meteorology, chemistry, physiology, natural history, geology and geography, mechanics and physics, the practical and the ornamental arts; these are each and all represented by able and ardent devotees. Although, happily, each thinks his own peculiar department, either in nature or art, the most important and interesting of all, like the patriot, “ whose own best country ever is at home,” yet, all at length become animated with the love of truth, which gradually diffuses its leaven over the entire mass ; so that all communications made with a certain degree of zeal, and apparent earnestness for the truth, and of marked ability, are listened to with interest by the whole fraternity; and so contagious is this spirit, that it pervades not only the entire body of savans, but even the crowded ranks of “outsiders," of both sexes, that frequently enliven these meetings with their presence. The progress
of the association since it was first organized, in 1845, has been in the highest degree encouraging. In 1855, it numbered nearly a thousand numbers, and numerous additions were made to it