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The Caret shows where words are to be put in that have been omitted by mistake; as, Live peace.
The Diæresis is placed over the latter of two vowels, to show that they belong to two distinct syllables; as, aërial.
The Hyphen is used to connect compound words; as, Well-doing; or the parts of a word separated at the end of a line.
The Index points to something special or remarkable; as, Important News!
The Ellipsis shows that certain words or letters have been purposely omitted; as, K**g, k. . g, or kg, for king.
The Paragraph denotes the beginning of a new subject. It is chiefly used in the Bible; as, ¶ The same day came to him, etc.
The Section is used to divide a book or chapter into parts; as, § 45.
The Asterisk, the Obelisk, the Double Dagger, and sometimes other marks,* refer to notes in the margin.
*For instance: the Section mark, §, and the Parallel, I.
APPLICATION OF THE MARKS USED IN WRITING.
My Young Friends', never tell a falsehood'; but al 2 ways speak the truth'; this is pleasing to your Maker. Do you read His holy word-the Bible'? O! remem
4 ber, that He has there said: "He that speaketh lies, shall
not escape he shall perish."* Remember, too, that the
6 All-seeing God knows all that we say or do.
Tho' wisdom's voice is seldom heard in k- -g's
8 palaces, there have been wise kings (e. g. Solomon,) who
were lov'd and obey'd by their subjects.†
10 Here, [i. e. in the U. S.,] we can not boast of our kings, princes, lords, &c. ; yet we have had a PRESIDENT, who, in true greatness, surpass'ed them all; viz., the great WASHINGTON. Washington feared and hon
§ Section, Double Dagger, and Parallel, are also used for reference to the margin.
* Proverbs xix. 5 and 9.
† 1 Kings.
ELOCUTION is the art of delivering written or extemporaneous composition with force, propriety, and ease.
It deals, therefore, with words, not only as individuals, but as members of a sentence, and parts of a connected discourse: including every thing necessary to the just expression of the sense. Accordingly, it demands, in a special manner, attention to the following particulars; viz., ARTICULATION, ACCENT, EMPHASIS, INFLECTION, MODULATION, and PAUSES.
ARTICULATION is the art of uttering distinctly and justly the letters and syllables constituting a word.
It deals, therefore, with the elements of words, just as elocution deals with the elements of sentences: the one securing the true enunciation of each letter, or combination of letters, the other giving to each word, or combination of words, such a delivery as best expresses the meaning of the author. It is the basis of all good reading, and should be carefully practiced by the learner.
* Soft G is equivalent to J; Soft C to S, and hard C and Q to K. X is equivalent to K and S, as in box, or to G and Z, as in exalt.
WH is pronounced as if the H preceded W, otherwise it would be pronounced W-hen. R should be slightly trilled before a vowel. For further instructions, see Sanders and Merrill's Elementary and Elocu tionary Chart.