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worshipped every where in spirit and in truth; as in private families daily, and in secret each one by himself; so more solemnly in the public assemblies, which are not carelessly or wilfully to be neglected or forsaken, when God, by his word or providence, calleth thereunto i.
VII. As it is of the law of nature, that, in general, a due proportion of time be set apart for the worship of God; so, in his word, by a positive, moral, and perpetual commandment, binding all men, in all ages, he hath particularly
incense shall be offered unto my name, and a pure offering: for my name shall be great among the heathen, saith the Lord of hosts. 1 Tim. ii. 8. I will therefore that men pray every where, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting.
e John iv. 23. But the hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth: for the Father seeketh such to worship him. Ver. 24. God is a Spirit; and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth.
f Jer. x. 25. Pour out thy fury upon the heathen that know thee not, and upon the families that call not on thy name: for they have eaten up Jacob, and devoured him, and consumed him, and have made his habitation desolate. Deut. vi. 6. And these words which I command thee this day shall be in thine heart: Ver. 7. And thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children; and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou visest up. Job i. 5. And it was so, when the days of their feasting were gone about, that Job sent and sanctified them, and rose up early in the morning, and offered burnt-offerings, according to the number of them all: for Job said, It may be that my sons have sinned, and cursed God in their hearts. Thus did Job continually. 2 Sam. vi. 18. And as soon as David had made an end of offering burnt-offerings, and peace-offerings, he blessed the people in the name of the Lord
of hosts. Ver. 20. Then David returned to bless his household. 1 Pet. iii. 7. Likewise, ye husbands, dwell with them according to knowledge, giving honour unto the wife as unto the weaker vessel, and as being heirs together of the grace of life; that your prayers be not hindered. Acts x. 2. A devout man, and one that feareth God with all his house, which gave much alms to the people, and prayed to God alway.
g Matth. vi. 11. Give us this day our daily bread.
b Matth. vi. 6. But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet; and, when thou hast shut thy door, pray to thy Father which is in secret; and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly. Eph. vi. 18. Praying always with all prayer and supplication in the Spirit, and watching thereunto with all perseverance, and supplication for all saints.
i Isa. lvi. 6. Also the sons of the stranger, that join themselves to the Lord, to serve him, and to love the name of the Lord, to be his servants, every one that keepeth the sabbath from polluting it, and taketh hold of my covenant: Ver. 7. Even them will I bring to my holy mountain, and make them joyful in my house of prayer: their burnt-offerings and their sacrifices shall be accepted upon mine altar; for mine house shall be called an house of prayer for all people. Heb. x. 25. Not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as the manner of some is; but exhorting one another: and so much the more, as ye see the day approaching. Prov. i. 20.
appointed one day in seven for a sabbath, to be kept holy unto him: which, from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ, was the last day of the week; and, from the resurrection of Christ, was changed into the first day of the week, which in scripture is called the Lord's Day, and is to be continued to the end of the world, as the Christian Sabbath ".
VIII. This sabbath is then kept holy unto the Lord, when men, after a due preparing of their hearts, and ordering of their common affairs beforehand, do not only observe
Wisdom crieth without, she uttereth her voice in the streets: Ver. 21. She crieth in the chief place of concourse, in the openings of the gates: in the city she uttereth her words, saying, Ver. 24. Because I have called, and ye refused, I have stretched out my hand, and no man regarded. Prov. viii. 34. Blessed is the man that heareth me, watching daily at my gates, waiting at the posts of my doors. Acts xiii. 42. And when the Jews were gone out of the synagogue, the Gentiles besought that these words might be preached to them the next sabbath. Luke iv. 16. And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up and, as his custom was, he went into the synagogue on the sabbath-day, and stood up for to read. Acts ii. 42. And they continued stedfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers.
VII. Exod. xx. 8. Remember the sabbath-day, to keep it holy. Ver. 10. But the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt dot do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy man-servant, nor thy maid servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates. Ver. 11. For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath-day, and hallow ed it. Isa. lvi. 2. Blessed is the man that doeth this, and the son of man that layeth hold on it: that keepeth
the sabbath from polluting it, and keepeth his hand from doing any evil. Ver. 4. For thus saith the Lord unto the eunuchs that keep my sabbaths, and choose the things that please me, and take hold of my covenant. Ver. 6, 7. [See in letter i.]
Gen. ii. 2. And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made: and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. Ver. 3. And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work, which God created and made. 1 Cor. xvi. 1. Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I have given order to the churches of Galatia, even so do ye. Ver. 2. Upon the first day of the week let every one of you lay by him in store, as God hath prospered him, that there be no gatherings when I come. Acts xx. 7. And upon the first day of the week, when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them, ready to depart on the morrow, and continued his speech until midnight.
m Rev. i. 10. I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet.
n Exod. xx. 8, 10. [See letter k.] With Matt. y. 17. Think not that I am come to destroy the law or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. Ver. 18. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.
an holy rest all the day from their own works, words, and thoughts, about their worldly employments and recreations; but also are taken up the whole time in the public and private exercises of his worship, and in the duties of necessity and mercy P.
VIII. o Exod. xx. 8. [See letter k.] Exod. xvi. 23. And he said unto them, This is that which the Lord hath said, To-morrow is the rest of the holy sabbath unto the Lord: bake that which ye will bake to-day, and seethe that ye will seethe; and that which remain eth over, lay up for you, to be kept until the morning. Ver. 25. And Moses said. Eat that to-day; for to-day is a sabbath unto the Lord: to-day ye shall not find it in the field. Ver. 26. Six days ye shall gather it: but. on the seventh day, which is the sabbath, in it there shall be none. Ver. 29. See, for that the Lord hath given you the sabbath, therefore he giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days: abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day. Ver. 30. So the people rested on the seventh day. Exod. xxxi. 15. Six days may work be done, but in the seventh is the sabbath of rest, holy to the Lord: whosoever doeth any work in the sabbath-day, he shall surely be put to death. Ver. 16. Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenant. Ver. 17. It is a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed. Isa. lviii. 13. If thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on my holy day, and call the sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord, honourable, and shalt honour him, not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words. Neh. xiii. 15. In those days saw I in Judah
some treading wine-presses on the sabbath, and bringing in sheaves, and lading asses; as also wine, grapes, and figs, and all manner of burdens, which they brought into Jerusalem on the sabbath-day: and I testified against them in the day wherein they sold victuals. Ver. 16. There dwelt men of Tyre also therein, which brought fish, and all manner of ware, and sold on the sabbath unto the children of Judah, and in Jerusalem. Ver. 17. Then I contended with the nobles of Judah, and said unto them, What evil thing is this that ye do, and profane the sabbath-day? Ver. 18. Did not your fathers thus, and did not our God bring all this evil upon us, and upon this city? yet ye bring more wrath upon Israel, by profaning the sabbath. Ver. 19. And it came to pass, that, when the gates of Jerusa lem began to be dark before the sabbath, I commanded that the gates should be shut, and charged that they. should not be opened till after the sabbath
and some of my servants set I at the gates, that there should no burden be brought in on the sabbath-day. Ver. 21. Then I testified against them, and said unto them, Why lodge ye about the wall? If ye do so again, I will lay hands on you. From that time forth came they no more on the sabbath. Ver. 22. And I commanded the Levites, that they should cleanse themselves, and that they should come and keep the gates, to sanctify the sabbath-day. Remember me, O my God, concerning this also, and spare me according to the greatness of thy mercy.
Isa. Iviii. 13. [See in letter o. Matt. xii. 1. to the 13th Verse ]
CHAP. XXII. Of lawful Oaths and Vows.
LAWFUL oath is a part of religious worship", whereA in, upon just occasion, the person swearing solemnly calleth God to witness what he asserteth or promiseth; and to judge him according to the truth or falsehood of what he sweareth b.
II. The name of God only is that by which men ought to swear, and therein it is to be used with all holy fear and reverence: therefore, to swear vainly or rashly by that glorious and dreadful name, or to swear at all by any other thing, is sinful, and to be abhorred 4. Yet as, in matters of weight and moment, an oath is warranted by the word of God under the New Testament, as well as under the Old ; so a lawful oath being imposed by lawful authority, in such matters, ought to be taken f.
I. a Deut. x. 20. Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God; him shalt thou serve, and to him shalt thou cleave, and swear by his name.
b Exod. xx. 7. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain: for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain. Lev. xix. 12. And ye shall not swear by my name falsely, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: 1 am the Lord. 2 Cor. i. 23. Moreover, I call God for a record upon my soul, that to spare you I came not as yet unto Corinth. 2 Chron. vi. 22. If a man sin against his neighbour, and an oath be laid upon him to make him swear, and the oath come before thine altar in this house: Ver. 23. Then hear thou from heaven, and do, and judge thy servants, by requiting the wicked, by recompensing his way upon his own head, and by justifying the righteous, by giving him according to his righteousness.
II. c Deut. vi. 13. Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God, and serve him, and shalt swear by his name.
d Exod. xx. 7. [See letter b.] Jer. v.7. How shall I pardon thee for this? thy children have forsaken me, and
sworn by them that are no gods: when I fed them to the full, they then com-mitted adultery, and assembled themselves by troops in the harlots' houses, Matt. v. 34. But I say unto you, Swear not at all: neither by heaven, for it is God's throne. Ver. 37. But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay; for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil. James v. 12. But above all things, my brethren, swear not; neither by heaven, neither by the earth, neither by any other oath: but let your yea be yea; and your nay, nay; lest ye fall into condemnation.
e Heb. vi. 16. For men verily swear by the greater and an oath for confirmation is to them an end of all strife. 2 Cor. i. 23. [See letter b.] Isa. lxv. 16. That he who blesseth himself in the earth, shall bless himself in the God of truth; and he that sweareth in the earth, shall swear by the God of truth; because the former troubles are forgotten, and because they are hid from mine eyes.
f 1 Kings viii. 31. If any man trespass against his neighbour, and an oath be laid upon him to cause him to swear, and the oath come be
III. Whosoever taketh an oath, ought duly to consider the weightiness of so solemn an act, and therein to avouch nothing but what he is fully persuaded is the truth %. Neither may any man bind himself by oath to any thing but what is good and just, and what he believeth so to be, and what he is able and resolved to perform. Yet it is a sin to refuse an oath touching any thing that is good and just, being imposed by lawful authority.
fore thine altar in this house. Neh. xiii. 25. And I contended with them and cursed them, and smote certain of them, and plucked off their hair, and made them swear by God, saying, Ye shall not give your daughters unto their sons, nor take their daughters unto your sons, or for your selves. Ezra. x. 5. Then arose Ezra, and made the chief priests, the Levites, and all Israel, to swear that they should do according to this word: and they sware.
III. g Exod. xx. 7. [See letter b.] Jer. iv. 2. And thou shalt swear, The Lord liveth, in truth, in judgment, and in righteousness; and the nations shall bless themselves in him, and in him shall they glory.
b Gen. xxiv. 2. And Abraham said unto his eldest servant of his house, that ruled over all that he had, Put, I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh: Ver. 3. And I will make thee swear by the Lord, the God of heaven, and the God of the earth, that thou shalt not take a wife unto my son of the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I dwell. Ver. 5. And the servant said unto him, Peradventure the woman will not be willing to follow me unto this land: must I needs bring thy son again unto the land from whence thou camest? Ver. 6. And Abraham said unto him, Be ware thou, that thou bring not my son thither again. Ver. 8. And if the woman will not be willing to follow thee, then thou shalt be clear from this my oath: only bring not my son thither again. Ver. 9. And the servant put his hand under the thigh of
Abraham his master, and sware to him concerning that matter.
i Numb. v. 19. And the priest shall charge her by an oath, and say unto the woman, If no man have lain with thee, and if thou hast not gone aside to uncleanness with another instead of thy husband, be thou free from this bitter water that causeth the curse. Ver. 21. Then the priest shall charge the woman with an oath of cursing; and the priest shall say unto the woman, The Lord make thee a curse and an oath among thy peo ple, when the Lord doth make thy thigh to rot, and thy belly to swell. Neh. v. 12. Then said they, We will restore them, and will require nothing of them so will we do as thou sayest. Then I called the priests, and took an oath of them, that they should do according to this promise. Exod. xxii. 7. If a man shall deliver unto his neighbour money or stuff to keep, and it be stolen out of the man's house; if the thief be found, let him pay double. Ver. 8. If the thief be not found, then the master of the house shall be brought unto the judges, to see whether he have put his hand unto his neighbour's goods. Ver. 9. For all manner of trespass, whether it be for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing, which another challengeth to be his, the cause of both parties shall come before the judges; and whom the judges shall condemn, he shall pay double unto his neighbour. Ver. 10. If a man deliver unto his neighbour an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or any beast, to keep; and it die, or be hurt,