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As these Pronouns perform the office of Adjectives, they muft likewise agree, in French, with the Gender and Number of the Subftantive which they precede.
Q: What are the Abfolute Pronouns ?
A. They are Fronouns which alfo indicate poffeffion, but in an abfolute fenfe, that is to fay, without having a Subftantive annexed to them; though they relate to one alreadyexpreffed before. These are le mien or la mienne, mine; le tien or la tienne thine; le nôtre or la nôtre, ours; &c. They likewife agree in French, with the Gender and Number of the Subftantive they relate to.
Q. Are thefe two last forts always placed among Pronouns? A. They are fo by the generality of Grammarians, because they ferve as fubstitutes for Conjunctive Pronouns; for inftance, when I fay, c'eft mon livre, it is my book; c'eft le mien, it is mine; these Phrafes imply, ce livre eft à moi, this book belongs to me; &c.
Q. What are the Demonftrative Pronouns?
A They are pronouns which ferve to point out any perfon or Object whatever; as ca. Monfieur, this or that Gentleman; cet Enfant, this or that Child; cette maifon, this or that house, ces Abres, thefe or those trees; &c.
Q. Are the Pronouns ce and cet ufed indifferently in French? A. No; for ca is only used before a Subftantive of the Mafculine Gender, beginning with a Confonant or b afpirated; and cet before a Substantive Masculine, beginning with a vowel or h mute.
Q. What are the Relative Pronouns ?
A, They are Pronouns that generally have a relation to a preceding Subftantive, which is called, by Grammarians, the Antecedent; as le Maître qui enfeigne, the Master who teaches; le livre que j'ai acheté, the book which I have bought; &c. But, when they are used for asking Questions, they commonly begin a Sentence; as Qui vous apelloit? Who called you? Que dites-vous? What are you faying? &c. Thefe fix claffes of Pronouns are diftinctly exhibited in the two following pages; viz.
A COMPACT DISPLAY
Of the fix different Claffes of Pronouns defcribed in this Chapter, fogether with their respective Significations.
*This Pronoun (you, as well as vous) is, through cuftom, which gives law to Grammar, ufed either for the Plural or fingular Number.
*Befides the fignification prefixed to this Pronoun, it is alfo rendered by ce qui, ce que, que and quoi; according to the sense it implies.
Of Verbs in General.
Q. WHAT are Verbs?
A. They are words which ferve to exprefs either, the being or Condition of their Subjects; as Etre, to Be; Refter, to Stand; or the actions corporeal and mental which they do; as Parler, to Speak; Penfer,
to think ; &c.
Q. How many forts of Verbs are there?
A. There are, generally fpeaking, but two forts; viz. The Perfonal and the Imperfonal.
Q. What is a Perfonal Verb?
A. It is a Verb that can be conjugated with three Perfonal Pronouns in each number; as Je parle, I fpeak; tu parles, thou speakeft; il parle, he speaks; &c.
Q. What is an Imperfanal Verb?
A. It is a verb that can only be conjugated in the third Perfon of the Singular Number; as il pleut, it rains s; il pleuvoit, it did rain; il plut, it rained; &c.
QHow are verbs diftinguished with refpect to their use and fignification?
A. By fix different denominations, of which it will be fufficient, for our prefent purpofe, to mention the two following; viz. The Auxiliary and Active Verbs*.
Q. What are the Auxiliary Verbs?
A. They are a kind of Verbs which, being prefixed to the Participle of other Verbs, help to convey the meaning of fuch actions or conditions as cannot be exprefed by single words in modern Languages, as J'ai donné, I have given; Je fuis blame, I am blamed; &c. There are but two of them; viz. Avoir, to Have, Etre, to Be.
* The name and ufe of the other kinds of Verbs may be kuown, if required, by referring to the Practical French Grammar, p. 92.
Q. What are Active Verbs?
A. They are Verbs that exprefs an action that paffes from an Agent to an object; as He drinks wine, (il boit du vin);
in which Phrafe, drinks is the Verb active; He, the Agent, and wine, the object of that action.
Q: What grammatical Accidents are there in French Verbs? A. There are four, viz. The Moods, Tenfes, Numbers, and Perfons, of their refpective Conjugations.
Q. What is meant by the Conjugation of a Verb?
A. The due diftribution of the feveral inflections of a Verb, into Moods, Tenfes, Numbers, and Perfons.
Q. How many different Conjugations are there in French? A. There are four, which are known by the Termination of the infinitive Mood of Verbs.
Q: What are the peculiar marks of each Conjugation?
ir, as Finir, to Finifh-The third in oir, as Recevoir; to Receive-The fourth in re, as Rendre, to Reftore. But as fome Verbs vary in their inflections, they are diftinguished into Regular and Irregular Verbs.. Q. What is fignified by Moods?
A. They are divers diftinctions that are made in the manner of ufing Verbs, in order to exprefs the different circumftances of Actions, Conditions, or Senfations,
Q. How many Moods are there in Verbs?
A. Four, which are called the Infinitive, Indicative, Subjunctive, and Imperative.
Q. What is meant by Tenfes?
A. They are the Divifions of the Moods, which ferve to indicate, by various endings, the time in which fomething is, was, or fhall be done; and are therefore called Prefent, Imperfect, Preterite, and Future Tenfes.
Q. What are Perfons in Verbs?
A. Those inflections that are adapted to their respective Perfonal Pronouns there are three in each Number, as may be seen in the following Conjugations.