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superstition and ignorance wickedly or negligently curtain up against the truth ; to furnish each mortal with those spiritual weapons that will enable him to protect and ennoble his immortality; to plant within the soil of his mind those principles of both intellectual and moral strength that will send him forth into the stormy world around him, his heart armed against all distracting temptations, and his feet shod with a preparation for glorious achievement.
The State, thus blessing her sons, shall- again be blessed by their noble deeds; and her name be gratefully taken up into the lips of successive generations, until the era of a perfect government and a happy people shall dawn
O for the coming of that glorious time
the civilized, A servile band among the lordly free!
This right-as sacred, almost, as the right
This sacred right is fruitlessly announced,
IX. PHILOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS.
Tue conjugation of a verb includes all the changes which it undergoes to express form,* voice, mood, time, person, and number.
The leading parts of the English verb are the present indicative, the past indicative, and the past participle. With these alone we are concerned in our present investigation.
There are two principal modes of conjugating English verbs; the one by the change of the radical vowel, as swim, swam, swum, called the strong inflection; and the other by a change of the termination, as kill, killed, killed, called the weak inflection,
The strong inflection is the more anciept, and confined to primitive or radical verbs of Teutonic origin, and their compounds.
The weak inflection is of more modern date, and embraces a few primitive, and all the derivative verbs of Teutonic origin, as well as all other verbs, not Teutonic, whether primitive or derivative.
I. ENGLISH STRONGLY INFLECTED VERBS. The strongly inflected verbs are sacred relics which have come down to us from ancient times.
But most grammarians have regarded them as irregularities which disfigure the language, and have made it a merit to free the language of them.
In these verbs the past tense is the root, and not the present tense, as in the weakly inflected verbs.
There are twelve classes or conjugations of strongly inflected verbs, in the kindred Teutonic dialects, distinguished by the internal inflection or change of vowel in the leading parts of the verb. Of these conjugations, eight are perceptible in English.
CONJUGATION I. This conjugation includes verbs which have, or rather originally had, i, or its modification e, before a single consonant in the present tense, a in the past tense, and u, or its modification o, in the participle.
The English verbs belonging to this conjugation are 1. bear, 2. break, 3. come, 4. shear, 5. speak, 6. steal, 7. stick, 8. tear, 9. wear, 10. weave.
.: The form of a verb is that change whereby it expresses a predication in full, or is merely a participial, i. e. an infinitive or participle.
For the verification of this statement, we must go back to the older Teutonic dialects.
In these investigations, Anglo-Saxon is to be regarded as an older form of English, and Gothic as an older form of Anglo-Saxon.
CORRESPONDING GOTHIC VERBS.
past partic. 1. Baira, bar, plur. berun,
stukans. 8. Taira, tar, plur. terun,
taurans. Observe here, that a in the present indicative is merely the termination of the first person singular, that un in the past indicative is the termination of the third person plural, and that s in the past participle is merely the sign of the nominative case; which terminations are all dropped in English.
This type or model of the first conjugation in Gothic is nearly perfect. In baira and taira, the i of the present tense becomes ai by the phonetic figure called guna, and in baurans and taurans the u of the past participle becomes au by the same figure.
CORRESPONDING ANGLO-SAXON VERBS.
1. Bere, byrth, bær,
gewefen. In cume, com, cumen, the distinguishing vowels have fallen out, and the existing vowels have been evolved from the Gothic
which seems to have implied an u after it.
The other forms are very regular. The gunation, which had commenced in baira and taira in Gothic, is extended to the other verbs. In the present tenses we have e for ai, and in the past participles (except gesprecen, gewefen,) o for au.
The vowel a of the past tense is uniformly æ.
The form of the third person, (sometimes of the second person,) is given in the present tense, as exhibiting the original vowel.
wove, The Old English forms are given, because better adapted to our purpose.
Come, came, come, is irregular.
CORRESPONDING GERMAN VERBS.
1. Gebäre, imper. bier,
geboren. gebrochen. gekommen. geschoren. gesprochen. gestohlen. gestochen. gewoben.
CORRESPONDING DUTCH VERBS.
gestoken. These German and Dutch verbs are evidently more regular than the corresponding English.
This conjugation includes verbs which have, or rather originally had, i, or its modification e, before two consonants in the present tense, a in the past tense, and u, or its modification o, in the past participle.
The English verbs belonging to this conjugation are, 1. bind, 2. climb, 3. cling, 4. delve, 5. dig, 6. drink, 7. fight, 8. find, 9. Iling, 10. gin, (in begin,) 11. grind, 12. help, 13. melt, 14. ring, 15. run, 16. shrink, 17. sing, 18. sink, 19. sling, 20. slink, 21. spin, 22. spring, 23. sting, 24. stink, 25. string, 26. swell, 27. swim, 28. swing, 29. win, 30. wind, 31. wring.
For the verification of this statement, we must go back again to the older Teutonic dialects.
CORRESPONDING GOTHIC VERBS,
vundans. The plural of the past tense is given, as distinguishing this conjugation from the first.
This type or model of the second conjugation in Gothic is perfectly regular.
CORRESPONDING ANGLO-SAXON VERBS. 1. Binde, band, pl. bundon,
bunden. 2. Climbe, clamb, pl. clumbon, clumben.
3. Clinge, b 4. Delfe, dealf, pl. dulfon,
dolfen. 6. Drince, drane, pl. druncon, druncen. b 7. Feohte, feaht, pl. fuhton,
fohten. 8. Finde, fand, pl. fundon,
funden. 10. Beginne,
began, pl. begunnon, begunnen. 11. Grinde, grand, pl. grundon, grunden. 6 12. Helpe,
healp, pl. hulpon, holpen. b 13. Melte, mealt, pl. multon,