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amicicia.. multum uigebat in antiquis. Tali affeccion e et dileccione scripsit Valerius Maximus epistolam amico suo Ruffino ad consulendum et exhortandum ne duceret uxorem, sed quod seruata continencia intenderet studiis literarum et precipue sacre scripture (!). Iste Valerius scripsit de memorialibus (memorabilibus) dictis et 'factis Romanorum et gencium Idem per epistolam presentem Rufino matrimonium dissuasit, non quia sit malum uel peccatum. apostolus,' etc., etc.



This attribution is derided in a note written by Archbishop Sancroft on the flyleaf. The range of authors quoted is very considerable, but not very relevant. I do not think that, with the exception of Jerome against Jovinian and Martianus Capella, the writer has detected the true source of any of the allusions. The comment on the text begins on f. 12 a. The Epistola is divided into thirty-six sections, each of which is written in red and provided with an illuminated initial. The first sentence of the exposition is:

'Sunt multi qui audita ueritate offenduntur, placentibus adquiescunt et delectantur.'

On 1469 the story of Aesculapius or 'Pion' is told, but there is no notice of a various reading.

In 1461 the reading is 'pungunt' for 'puniunt'.

In 1495 the reading is 'Congilio' for 'Tongilio', and the comment (which quotes Martinus in cronicis for the story of Caesar) is much astray. It says: Tongilio quidem humili. id est instrumento scindendi. Tale instrumentum dici potest diuinum. Sap. 16.' Apparently the writer connected the name Tongilius with the preceding clause 'filum ipsius ausa est occare Atropos'.


In 15010 he reads 'Valentinianus', but cannot identify the emperor in his exposition.

In 15313 he has nothing helpful about Livia or Lucilia. In 155 he reads 'Pericion uirgo' and quotes Jerome adv. Iovinianum.

In 1563 he has 'brutorum similes' for 'brutei'.

Part of his exposition of 15617 is worth quoting:

'Stilbons uel Stilbon idem est qui mercurius. Hic consilio apolinis philogiam filiam fronesis duxit in uxorem. Fronesis uero soror erat alathie. Omnes autem dii et omnes dee ad nupcias mercurii et philogie concurrerunt. etiam fabula in marciano poeta.

Stilbons philogiam quando duxit simul omnes

De hac

Dii simul (?) atque dee. discordia non fuit auri In pomo scripsit 'me uestrum pulcrior optet.' The last pages of the exposition are devoted to a panegyric of the Virgin. The closing sentences are:

'Sicut deus masculum et feminam creauit, Noe similiter masculum et feminam congregauit. In figuram quod ex talibus militans ecclesia colligitur et ex similibus ecclesia triumphans restauratur ad eorundem eternam salutem et dei honorem, ut in omnibus et ex omnibus laudetur deus in secula seculorum benedictus. Amen.'

The whole work occupies 212 pages (106 ff.) and is followed by an alphabetical index in double columns, occupying 107 a to There are some late marginalia (xv-xvi) and a few late verses and scribbles on the flyleaves, besides Sancroft's note already mentioned.

114 a.

It will be gathered that the production is extraordinarily diffuse and contains very little of value.

5. The fifth is definitely attributed to Nicholas Trivet in the MS. which I have examined, viz. Lincoln College, Oxford, 81, most kindly lent to me by that society. There is another copy at University College (61) which I have not seen.

The attribution in the Lincoln College MS. is confined to the old (fifteenth century) list of contents on the flyleaf, in which we read:

'Valerius ad Rufinum cum (commento) Triveti.'

The commentary is the last article in the book, beginning at f. 93: written in double columns of 46 lines. The MS. is of the fifteenth century, and a handsome book, though the writing is rather badly blurred in parts.

The beginning runs thus:

'Inc. Epistola Valerii ad Rufinum de uxore non ducenda cum commento. Loqui prohibeor-voluptatis preco.

'Sciendum quod tres fuerunt Valeriiet omnes erant Romani. Unus erat Valerius Marcialis cocus qui fecit epigrammata ludicra. Alius fuit Valerius Maximus qui scripsit de dictis et factis memorabilibus ad Tiberium Cesarem. Tercius fuit iste Valerius, et non fuit idem alicui primorum, licet auctor manipulus (sic) florum dicat eum esse secundum predictorum. Rufinus fuit philosophus et Romanus.

'Ad faciliorem intellectum huius epistole x capitula assignantur' etc.

Among authors quoted are (in the order in which they occur). Isidore, Papias, liber de naturis rerum, Tullius, Martial, (Giraldus) de mirabilibus Hybernie, Alredus super Boycium, Augustine de civ. dei, Boycius; Geoffrey of Monmouth is used, for it is said that Belinus and Brennius invaded Rome. 'Emilius (or Enulius) sic ait:

Cingnus (Cygnus) in auspiciis semper letissimus ales.
Hunc optant naute, quia se non mergit in undas.'

The story of Zedekiah is not given on 1443.

The story of Paeon as well as that of Phaethon is told, but I do not think the various reading is clearly noticed.

Joh. de Garlandia: Jerome super cantica.

Valerius Maximus is cited for the story of Lucretia, 'Idem narrat Titus Li. i. ab urbe condita, et tangit eam Aug. 1. de civ. dei. c. 19. Nota ibi Triueth.' This reference to the comment of Trivet on the de civitate Dei seems to me not against but in favour of the attribution of the work before us to Trivet.

In 14616 the reading is 'pungunt' not 'puniunt'.

On the story of the Sabine women 'Priscianus in magnis primo C(ap.) et Ouidius de fastis li. 2. et Trogus Pompeius (Justin) li. 43' are cited.

Ovid's Metamorphoses are often used and quoted.

Itinerarium Clementis lib. 4 (the Clementine Recognitions).
Fulgentius in mythologicon.

(Apuleius) de deo Socratis.

Virgil, Georgics and Aeneid.

On Tongilius, 'Fuit autem quidam amicus Iulii sed pauper nomine Tongilius qui intellexit insidias... Iste scripsit in literas insidias consulum et tradidit Iulio intranti uersus capitolium et post mortem litere in manus (? sua) inuente sunt signate.' On Phoroneus: 'Narrat Titus Liuius modum istius quod hic dicitur, quod foroneus aliis leges pupplicauit,' etc.

Valentinus: 'aliqui libri habent Valentinianus et aliqui Valencius et hec est litera uera, quia ipse non fuit imperator Romanus.'

'Livia fuit uxor Octauiani Cesaris que habuit filios Drusum Neronem et Claudium secundum Pap. . . . Lucinia (so in the text also) tantum amabat uirum suum ut dicitur, et e conuerso,'


'Penucia siue Pericio uirgo Cretensis fingitur sollicitata fuisse ab Apolline, que nullo modo ei consensit,' etc.

Here as elsewhere he is dependent upon Commentary 1. 'Seneca in quadam epistola.'

Dares Frigius is quoted on Jason.

'Sicut patet in una trag[r]edia Senece que vocatur Medea.'

The last words are:

'Sed si nimis multa uel nimis diminute dixerim, mei est ignorancia. sed si satis, dei munus et gratia cui sit in eternum honor et gloria. Amen. Explicit.' This again is almost identical with the end of no. 1. Occasionally English words occur, e. g. 'Ulula, vulgo, botore,' 'Merula, apud nos throstel,' ' Examina, anglice swarme.'

It is a noticeable feature in all the commentaries (which in my opinion do not merit a very much more extended notice than I have given of them) that so little interest is shown in the authorship of the text, and so little ingenuity manifested in tracing or explaining the allusions.

I have nothing to add to the facts or speculations concerning the life and writings of Walter Map which are collected in Mr. C. L. Kingsford's article in the Dictionary of National Biography, in Hardy's Catalogue of Materials (ii. 485), and in a paper by Mr. W. T. Ritchie in the Transactions of the Royal Philological Society of Glasgow (1909-10). I have indeed come upon one more line of poetry definitely attributed to him. In a twelfth-century manuscript in the library of the Dean and Chapter of Hereford (O. 3. 8) which may have belonged to the Friars Minors of Hereford, and contains Latin versions of works by Chrysostom, there is this entry among a number of verses, some by Martial, on the last leaf of the volume.

'Sigillum Walteri Map

Munera si uitas, transcendes archileuitas.'

which, considering that he was that he was an archdeacon himself, is creditable to his modesty. I think also that it is permissible to draw attention once more to the curious set of verses preserved in a manuscript at Clare College and entitled:

'Versus golie super picturam Machabeorum.'

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