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Table of the Elementary Sounds of the English Language.

[The elements contained in this table should be practised, with and without the words in which they are exemplified, with great attention to accuracy, and repeated as a daily preliminary exercise.]


VOWEL SOUNDS. 1. A, as in the word

AI, as in Ail;

AY, as in Lay. 2. A, as in Far;

AU, as in Launch. 3. A, as in Fall;

AW, as in Awe;

AU, as in Laud. 4. A, as in Fat. 5. A, as in Wash.* 6. A, as in Rare ;*

AI, as in Air;

AY, as in Prayer. 7. E, as in Me;

EE, as in Eel;
EA, as in Eat;

IE, as in Field. 8. E, as in Met;

EA, as in Head. 9. E, as in Err;*

EA, as in Heard ;
I, as in Firm.

10. I, as in Pine;

Y, as in Rhyme. 11. I, as in Pin;

Y, as in Hymn. 12. O, as in No;

0A, as in Oak; OU, as in Course;

OW, as in Own. 13. O, as in Move;

00, as in Mood;

U, as in True. 14. O, as in Nor. 15. 0, as in Not. 16.0, as in Done;

U, as in Tub. 17. U, as' in Tube. 18. U, as in Pull;

0, as in Wolf.

DIPHTHONGS. 19. OI, as in Oil;

OY, as in Boy. 20: OU, as in Pound;

OW, as in Down.

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* See exercises,' on these sounds.

† Not properly a separate sound, but rather that of No. 18, shortened.


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Labial Sounds.
21. B, as in Bulb.
22. P, as in Pulp.
23. M, as in Mime.
24. W, as in Wan.*
25. V, as in Vane.
26. F. as in Fife;

PH, as in Phial;
GH, as in Laugh.

Dental Sounds.
27. D, as in Dead.
28. T, as in Tent.
29. TH, as in Thin.
30. TH, as in Thine.
31. J, as in Joy;

G, as in Giant. 32. CH, as in Church. 33. SH, as in Shape;

TI, as in Nation;
CI, as in Gracious;

CE, as in Ocean. 34. S, as in Hiss;

C, as in Cipher.

35. S, as in Trees;

Z, as in Haze. 36. S, as in Measure.

Palatic Sounds. 37. K, as in Key;

C, as in Cake;
CH, as in Chorus;

Q, as in Queen. 38. G, as in Gag. 39. Y, as in Ye.

Aspirate. 40. H, as in Hail.

Nasal Sounds. 41. N, as in No. 42. NG, as in Sing; N, as in Finger, Sink.

Sound of L. 43. L, as in Lull.

Trilling Sounds. 44. R, as in Rude. 45. R, as in War.t Palatic and Dental Sounds

combined. 46. X, as in Ox;' 47. X, as in Example.

These sounds constitute all the elements of articulation in the English language. The exercises

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* Properly the same with No. 13, but shortened still more.

See exercises, on the letter R. * Properly combinations formed by the union of Nos. 37, and 34, and of Nos. 38 and 35.

which follow are merely various examples of these rudiments, as they occur in different combinations; and the extent to which the exercises are carried, has been regulated by the tendencies of the young mind to inadvertency and forgetfulness, rather than by the absolute necessity of the case, as regards the actual number of the elements themselves. The exercises are also designed for lessons in pronunciation; and on this account it was necessary that they should be rendered as copious as possible, since this branch, not less than that of articulation, is much neglected in early instruction.

EXERCISES IN ENUNCIATION, Embracing the Elements of Articulation and the Rules of


SOUNDS OF THE Vowels. A as in the word Fate : Ai as in Ail, Ay

as in Lay. The sound of A mentioned above is marked by Walker as the first' sound of this letter: it might be conveniently designated as the long name sound, from its quantity or length, and the circumstance of its forming the alphabetical name of the letter.

* These exercises are chiefly a transcript from Angus's compend of Fulton's system of Orthoepy, and Smart's Practice of Elocution. The words in the tables should be read with great force and distinctness: they may thus be made a useful organic exercise for imparting strength and pliancy of voice, as well as energy, and clearness of articulation; they may serve also for mechanical discipline on inflections, if read in successive portions as marked in a few instances. The grave accent, or falling inflection, () denotes the downward slide of voice as heard at a period : the acute accent, or rising inflection, (*) denotes the upward slide usually heard at a comma. The application of these inflections is not necessary to

This vowel is not what it would, at first sight, appear to be a perfectly simple sound : it consists in reality of two sounds,--that which, in common pronunciation, commences the name of the letter, (ā) and that which, in a prolonged utterance, is heard at its close, and which approaches to the name sound of the vowel e. A clear and just articulation of the name sound of a has regard to this complexity of its nature, and closes with a very slight and delicate approach to the sound of e, so slight as to be barely perceptible to a very close observation. A common fault, in very bad taste, is to give this complex sound in a manner too analytical, -in the worst style of theatrical recitation and theatrical singing; thus, Faieel, faieeth; for fail, faith. The learner must guard against this affected articulation, in practising on the following words.

A'le ácè àge, aim day 'bail, dale fail say, pave tape hail, haze may gaze.

A as in Far: Au as in Launch. Marked as the second' sound of a in Walker's notation, and sometimes called the Italian a, from its prevalence in that language.

There are two extremes of sound occasionally heard, which must be avoided in the pronunciation of the following words,--that of a too broad, and

practice in articulation, and if found embarrassing, may be omitted. The early acquisition of them, however, will save much time in future lessons; and since the words in these exercises must all be articulated with one inflection or other, the inflection actually used may as well be regular as arbitrary. The punctuation of the examples is intended to aid the app'ication of inflections.

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nearly like a in all, thus Fawrm, fawther, smawrt, &c. for farm, father, smart; and a too short, resem. bling the sound of a in mat, thus ; Fărm for fârm.

Arm àh há hàm, bar car far aunt daunt gaunt, haunt jaunt taunt father. A as in Fall: Aw as in Awe: Au as in

Laud: The third sound of a, in Walker's notation, and called sometimes, though not with strict propriety, the German a.

The error to be avoided in the following class of sounds, is that of making a to resemble o; thus, Oll for all. Sometimes this error is so broad and coarse as to divide the sound into two parts; the first of which is the above o, and the second the u in up. Oull, fõúll, for all fall. These faults should be carefully avoided, as slovenly and vulgar.

A'll håll ball cáll fàll, gall pall tall wall, haw daw maw, jaw saw law raw draw, straw.

A as in Fat: The fourth' sound, in Walker's notation, and sometimes termed the shut sound, because it is shut up abruptly at its close.

There are two extremes of error to be avoided in the following words,—that of a too flat, and divided into two sounds; thus, māyin, for măn, and that of a, too broad; thus, pauss* for păss.

*a as in parse.

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