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Every manager of one of my branches places in my hands security in cash to the amount of from 1201. to 2001. My travellers deposit from 401. to 1201., and I never allow these amounts to be exceeded by debts due to me through them. The branch managers give a receipt daily for the wine delivered to them, and are credited for the sums paid to me. The books of every branch being kept by a clerk of my own, I can see every day how it is getting on ; supplies of stock are furnished every three days. My managers are paid by a commission on the amount of their sales, and are furnished, besides, with lodging, light, and fire.

My travellers are likewise paid by commission, and, as the wine sold by them is sent from the head office, and, as payments are generally on delivery, and I seldom allow longer credit than for one delivery, it is easy for me to take care that the deposit-money is not exceeded.

5. I use daily about 8,000 corks, which is about 240,000

dozen a year.

6. Bottles are returned to me by my agents, who collect from their customers all which have been sold at, or under, 18. 8d. per bottle. The higher prices include the bottles.

The customers of my travellers return bottles to me direct.

7. I calculate my daily sales at about 670 dozen.

8. Deliveries are made by three large carts, each with one horse, carrying 750 bottles (or litres), and by eighteen trucks, each drawn by a man, and holding about 16 dozen. 9. My head establishment consists of

3 Accountants. 10 Clerks.

2 Clerks for receipts. 31 Town travellers.

2 Head cellarmen. 55 Cellarmen, including the carmen, and the 18

men for the trucks.

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25 Managers of branches, who have each a porter

for delivery in the town, at the managers'

expense. According to the official statement, it appears that the consumption of all kinds of liquids in Paris, in 1861, with its population of 1,616,141, was as follows :

49,993,839 galls., which is 185 bottles per head. Spirits and liqueurs. 2,278,408 Cyder

1,927,838 8,276,708 62,476,793 gallons.

Wine

99

8 7 31

Beer

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There are no means of making the comparison with London, but the total consumption of wine in the United Kingdom, in 1863, with 29,900,000 inhabitants, was 10,478,401 gallons, or two bottles and twotenths of a bottle per head.

Within these few years, the precincts of the city have been considerably extended, including many parts within the octroi, which formerly escaped this municipal tax. Such has been the case with an immense establishment where I remember getting a well-cooked, substantial dinner (whether of horse or bullock I know not) for 4d., and a bottle of wine for 3d. This was in 1848, when the expulsion of Louis Philippe was succeeded by the most enthusiastic rejoicings, that at length had arrived for France, Liberté et Egalité-words which met one's ears and

every corner. The master of the place assured me that he sold yearly upwards of 500 hogsheads, about 132,000

eyes

at

bottles; which I can readily believe, because it was crammed full; and never did I see a more jovial set of people, resolved to express their happiness by song, and noise, and dancing. Entering into their feelings, and joining in the hope (futile it has proved) that they had at length gained the liberty they have so well deserved, I joined vociferously in the Parisienne and Marseillaise ; touching glasses, shaking hands with all around, and receiving embraces from those who rejoiced to see a son of their old enemy -la perfide Albionsympathising with them so heartily. Throughout the large room, mirth and songs resounded, and, above all, were heard the words associated with so many fearful scenes in the history of France :

Allons, enfants de la Patrie,
Le jour de gloire est arrivé,
Contre nous de la tyrannie
L'étendard sanglant est élevé.
Aux armes, citoyens !
Formez vos bataillons;
Marchez ! marchez! &c., &c.

Français ! pour nous, ah ! quel outrage,
Quels transports il doit exciter,
C'est nous qu'on ose méditer
De rendre à l'antique esclavage.
Aux armes, citoyens ! &c.

Quoi ! des cohortes étrangères
Feraient la loi dans nos foyers !
Quoi ! ces phalanges mercenaires
Terrasseraient nos fiers guerriers !
Aux armes, citoyens ! &c.

PUNISHMENT FOR ADULTERATIONS.

379

Amour sacré de la patrie,
Conduis, soutiens nos bras vengeurs ;
Liberté, Liberté chérie,
Que tes ennemis expirants
Voient ton triomphe, et notre gloire.
Aux armes, citoyens ! &c.

Alas! It was only a very short time afterwards that I saw the blood of, perhaps, some of those same men, on the boulevards and other places; and many of the finest buildings nearly destroyed by round shot and musketry; with the flag of · Liberté,' • Egalité, and · Fraternité,' so conspicuous formerly, superseded by . Ordre Publique.'

The punishment for adulterations is severe, as the following extract shows :

Boille, 10 Rue Feutoier.-Falsification, eight days' imprisonment, 21. fine.

DauvoisBercy.–For falsification, and for employing mixtures injurious to health, in the Entrepôt des Vins, at Bercy, one month's imprisonment, 21. fine, seizure of the wine, public notification of the trial and sentence on the gates of the Entrepôt, and on the door of Dauvois' cellar.

Pasqualini, 136 Rue d'Allemagne.-Falsification of wine, one month's imprisonment, 21. fine, ten advertisements.

CHAPTER XI.

RHINE AND MOSELLE.

Im Kühlen Keller Rheingau Vineyards – The Press — White

and Red Wines - Palatinate — Racking — Prices — Rüdesheim, Johannisberg, &c. — Schloss Johannisberg – Cabinet Wines — Steinberg Rüdesheimer — Geisenheimer Rothenberg – Hochheimer Assmannshausen - Rheinhessen - The Pfalz - Rhenish Bavaria-Bocksbeutel — Moselle — Trêves — The Saar - Sparkling Moselle - Preparation — Information as to Buying —Old Brown Hock-Gauges in Nassau, Hesse, Frankfort-Das Gläschen-Consumption, Quantity, and Per-centage, from 1831 to 1862.

IM KÜHLEN KELLER. Im kühlen Keller sitz' ich hier, auf einem Fass voll Reben, Bin frohen Muth's, und lasse mir vom Allerbesten geben. Der Küper zieht den Heber voll, gehorsam meinem Winke, Reicht mir das Glas, ich halt's empor, und trinke, trinke, trinke. Mich plagt ein Damon, Durst genannt, doch um ihn zu ver

scheuchen, Nehm' ich mein Deckelglas zur Hand, und lass' mir Rheinwein

reichen. Die ganze Welt erscheint mir nun in rosenrother Schminke; Ich könnte Niemand Leides thun, ich trinke, trinke, trinke. Allein mein Durst vermehrt sich nur bei jedem vollen Becher, Dies ist die leidige Natur der echten Rheinweinzecher ! Doch tröst' ich mich, wenn ich zuletzt vom Fass zu Boden sinke, Ich habe keine Pflicht verletzt, ich trinke, trinke, trinke.

OF
Fall wine-producing countries, no vineyards are

cultivated with such care as those in the wine districts of Germany. There is a universal interest

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