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it in words and manner, and had all his wits about him. Although he wished to be thought impelled by romantic feelings to help a young queen to her throne, it was not difficult to see that no man ever entered on an enterprise with more cool calculation than he did, before agreeing to lead this expedition ; or more resolved to be well paid, alive or dead, by prize money or insurance. When asked what he would do if he did not meet with Don Miguel's fleet, he replied : I'll look for a black night ; I'll try to slip past Belem ; I'll run on to Lisbon, land there, and then we shall see what we shall see.'

Now, again for wines. On arriving, I called on Mr. Lucas, of the old house Holford, Lucas & Co., who kindly accompanied me in a boat about eight miles up the Tagus—a delightful sail, past hill and dale, and vineyards and quintas, till we arrived at Sacavem, where the wine stores, similar to the lodges in Villa Nova, are chiefly collected. Here, lisbon, with bucellas, arinto, and termo, is found. These are white; while the colares, lavradio, &c., are red; but, to enumerate the various kinds and qualities would occupy many pages, without affording much information ; for there is scarcely any quality which may not be grown in this province of Estramadura.

Of lisbon, there are the dry, the mellow, and the rich kinds; with calcavellos, which is still richer and sweeter, and is made near Belem. Arinto is usually half and half of mellow lisbon and bucellas ; and termo is somewhat similar. About the year 1824,

.

there was an extraordinary run upon bucellas, so much so that it rose 201. per pipe in a very short period; but the fine old, but small, stock was soon exhausted, and shippers had recourse to a new and inferior quality; so that it fell out of repute almost as rapidly as it had jumped into it. As an instance of its general estimation before it lost caste, I recollect that at public dinners, for the one bottle of sherry placed on the table, there were at least two of bucellas.

The following day I went with Mr. Carruthers to his delightful quinta, three miles up the river, where we dined; and I had an excellent opportunity of tasting all kinds, in perfection. He was an enthusiast about the wines of Lisbon ; but it is impossible to fight against the overwhelming power of fashion : and his money was, consequently, badly invested. The next day I accompanied another kind friend, Mr. Custance, to that wonderfully lovely spot, Cintra ; and, ascending to the old Moorish palace, then the Peña Convent, now the King's summer palace, had a view such as there are few like it in the world.

We walked down to Colares, paying sixpence in a wine-shop for a bottle of the well-known wine of this name; which is never, I think, agreeable, being hard anıl stalky. It is stated that, if sent to this country, it spoils in a year, even if a little spirit be added. My authority for this is the agent of one of the first Lisbon houses, who assures me that such has been his experience with casks for his own private cellar:

CINTRA AND COLARES.

197

but, still, I have doubts of any wine whatever, of such body as colares, going wrong, if it has been properly fermented and made.

I went also across the river and tasted very nice white wine, grown on the estate of Barrocas-Piedade, presented by the Portuguese Government to Admiral Sartorius, Conde de Piedade. Near St. Ubes, a pleasant sweet wine is grown; in short, the variety is immense; there is scarcely a limit to the quantity that might be produced in this district, if there were the demand for it.

A pipe of lisbon is 117 gallons; a hogshead, 58; a quarter-cask, 29.

I see in my memorandum made at that time :

About 4 gallons of brandy, 24° over proof, are put in, just after fermentation, 2 gallons on the first racking, and the same on shipping. I tasted some 1840, with only 1 gallon, and thought it much better than the others. Mr. L. fears it will not stand; but it tastes firm and solid, and I shall try a hogshead.

I got the hogshead over; it was much liked during more than a year that it remained unsold ; and I never afterwards heard a complaint of it.

The following letter, dated 1806, shows the prices at that time :

Lisbon, February 22, 1806. Samuel Brown, Esq., London.

Sir,- We have the pleasure to acknowledge receipt of your much-esteemed favour of the 8th ultimo, and note contents. Having occasion to make a remittance by the packet, we have taken the liberty to value on your wine account, as follows:

8.

.

.

£ d.

£

8. d. 63 0 0 per your letter of August 13,

1805, at nine months, date
from July 27, less 5 per cent.
commission

59 17 0 432 0 0 per ditto, 8th ult., at nine months,

date from December 16, less 5
per cent. commission

410 8 0 495 0 0 24 15 0 Commission at 5

per

cent. . £470 5 0 470 5 0 to our own order, and which, we doubt not, you will honour with your usual punctuality, debiting our account for the same.

We beg leave to hand you a list of the present shipping prices of wines, the qualities of which we can particularly recommend to you and

your

friends.

We remain, &c.,
(Signed) FITZGIBBON, FRENCH & DUFF.
Lisbon wine, 1805, 231.
Do.

1804, 251.
Do. 1803, 241.
Bucellas, 1805, 251.per pipe.
Do.

1804, 271. Calcavellos,

1805, 261. Do.

1804, 281.

CHAPTER IV.

SHERRY, XEREZ, PORT ST. MARY, ETC.

Xerez-de-la-Frontera-Port St. Mary-Cadiz— Map of Cadiz and

neighbourhood — Bodega tasting—Capitaz-San Lucar—CordovaRock-water Sherry-Colouring-Napoleon butts-How Sherry is made-Manzanilla—The Doctor-Soleras-Spanish earth — Macharnudo-Extent of production of Sherry—Increasing demandRise in price-Deterioration of quality—Railways—The Guadalquiver-Seville—Dancing Gipsy Girls—Valdepeñas—Dinner at one A.M.-Kicking a Muleteer-Amontillado-Chamomile-Montilla – Vino de Pasto-Paxarété—Rota Tent—Gordon and Co.'s Circular, 1802—“Sherris Sack '—Mr. Ballantyne's Description-Mr. DuffTable of Consumption since 1831–Prices, &c., from 1787 to 1862.

In the days of the reign

Of King Philip of Spain,
When corpulent monks ruled the roast,

The stoutest of all,

Brother Francis of Gaul,
In Sherry the whole world would toast.

Now this Franciscan friar

Had a wond'rous desire
To tipple the best he could find ;

Reclined in his chair,

Before daintiest fare,
He cast all his cares to the wind.

In the cellars so cold

Of the monastery old,
The bright wine of Xerez was stored ;

And the cellarer grey,

Who tippled all day,
At vespers melodiously snored.

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