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OUR next Number will contain a Memoir of Ulric Zuinglius, with a Portrait.
J. W. M.-, -*, Litoreus, Letter to a younger Brother, will be inserted.

Since the Reply of Aliquis to the Query on Acts, xxvii. 29, went to press, we have received Answers from a Sailor-J. W. M.-Laicus-O. R. N.; from which we extract the following remarks.

The ship in which the Apostle sailed, was evidently furnished with supernumerary anchors, a practice common in dangerous voyages, both among ancients and moderns.Various passages in the classics imply that the ancient ships had anchors in their stern. See Val. Flac. lib. v. 72, and Virg. Æn. vi. 3—5. Sir John Chardin, as quoted in Harmer's Observations, ii. 497 (iv. 426, Clarke's edit.), remarks that the Egyptians, in their small vessels," always carry their anchors at their stern, and never at their prow, contrarily to our managements."-"I had, some years ago," says a Correspondent, signing himself a Sailor," an opportunity of visiting that part of Asia rendered so sacred and interesting by the scenes recorded in the Holy Scriptures. Passing up part of the Euphrates and part of the Tigris,' on my way to Bagdad, I had some opportunities of seeing and observing the large vessels, which convey timber and other articles of produce to Bussorah. Their construction is very peculiar; they are formed of rough wood within, entirely covered without with a thick coat of bitumen, and not unlike those vessels which are represented in scriptural paintings. I was much struck, on seeing them, with the justness of the description in the Acts. The cabin, in which the captain and sometimes the crew live in European vessels, is in that part of the ship called the stern; but in their vessels it is in the bow or fore-part of the ship."-O. R. N. another professional man, remarks, in a long and sensible letter, that the master and shipmen seem to have acted in all respects with the skill and foresight of modern seamen; and he illustrates his position by a number of appropriate observations, which may perhaps be referred to on some future occasion. On casting anchors out of the stern, he says, "I grant it is a very rare occurrence, and never done in modern practice, but to avoid some imminent danger, or accomplish some particular purpose. Lord Exmouth," he adds, "if I am not misinformed, let go his anchor from the stern, and let the cable run out till the Queen Charlotte had reached her station abreast of the batteries at Algiers. Supposing the ship of Adramyttium was built as strong in the hinder part, and in the form of the galliots of our own times, she might very probably have been able to ride out the gale with her anchors from the stern, for at least a few hours; and in such case it would, most probably, have been the very best plan which the master could have adopted."

J. B. M. will see that his note was satisfactory.

M. D. J. is come to hand-Vox-Monitor.

Oxgoy is answered per post, agreeably to his direction.

Our Correspondent's letter from Leeds arrived too late to allow of any farther consideration.

An anonymous Correspondent inquires, How far it is lawful to teach children to read in Sunday schools during the time of divine service?

We apprehend, that, where children can attend a place of worship, they ought not to be employed during divine service in learning to read: there is quite sufficient time before, between, and after the hours of public worship, to learn every thing which ought to be taught in a Sunday school. Where the children are so situated that they cannot attend public worship, it is certainly better to teach them to read the Bible than to allow them to waste and profane the sacred day in idleness; but in all such cases the Psalms and Lessons for the day, a portion of some commentary on the Scriptures, or a suitable address from any printed publication, should be read by the visitor, superintendent, or some proper person; and a part of the time may be properly employed in singing the praises of Almighty God.

In answer to the inquiry of Z, on the same subject, it may be remarked, that in all cases a school may legally open and close with prayer; and if the children are taught to read the Psalms, to repeat the Te Deum, Jubilate, &c. by alternate verses; to sit, stand, or kneel, and make the responses in their proper places, and to join in the Litany and Communion Services; not in the sing-song manner of some charity schools, but with a low and properly modulated voice; they will be gradually prepared to join in public worship, where opportunity is afforded. This would of course imply the regular reading of a great part of the Church Service every Sunday, to which, we conceive, no legal objection can be made, so long as not more than nineteen persons are present, besides the regular teachers and scholars of the Sunday school. If any of the parents of the children, or any other persons, wish to attend, and it is thought proper to admit them, it may then be expedient to certify the place according to the Act of 52

Geo. III. c. 155, which so completely exempts from all penalties, that even a person preaching in a place so registered can only be called upon to take the oaths; nor need he do this until required in writing by a justice of the peace; nor can he be called upon to go more than five miles in order for this purpose. Our clerical readers will do well to keep in view the caution inserted in page 240 of our Number for June.

We shall be obliged to any of our readers who can furnish us with a report of the case decided at Portsmouth, some years ago, relating to a Sunday school in that neighbourhood.

If the evils pointed out by OBSERVER, admitted either of as clear a proof or as easy a remedy as the immoral practices so unhappily prevailing in the navy, we should not be deterred by any consideration from coming forward with the utmost decision. In the navy the evil is palpable and notorious, and can be immediately and decidedly terminated. In the case he alludes to, the legal evidence is such as a Christian man cannot give; and nothing but Christian principles can withstand such bribes as his letter reports to have been tendered. If, however, evidence could be brought forwards as to the actual gift (which is not very probable), it would be highly desirable that such evidence should be laid before His Majesty's Secretary of State for the Home Department; or put into the hands of some independent member of either House of Parliament, and it would unquestionably produce a very beneficial result.

In reply to INDAGATOR we remark, had the immoral practices in the navy existed only in a few solitary instances, we should not have felt it our duty to interfere: it is the system-the horribly corrupt and debasing system which we attack. When a ship anchors, the first lieutenant applies to the captain for his orders respecting women; he commands them to be admitted; they are received on board; they are searched for spirits; they are consigned to the care of a petty officer; they are regularly inspected by an officer every Sunday morning, as part of the Sabbath duty: they cannot go on shore or return to the ship without permission; and in most ships there are what are called "liberty days," that is, fixed days, on which only they are suffered to come to the ship or go from it. If this is not sufficient to convince Indagator that it is a regular system, we could add much more; but, if he has any doubt, let him ask the first naval officer he meets with: we know what must be the answer. We know also that the Government of this country can put an end to this abominable system, and we call upon every man who loves his country-who is grateful to the navy-or who fears his God, to use his utmost influence to effect so important a consummation.

DEATH OF THE REV. JOHN OWEN.

We stop the press to announce the death of this most valuable and devoted servant of our Lord and Master. It took place on the 26th of September. To say that his loss is irreparable, were to limit the powers of that God who furnished his departed servant with those distinguished talents and dispositions which he possessed, and placed him in that situation for which he was so eminently fitted; but we are confident, that there is not a single individual connected with the Bible Society who does not regard his removal as a deep and affecting calamity. May God vouchsafe to raise up suitable instruments to occupy his place, and follow him as he followed Christ!

We are happy to hear that the Subscription for the Works of the late Rev. T. Scott is proceeding with such rapidity, as to induce a hope that the Family will be justified in printing a new and uniform Edition. Those persons who wish to patronize the undertaking will do well to send in their names as soon as possible.

The following Works are in the Press.

A Second Letter to the Earl of Liverpool, &c. in reply to that from the Rev. H. H. Norris, on the Subject of the Bible Society. By the Rev. James Scholefield, A. M. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.

Sequel to an unfinished Manuscript of Henry Kirke White's; designed to illustrate the Contrast afforded by Christians and Infidels at the Close of Life.

A fine Edition of the Rev. T. Scott's Essays on the most important Subjects in Religion. A new Edition of the Rev. Thomas Scott's Commentary on the Bible, and a new Edition of the Rev. T. H. Horne's Introduction to the Study of the Scriptures, may each be expected in November.

The Seventh Edition of the Rev. E. Bickersteth's Treatise on Prayer will appear in a few days; and an Abridgment of the same Author's Treatise on the Lord's Supper in about a fortnight.

Just published.

A Third Edition of the Life of the Rev. Thomas Scott.

An Octavo Edition of the Rev. E. Bickersteth's Treatise on Prayer.

A new Edition of the Rev. John Scott's Seven Sermons on Baptism, Confirmation, the Lord's Supper, and the Sabbath. In 18mo.

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THE

66

CHRISTIAN GUARDIAN,

Church of England Magazine.

AND

NOVEMBER 1, 1822.

MEMOIRS OF THE REFORMERS.

ZUINGLIUS.

THE HE confederacy of the Helvetic nations presents an object of contemplation, which, while it must command the esteem and reverence of all the wise and good, cannot fail to offer useful lessons to future generations. Bloodless in its origin, and peaceful in its effects, it has afforded a long period of tranquillity, security, and comfort to a people of simple manners; who, though by no means formidable in numbers, and inhabiting a rocky, and in most parts a barren country, have yet long maintained themselves against the incessant efforts of all their powerful and rapacious neighbours. It has supported a constitution which, during five centuries, has been the admiration, if not the envy, of the most civilized nations of Europe *."

Such was the testimony borne to the excellence of the Swiss constitution by a civil historian, entitled to the praise of accuracy in matter and elegance in manner, at the commencement of the nineteenth century. It may be added, that, in an ecclesiastical point of view, the records of Helvetia are equally interesting, though, as the influence of the French revolution disturbed its political machinery, so the savour of French infidelity

* Planta's Hist. of Helv. Confed. vol. i.

p. 1.

NOVEMBER 1822..

infected its religious principles. Accustomed to discuss public measures in a spirit of independence, and cherishing with enthusiasm that liberal sentiment which led them to oppose the Austrian tyranny, it was to be expected, that a considerable portion of the Swiss confederacy would be prompt in admitting the entrance of that new system of faith and practice, which showed itself so contrary to the darker counsels and slavish modes of the Roman hierarchy. When, towards the close of the fifteenth century, the arrival of learned refugees from Constantinople, the discovery of the art of printing, an acquaintance with the best classics, and the political agitation attendant on the Italian expedition of Charles the Eighth, had been so many concurring causes to the introduction of literary information, correct reasoning, free discussion, and active intercourse, in the south and west of Europe, Providence was opening a way for the march of reformation, and favourable symptoms were manifested in the neighbourhood of the Rhetian and Pennine Alps. At Strasburg, the faithful Geiler preached a doctrine remarkable for its purity, from 1477 to 1510; and at Basle, the learned Wittenbach, in his professorial lectures, boldly protested against papal indulgences, asserted the allsufficiency of the atonement, and

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