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this part of the work, care has been taken to render it simpie, intelligible and appropriate. In teaching the elements of grammar, we ought, as in every other science or art, to follow nature. By observing her operations, improvement is facilitated; by acting other. wise, it is retarded. When we teach a child to read, we begin with the letters, then unite them into syllables; syllables into words, and words into sentences. In the same manner ought we to proceed in teaching a child the parts of speech, and their uses in composition.

The first thing necessary, after the learner can spell and read correctly, is to teach him the different sorts of words and their uses; the various kinds of nouns; the different methods of distinguishing the sex ; the numbers and cases of nouns with their variations; the comparison of adjectives; the different kinds of pronouns; the moods, tenses, numbers and persons of verbs; the distinction between the active, passive, and neuter verbs; the nature and use of adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, interjections, and other essential particulars interspersed throughout the Grammar. The next step is synthetical parsing, or applying rules to such words as govern or influence one another, in construction.

That the rules of syntax may be rendered practical and useful, sentences are added to each, and the words marked with figures that refer to the rules whicho exemplify the words over which they are placed. By these

helps, and the synthetical method of parsing exFibited in the key, immediately preceding the rules of syntax, young learners will be materiahjuledarcacquiring a facility in parsing syn. tactically.

Every teacher will.dqubtless perceive the propriety and utility of inserting the Essentials : Englishi Graximar in this work, as it supercedes the necessity of putting: other books into the hands of the learner, till he is prepared to enter

the Juvenile Expositor, Murray's large Grammar, or any other work which is well adapted to that purpose. A superabundance of books, dividing the elementary requisites into as many separate books, as there are different grades of learners, is extremely inconvenient, perplexing, and expensive. The author being desirous of obviating these objections, has endeavoured to unite the exercises in spelling and reading, and the Essentials of Grammar into one volume, calculated for the use of schools throughout our extensive country.

That this work may not be liable to incidental or typographical errours, the author has had it cast in stereotype plates, executed at the type-foundery of Messrs. E. & J. White, of New-York. To there gentlemen and their ingenious workmen, much credit is due for the taste and neatness of the typography, but especially to Mr. Charles Start, for the beautiful stereotype castings displayed in this book.


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Of the various Sounds of the Vowels.







a long,

as heard in Fate, ale, day. na middle,

in far, bar, arm. a broad,

in fall, call, all. a short,

in hat, cat, rat. a like u short,

in cedar, liar. a like i short,

in cabbage, damage. e long,

23. in mez, bebasee. e short,

ir met, net, set. e like u short,

in her, banter. i long,


in pire, vine, line. short,

as in pin; tin, him. like é long,

až in detrinient, caprice. o long,

in nb, só, note. o middle,

in move, do, shoe. o broad,

in nor, for, morn. o short,

in hot, pot, sot. o like u short,

in son, love, dove. u long,

in mute, mule, tube. u short,

in tub, but, nut. u middle,

in full, bull. u like o in move,

in rule, cruel y long,

in fly, try, defy. like e long,

in lily, jolly. ho... The acute or sharp th, as in think, thin.

" TH.... The grave or fiat Th, as in this, that. * The letter printed in Illic, 250 Hllent, arjes, which sounds like 8.



as as as










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The principal diphthongs are: ai ay ei oa


ua uy ea ew oi


eu ee ey 00 oy

ui Some of these diphthongs have the sound of two rowels; some of a single short vowel; some of a single middle vowel; and others of a single long or broad vowel.

The sound of two vowels; as
Soi in

ou in

our; oi

ou roy in boy;

OW in The sound of a single short vowel; as ea in head


like e short; ui in build

like i short;

like e short; The sound of a single middle vowel; as au in aunt


like middle a; 00 in cool

like middle o; oo in good

like middle u; The sound of a single long or broad vowel; as

like a long;

like a long; ey in key

like e long; au in daub

like a broad; aw in paw

like a broad.

ue in guess

ai in air soupe .

ay in day


B b

А а

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