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Marnoci, p. 53; but more commonly he lets them go withont other change than a Latin termination, as, Glenfinninum, p. 30; Dunbarum, p. 47; Strathallanus, p. 67; Falkirkum, Bannockburna, p. 69; which could not be because he was ignorant of their meaning; for he says they are none of them unknown; “ non montium, fluviorum, plagarumve nomina (extant) antiquum quiddam et incognitum sonantia ;" p. 14, and certainly the signification of Kil, in Kilmarnock, is not better ascertained than that of glen, deen, strath, kirk, and bourn; and, therefore, the difference in his manner of rendering, must arise from his neglect to preserve a consistency.
In his description of the general rejoicing for the Duke of Cumberland's victory, he has admitted, in more than one instance, the mixture of the antient with the modern, besides other matter not unexceptionable.
" Intereà Dux, ob rempublicam optimè gestam, uno omnium " fermè per Britanniam ore pater patriæ consalutari. Anglia,
tanquam eo die renata, campanarum pulsu personare: grates “ D.O.M. ad omnia pulvinaria redditæ ; regi venerando gratu. “ latum effusa multitudo; pro suggestis, jam nullo periculo, Cum.. • brio devotissimæ voces passim exauditæ; jura, relligiones, con. “servatæ; fædissimæque tyrannidis, uno die, unius ductu atque “ auspiciis, jugum depulsum.” P. 112.
Pulvinaria are properly couches, or cushions : and when antient writers use this phrase, ad omnia pulvinaria supplicatio, or the like, they express a particular custom of idolatrous service in their temples, very different from any rites of Christian worship. Neither our churches, nor any thing contained in them, can be called pulvinaria, unless he will give that appellation to the pulpit, cushions, and ornaments of his suggesta. But of these, and of the clergy who filled them, he speaks with little respect. The latter he contemptuously denominates sacrificuli, p. 40; and of the pulpits he says, they were “ validissima quondam apud Scotos clas" siça,” p. 68; i.e. chief places to sound an alarm in. Yet why he should insinuate that the ministers did not take part
with the government till the danger was over (“ Pro sugges“ tis, jam nullo periculo, Cumbrio devotissimæ preces passim 66 exauditæ);" or why, if the fact were so, he should now revive the memory of it by this unnecessary remark, I know not. Certainly Smollett gives another account of their behaviour, and has preserved an anecdote concerning one of them, which is worth remembering, and which I will here transcribe.
66 While he (the Pretender) resided at Edinburgh, some of the Presbyterian clergy continued to preach in the churches of that city, and publicly prayed for King George without suffering the least punishment or molestation. One minister, in particular, of the name of Macvicar, being solicited by some Highlanders to pray for their prince, promised to comply with their request, and performed his promise in words to this effect : “ And as for the young prince, who is come bithe, in quest of an earthly crown, grant, O Lord, that he may speedily receive a crown of glory.”
Hist, of Eng. b. 2. ch. 8, note.
I have been led to the mention of those remarks and reflections, which Dr. W. intersperses in his work very thickly. They are introduced, as I conceive, partly to instruct and entertain his reader, during the course of an old and wellknown story; and partly in imitation of Tacitus, whose manner he evidently follows. In this part he has succeeded better; yet even here, the mischief of his original error still pursues him. Some of his observations, which pass off de
* This neat turn was (I think) exceeded by another of the same kind, in the time of Oliver Cromwell. When that successful usurper had assumed the protectorate, and prayers were required to be made for him in the churches, one minister, who, according to the practice of those days, chose his own form of words, framed his prayer thus: “ We beseech thee, O Lord, to look down upon the Pro. tector of these realms: and as thou hast put the sword into his hand, put it into his heart also-to do good to thy people.”
cently in a Latin dress, would make but a sorry figure in his native language. I will confine myself to a single example. The action at Falkirk, as he observes, was fought in the midst of wind and rain : and this was greatly unfavourable to the king's troops, because the storm beag in their faces, and the rain made their firelocks useless. Here he inserts an observation upon the nature of gunpowder: his words are, “ Adhæc “.pulvis nitrosus, quæ est ejus natura, tubis restinctus cor“ rumpitur ;' p. 71. Would any man at this day, writing in any language of Europe, think of telling his readers that gunpowder is spoiled by the wet? Or would any man dream of putting this information in an English history, unless it were addressed to a people unacquainted with the use of firearms ?
But as I have freely censured the performance of Dr. W. in some points which I think reprebensible, so I shall willingly bring forward others, where he appears to advantage.
In his local descriptions he is neat and perspicuous. Of this, the following, of the mountain Coriarach, may be given as an example :
66 Mons Coriarichus non modò editus admodùm, sed ab oriente 66 adeò rectus est, & quasi præcisus, ut parietis ad cælum usque 66 subtructi speciem præ se ferat. Juga vicina, etiam per æstatem, " gelida ac fida nivibus. Ipse unico tramite superandus, eoque 66 adeò tortuoso, ut jumenta sursum enitentia decies septies in
gyrum agi conspiciantur. Adhoc, petris asperis laxisque totus “ propè coopertus inhorrescit, quibus desuper provolutis justus “ exercitus, vel inermi manu proteri dejicique posset. Nec jam 66 verticem adsequutis, nihil eluctandum restat, quum neque jugo “ simplici continuatus, neque in apicem unicum adsurgens, dorsum 66 habeat crebris impeditisque valliculis intercisum. Harum sin.
gulas interluunt torrentes montani, nonnunquam aspero, lubrico
nonnunquam fallentique alveo meantes. Adhæc, coryli sylves. “ tres & sorbi aucupariæ sponte enatæ latebras insidiis maximè
opportunas itineri circundant.” P. 37, 38,
The next extract which I shall make is the account of a very singular exploit that took place near Inverness : a military stratagem which was planned by a lady, and executed by a
blacksmith. The story is well told, and enlivened with many natural circumstances :
“ Intereà Loudonus Comes, qui haud spernendam regiorum ma
num Innernessum contraxerat, Stuartum in vicino commorantem “clam aggredi statuit. Distat ab Innernesso Moia, principis MacCintotiorum prædium, circiter M. P. ix. Eò, militibus, maximam
partem, commeatu dato dimissis, concesserat Carolus, à Domina " Macintotiâ, ipsâ gentis principe, (spreto conjuge, qui fermè uni.
cus è clientelâ regi nomen dederat,) gratissimo exceptus hospitio. 66 Vigiliis remissiùs habitis, è clientibus aderant ad summum D, " minores profectò, quàm qui in hostico propè et ducem et caussam “ belli custodirent. Ea omnia per exploratores Loudono cognita. “ Igitur, delectis ad md militibus, nocte illuni Moiam pergit, con“ fecti belli gloriam sibi certò spondens. Cæterùm haud ante pro“ fectus erat quàm Macintotia, cui nil muliebre præter corpus, lite
ris ab Innernesso, quod ad rei ordinem tempusque certior facta, " de toto commento turbando atque evertendo cogitat. Eum in “ finem, neque Carolo ablegato, ac ne quidem consilii participe facto, neque
in re trepida milite in armis esse jusso, fabrum ferra. “rium cui plurimùm fidebat accersit; mandatque ut sex tantùm
septemve è familiaribus suis stipatus viam quâ Innernessum itur, “insideret, Loudonumque, ludificaretur averteretque. Lubens ob
temperat homo vafer ac versutus. Jamque in insidiis erant,
quum pedum supplosione adesse regios moniti, sclopetis quibus “ instructi fuerant displosis, ingenti strepitu discurrunt, aciemque,
quæ tamen nulla erat, ordinare videntur, Dextrâ Macdonaldos, sinistrâ Cameronios,' subinde Lochielium Keppochiumque, nota simul et metuenda regiis nomina, compellantes. Jamque
perculsis auget pavorem caligo et noctis silentium : neque con66 silio posthac, ac ne vel cæco Marti locus erat : namque his auditis "unà omnes, quà cuique obviam, turpi fugâ sibi consulere ; socios “propè exanimes proterere et conculcare, inter itineris angustias “ aliis super alios coarctatis et acervatis. Neque ad stragem cumu. “ landam hoste opus erat ; quum prout quis cuique suorum aderat "hostis adesset perinfestus : jurgiis denique ac comploratione om
nia plena. Mane primo, vibicibus ac luto deformes, pudendum 66 in modum Innernessum repetunt. Intereà Carolus, tam periculi
quàm victoriæ rescius, lecto surrexerat, quum faber reversus, “haud sine verborum jactantià, de rebus à se noctu gestis ordine $ disserit. Scilicet id maqnis olim imperatoribus ante triumphum " licuisse accepimus, quanquam inter vetera, sive famæ, sive for
tunæ, exempla, ullo astu triumphatum hostem bis centuplicem “ laboret annalium fides.” P. 85-87.
The author's reflections on the event of the battle of Culloden, are just, and solemn, and well adapted to the occasion :
“ Hic erat ille dies reliquæ Britanniæ lætus, Caledoniæ luctuosus,
si quem diem aut lætum aut luctuosum reddere valeant, hinc, jus, fas, lex, in æternum stabilita, inde, non unius campi strages,
quæque stragem vulgò consequuntur, populationes, incendia, rap“ tus ; quin et indomitæ eousque genti mos impositus, neque no“cendi modò sed et injurias propulsandi dempta facultas, etiam “ lingua pro virili excisa, et, coalituræ in posterum gratiæ pignus 6 iniquum, Celtarum vox extincta.” P. 102, 103.
The last passage which I shall now produce is that where he describes the situation of the unfortunate adventurer, when he was traced into the Isle of Uist, and surrounded by his pur
“Per insulam neque finibus adeò laxam neque incolis frequen. tem, ad duo millia hominum nocte dieque commeantes, unum eun.
demque ore, oculis, auribus perquirebant, quem in finem itinera Só obsessa fuerant, portus trajectusque custodiis occupati, etiam
mare ipsum celocibus ac naviculis infestum excubabat. Hæc in. 5 ter discrimina per mensem integrum Carolus insulanos fidissimos “ habuit. Iisdem, ducibus unà et exploratoribus, usus, noctu sæpis6s simè per stationes hostium elapsus, alia ex aliis latibula quærere ;
quæ apud regios agerentur, nihil incompertum habere; ipse non
nunquam, è proximo, verba per silentium minacia exaudire, “ trucesque hostium vultus inter ignes collustrare.” P. 113, 114.
All the circumstances of this description are well chosen. In the latter part, the lively images are represented as in a picture : they are grand and terrific, and remind us of the author's great original. I have selected these four specimens to shew, by as many instances, that Dr. Whitaker, notwithstanding the faults in his writing, is capable of adorning his pages with the perspicuous, the natural, the pathetic, and the sublime.
I must now proceed to consider his book in another view.
He sets out with observing, that the subject of his history may give a lesson of prudence to governors. I have already mentioned what that is. * In my opinion it may teach the people something more important, which he has omitted ; vis. the wickedness of disturbing a settled government that is not greatly
* See above, page 425.