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the last bottle; and relates the amours of the British officers with the Portuguese nuns !

The Rev. Mr. Ormsby evinces a more liberal and humane spirit, and, as becomes his profession, reprobates unsparingly the conduct of the British. Yet even he, on occasion, appears to regret, that the whole conversation of the ladies, as well as the attention of the people, should be exclusively turned to 66 politics,” that is, we presume, the war!

One more serious word by way of close : Will Buonaparte effect the conquest of Spain? This question is inseparably connected with another; Will he triumph in his scheme of universal dominion: The REVIEWER laments that he cannot share the confidence Mr. Wordsworth expresses, that he will not. The power of Buonaparte, it is true, is built on crime; but must it, therefore, be transient, in relation to the lives of living men? It will not be ever-lasting, so much is certain; and it will be the reproach of ourselves, if it be lasting. But have we not for years been incurring reproach, and do we see signs of amendment? We observe in the animal world, fceble and deformed bodies, which yet maintain a protracted existence. In life, we daily behold virtue and genius oppressed and crushed by the lower qualities of worldly prudence and crafty skill. Look at the long reign of unworthy dynasties; is it certain that governments must perish because they ought to perish ?

Will Buonaparte effect the conquest of Spain? If by conquest be meant the overrunning of all the provinces successively, and occupying all the great cities, it is difficult to repress the painful thought that he may. But an extensive country, which is occupied like a garrison town, is not van. quished. The conqueror who now fills the world with terror and dismay, in spite of his splendid successes, must often sympathise with the tyrant of the poet; he must be sensible that he does not catch, with his “ success, surcease, and that the conquest of Spain is not “ done when it is done,”

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66 If that but this blow “ Might be the be-all and the end-all here,” then indeed we should despair. For no one who surveys the states of Europe, can doubt the power of Buonaparte to strike that blow. But it is not so that the “ inconquerable mind 66 and freedom's holy flame” are to be extinguished. That the Spaniards have done any thing against a foreign tyrant, situated as they were, is their glory; that they have been unable to do more, is the chastisement they suffer for having so long willingly submitted to subjugation under their own princes; and the advocates of liberty, if they were dexterous, instead of urging domestic tyranny to diminish our horror of forcign subjugation, should rather extol civil liberty as the best security for national independence; and they might add to that reflection, this, that to suppose that a people subjugated for centuries, would, at the very first summons of liberty, understand and answer her call, is to undervalue the worth of education and culture. It is not in the order of nature, though it may be of grace, to reward equally, those who come in at the eleventh hour, and those who had toiled through the heat of the day.

Spain, therefore, both in her actual physical powers, and in her moral fitness to resist the tyranny of France, certainly stands far below this country; yet, at this hour, there is no country in Europe which approaches Spain so nearly as Spain approaches Great Britain. Two nations still survive, the one in deep adversity, and the other in high prosperity, though in imminent peril, to bid defiance to the most frightful tyranny that ever menaced mankind. Their cause is one; and if the more prosperous ally could willingly abandon her unhappier associate, she would merit to sink under equal calamities, and her fall would not be dignified by an equal portion of glory.

276

THE

AN ORTHOPPICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE;

OR AN ESSAY ON THE NATURE OF ITS SIMPLE AND COM-
BINED SOUNDS, 1ND THE INADEQUACY OF ATTEMPTING TO
EXPLAIN THEM BY MEANS OF THE ENGLISH ALPHABET.
THE WHOLE ILLUSTRATED AND EXEMPLIFIED BY
USE OF A NEW ORTHÖEPICAL ALPHABET, OR UNIVERSAL
CILARACTER. TO WHICH IS ADDED, A MINUTE AND CO-
PIOUS ANALYSIS OF THE DIALECT OF BEDFORDSHIRE. BY
T. BATCHELOR.-pp. 164. Didier and Tebbert. London.
1809.

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66 Turpe est difficiles habere nugas,

66 Et stultus labor est ineptiarum,may be strictly applied to this volume. The common English alphabet is quite susticient to portray the sounds of the English language to every person's eye, who has learned to speak before he has learned to read and write; and if it be necessary to correct a provincial pronunciation, the only effectual way of doing it is vivú voce. The invention of an alpha-, bet to give the true sound of every consonant and vowel, to those who have never heard the language spoken, is impossible, as those sounds can only be given by referring to other sounds equally unknown to the learner. The only attempt of this kind that had any prospect of being really efficient, is that of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, to express the sounds of some of the Greek letters by the cries of different animals; yet even this plan, though satisfactory as far as it goes, must be very limited in its operation. It is true, that Mr. Batchelor has tried to establish some general criterion, by giving plates of the different organs of speech, and the different configurations of them in utterance; but it is totally impossible for any one to avail himself of these, unless the professor was by to assist in the operation.

We are at a loss to comprehend what Mr. Balchelor can

mean by saying, “ that if this plan was adopted by all the " literati of Europe, there is no written language to overturn,

nor,old books to render useless,” when he has just before given Dyudyiz as the proper way of spelling Judges, and Tyurty as the orthography of Church.

If it were really necessary to establish a correct pronunciation of every letter with the least possible inconvenience, the vowel points of the Hebrew, which mark fifteen different vowel sounds, would be most eligible for the vowels; and the Dagesh of the Hebrew, or the diacritical points of the Arabic, for the consonants; but how would even this avail, without reference to other known alphabetical combinations for the proper pronunciation ?

Thus much for the general plan. We shall now proceed to notice some of the particular observations; in which it will appear, that among other causes of error, Mr. B. is often led astray by his own adoption of a vicious pronunciation.

In page 9, we are told that the o in rogue and broke, &c. is different from that heard in the words, tone, mõan. This, we confess, is a piece of information entirely new to us, and reminds us of a ridiculous circumstance that happened at Southampton a few years since. A gentleman from the North went thither, with an intent to canvass the town, and desired a person to get him an account of the number of võtes: now it happens, that as Southampton has a great trade in port wine, almost every house has large vaults under it, many of which are let to the wine-merchants; and the agent, deceived by his northern pronunciation, took him for a person who meant to speculate in wine, and instead of a list of the votes, got him a list of the vaults in the town.

What sort of company must our author have kept, when he thinks it necessary to say, that the longer sound of a, as in had, sometimes receives a tinge of the o, as in the word order, and in the following examples, order for ardor, hord for hard, gerden for garden, cords for cards. We have never

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66

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been fortunate enough to hear such sounds from any persons, except London carmen and coalheavers.

The following remark, experience has shown to be perfectly unfouoded.

66 A foreigner residing in England has constantly as good an

opportunity of learning to speak English as any of the natives 166 had in their infancy; and an equal degree of attention to the

subject would insure success without any written instructions."

That written instructions would not facilitate the acquirement, we readily admit; but that it ever was acquired by an adult foreigner, we cannot admit. A perfect knowledge of the minutiæ of a language, whether in meaning or enunciation, can never be attained but in very early youth. To use the words of the learned and accurate author of the Essay on the Harmony of Language, though I am almost ashamed to introduce him in such company; “ There is a feeling and perception of meaning, independent of reasoning, and often incommunicable by direct instruction, through which, for example, English children of five years old never mistake the difference between shall and will, which learned doctors of l'aris, and even of Edinborough and Dublin, cannot be taught to comprehend.”

The following passage is curious : “ Some people believe 66 the trouble of crossing a t and dotting an i may well be 66 spared in common writing, as a neglect of it is seldom « attended with any obscurity.” These people must be as grcat economists of their trouble as a certain miser was of his ink, who calculated how much ink he had saved in his lifetime by the same omission.

As a proof that Mr. Batchelor gives a vicious pronunciation of his own, for the proper pronunciation of the English language, we produce two detached quotations from pp. 47 and 91.

“ The English ch or tch sounds ty; for orchard, 66 riches, &c. sound ort-yard, ril-yes, &c.” 66 I conceive it 66 has been clearly proved that the English j is dy, ch is ty,

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