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The French authors Chateaubriand, Laborde, and Lamartine, have minutely described the Holy Land; and in the Incidents of Travel in Egypt, Arabia, and the Holy Land, by J. L. STEPHENS, the latest information respecting these interesting countries will be found.

Various works on India have appeared, including a general political history of the empire, by SIR JOHN MALCOLM (1826), and a Memoir of Central India (1823), by the same author. Travels in the Himmalayan Provinces of Hindostan and the Punjab, in Ladakh and Cashmere, in Peshawar, Cabul, &c. from 1819 to 1825, by W. MOORCROFT and GEORGE TREBECK, relate many new and important particulars. Mr Moorcroft crossed the great chain of the Himmala mountains near its highest part, and first drew attention to those stupendous heights, rising in some parts to above 27,000 feet. A Tour through the Snowy Range of the Himmala Mountains was made by MR JAMES BAILLIE FRASER (1820), who gives an interesting account of his perilous journey. He visited Gangootrie, an almost inaccessible haunt of superstition, the Mecca of Hindoo pilgrims, and also the spot at which the Ganges issues from its covering of perpetual snow. In 1825 Mr Fraser published a Narrative of a Journey into Khorasan, the years 1821 and 1822, including an Account of the Countries to the north-east of Persia. The following

is a brief sketch of a Persian town:

dom Sketches taken during a Residence in one of the Northern Provinces of Western India. The authoress resided some years in the province of Cutch, and gives a minute account of the feudal government and customs, the religious sects and superstitions of the people. The aristocratic distinctions of caste are rigidly preserved, and the chiefs are haughty, debauched, and cruel.

[Sacrifice of a Hindoo Widow.]

[From Mrs Postans's 'Cutch, or Random Sketches,' &c.] News of the widow's intentions having spread, a great concourse of people of both sexes, the women clad in their gala costumes, assembled round the Pyre. In a short time after their arrival the fated victim appeared, accompanied by the Brahmins, her relatives, and the body of the deceased. The spectators showered chaplets of mogree on her head, and greeted her appearance with laudatory exclamations at her constancy and virtue. The women especially pressed forward to touch her garments—an act which is considered meritorious, and highly desirable for absolution and protection from the evil eye.'

The widow was a remarkably handsome woman, apinparently about thirty, and most superbly attired. Her her, and by a complete indifference to the preparamanner was marked by great apathy to all around tions which for the first time met her eye. From this circumstance an impression was given that she might be under the influence of opium; and in conformity with the declared intention of the European officers present to interfere should any coercive measures be adopted by the Brahmins or relatives, two medical officers were requested to give their opinion on the subject. They both agreed that she was quite free from any influence calculated to induce torpor or intoxication.

Captain Burnes then addressed the woman, desiring to know whether the act she was about to perform were voluntary or enforced, and assuring her that, should she entertain the slightest reluctance to the fulfilment of her vow, he, on the part of the British government, would guarantee the protection of her life and property. Her answer was calm, heroic, and constant to her purpose: I die of my own free will; give me back my husband, and I will consent to live; if I die not with him, the souls of seven husbands will condemn me!'


Viewed from a commanding situation, the appearance of a Persian town is most uninteresting; the houses, all of mud, differ in no respect from the earth in colour, and, from the irregularity of their construction, resemble inequalities on its surface rather than human dwellings. The houses, even of the great, seldom exceed one storey; and the lofty walls which shroud them from view, without a window to enliven them, have a most monotonous effect. There are few domes or minarets, and still fewer of those that exist are either splendid or elegant. There are no public buildings but the mosques and medressas; and these are often as mean as the rest, or perfectly excluded from view by ruins. The general coup-d'œil presents a succession of flat roofs, and long walls of mud, thickly interspersed with ruins; and the only relief to its monotony is found in the gardens, adorned with chinär, poplars, and cypress, with which the towns and villages are often surrounded and intermingled. The same author has published Travels and Adventures in the Persian Provinces, 1826; A Winter Journey from Constantinople to Tehran, with Travels through Various Parts of Persia, 1838, &c. Mr Fraser has now settled down on his patrimonial estate of Reelig, Inverness-shire, a quiet Highland glen. Among other Indian works may be mentioned The Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, by LIEUTENANT-COLONEL JAMES TOD, 1830; and Travels into Bokhara, by LIEUTENANT, afterwards SIR ALEXANDER BURNES. The latter is a narrative of a journey from India to Cabul, Tartary, and Persia, and is a valuable work. The accomplished author was cut off in his career of usefulness and honour in 1841, being treacherously murdered at Cabul. LIEUTENANT ARTHUR CONOLLY made a journey to the north of India, overland from England, through Russia, Persia, and Affghanistan, of which he published an account in 1834. MISS EMMA ROBERTS, in the following year, gave a lively and entertaining series of Scenes and Characteristics of Hindostan, with Sketches of Anglo-mitted sins. She then removed her jewels, and preIndian Society. This lady went out again to India sented them to her relations, saying a few words to in 1839, and was engaged to conduct a Bombay each with a calm soft smile of encouragement and hope. The Brahmins then presented her with a lighted newspaper; but she died in 1840. Her Notes of an Overland Journey through France and Egypt to Bom- torch, bearing which, bay were published after her death. Another lady, MBS POSTANS, has published (1839) Cutch, or Ran

Ere the renewal of the horrid ceremonies of death were permitted, again the voice of mercy, of expostulation, and even of intreaty was heard; but the trial was vain, and the cool and collected manner with which the woman still declared her determination unalterable, chilled and startled the most courageous. Physical pangs evidently excited no fears in her; her singular creed, the customs of her country, and her sense of conjugal duty, excluded from her mind the natural emotions of personal dread; and never did martyr to a true cause go to the stake with more constancy and firmness, than did this delicate and gentle woman prepare to become the victim of a deliberate sacrifice to the demoniacal tenets of her heathen creed. Accompanied by the officiating Brahmin, the widow walked seven times round the pyre, repeating the usual mantras, or prayers, strewing rice and coories on the ground, and sprinkling water from her hand over the bystanders, who believe this to be efficacious in preventing disease and in expiating com

'Fresh as a flower just blown, And warm with life her youthful pulses playing,'


ever, proved a temptation too strong for the virtue of the viceroy, who, gradually forming for himself a party among the leading men of the country, at length communicated to the common people the intelligence that Sultan Hassan was no more, and quietly seated himself on the vacant throne. Sultan Hassan returning shortly afterwards from his pilgrimage, and, fortunately for himself, still in disguise, learned, as he approached his capital, the news of his own death and the usurpation of his minister; finding, on further inquiry, the party of the usurper to be too strong to render an immediate disclosure prudent, he preserved his incognito, and soon became known in Cairo as the wealthiest of her merchants; nor did it excite any surprise when he announced his pious intention of devoting a portion of his gains to the erection of s spacious mosque. The work proceeded rapidly under the spur of the great merchant's gold, and, on its completion, he solicited the honour of the sultan's presence at the ceremony of naming it. Anticipating the gratification of hearing his own name bestowed upon it, the usurper accepted the invitation, and at the appointed hour the building was filled by him and his most attached adherents. The ceremonies had duly proceeded to the time when it became necessary to give the name. The chief Moolah, turning to the supposed merchant, inquired what should be its name! Call it,' he replied, the mosque of Sultan Hassan.' All started at the mention of this name; and the questioner, as though not believing he could have heard aright, or to afford an opportunity of correcting First Impressions and Studies from Nature in Hin-it,' again cried he, the mosque of me, Sultan Hassan, what might be a mistake, repeated his demand. 'Call dostan, by LIEUTENANT THOMAS BACON, two volumes, and throwing off his disguise, the legitimate sultan 1837, is a more lively but carelessly-written work, stood revealed before his traitorous servant. He had with good sketches of scenery, buildings, pageants, no time for reflection: simultaneously with the dis The HON. MOUNTSTUART ELPHINSTONE, in covery, numerous trap-doors, leading to extensive 1842, gave an account of the kingdom of Cabul, vaults, which had been prepared for the purpose, were and its dependencies in Persia, Tartary, and In-flung open, and a multitude of armed men issuing dia; and A Narrative of Various Journeys in Beloo- from them, terminated at once the reign and life of chistan, Afghanistan, and the Punjaub, by CHARLES the usurper. His followers were mingled in the MASSON, Esq. describes with considerable anima- slaughter, and Sultan Hassan was once more in postion the author's residence in those countries, the session of the throne of his fathers. native chiefs, and personal adventures with the various tribes from 1826 to 1838. MR C. R. BAYNES, a gentleman in the Madras civil service, published in 1843 Notes and Reflections during a Ramble in the East, an Overland Journey to India, &c. His remarks are just and spirited, and his anecdotes and descriptions lively and entertaining.




she stepped through the fatal door, and sat within the pile. The body of her husband, wrapped in rich kinkaub, was then carried seven times round the pile, and finally laid across her knees. Thorns and grass were piled over the door; and again it was insisted that free space should be left, as it was hoped the poor victim might yet relent, and rush from her fiery prison to the protection so freely offered. The command was readily obeyed; the strength of a child would have sufficed to burst the frail barrier which confined her, and a breathless pause succeeded; but the woman's constancy was faithful to the last. Not a sigh broke the death-like silence of the crowd, until a slight smoke, curling from the summit of the pyre, and then a tongue of flame darting with bright and lightning-like rapidity into the clear blue sky, told us that the sacrifice was completed. Fearlessly had this courageous woman fired the pile, and not a groan had betrayed to us the moment when her spirit fled. At sight of the flame a fiendish shout of exultation rent the air; the tom-toms sounded, the people clapped their hands with delight as the evidence of their murderous work burst on their view, whilst the English spectators of this sad scene withdrew, bearing deep compassion in their hearts, to philosophise as best they might on a custom so fraught with horror, Bo incompatible with reason, and so revolting to human sympathy. The pile continued to burn for three hours; but, from its form, it is supposed that almost immediate suffocation must have terminated the sufferings of the unhappy victim.

The recent war in Affghanistan, and the occupa
tion of the Sinde territory by the British, have given
occasion to various publications, among which are,
a History of the War in Afghanistan, by MR C. NASH;
Five Years in India, by H. G. FANE, Esq. late aid-
de-camp to the commander-in-chief; Narrative of the
Campaign of the Army of the Indus in Sinde and Cabul,
by MR R. H. KENNEDY; Scenes and Adventures in Aff-
DENNIE; Personal Observations on Sinde, by CAPTAIN
ghanistan, by MR W. TAYLOR; Letters, by COLONEL
T. POSTANS; Military Operations at Cabul, with a
Journal of Imprisonment in Affghanistan, by LIEU-
TENANT VINCENT EYRE; A Journal of the Disasters
in Affghanistan, by LADY SALE, &c. These works
calamitous portion of British history.
were all published in 1842 or 1843, and illustrate a

bassies the first in 1792-94, under Lord Macartney,
Of China we have the history of the two em-
of which a copious account was given by SIR GEORGE
formation was afforded by SIR JOHN BARROW'S
STAUNTON, one of the commissioners. Further in-
Travels in China, published in 1806, and long our
most valuable work on that country. The second
embassy, headed by Lord Amherst, in 1816, was re-
corded by HENRY ELLIS, Esq. third commissioner,
in a work in two volumes (1818), and by DR ABEL,
a gentleman attached to the embassy. One circum-
stance connected with this embassy occasioned some
speculation and amusement. The ambassador was
required to perform the ko-tou, or act of prostration,
nine times repeated, with the head knocked against
the ground. Lord Amherst and Mr Ellis were in-

[Remark by an Arab Chief.]

An Arab chieftain, one of the most powerful of the princes of the desert, had come to behold for the first time a steam-ship. Much attention was paid to him, and every facility afforded for his inspection of every part of the vessel. What impression the sight made on him it was impossible to judge. No indications of surprise escaped him; every muscle preserved its wonted calmness of expression; and on quitting, he merely observed, It is well; but you have not brought a man to life yet.'


[Legend of the Mosque of the Bloody Baptism at Cairo.]

Sultan Hassan, wishing to see the world, and lay aside for a time the anxieties and cares of royalty, committed the charge of his kingdom to his favourite minister, and taking with him a large amount of treasure in money and jewels, visited several foreign countries in the character of a wealthy merchant. Pleased with his tour, and becoming interested in the occupation he had assumed as a disguise, he was absent much longer than he originally intended, and in the course of a few years greatly increased his already large stock of wealth. His protracted absence, how

clined to have yielded this point of ceremony; but Sir George Staunton and the other members of the Canton mission took the most decided part on the other side. The result of their deliberations was a determination against the performance of the ko-tou, and the emperor at last consented to admit them upon their own terms, which consisted in kneeling upon a single knee. The embassy went to Pekin, and were ushered into an ante-chamber of the imperial palace.

*The buttons, in the order of their rank, are as follows:ruby red, worked coral, smooth coral, pale blue, dark blue, crystal, ivory, and gold.

adding that he was so overcome by fatigue and bodily illness as absolutely to require repose. Lord Amherst further pointed out the gross insult he had already received, in having been exposed to the intrusion and indecent curiosity of crowds, who appeared to view him rather as a wild beast than the representative of a powerful sovereign. At all events, he intreated the Koong-yay to submit his request to his imperial majesty, who, he felt confident, would, in consideration of his illness and fatigue, dispense with his immediate appearance. The Koong-yay then pressed Lord Amherst to come to his apartments, alleging that they were cooler, more convenient, and more private. This Lord Amherst declined, saying that he was totally unfit for any place but his own residence. The Koong-yay having failed in his attempt to persuade him, left the room for the purpose of taking the emperor's pleasure upon the subject.

and ornaments bespoke him a prince, was particuDuring his absence an elderly man, whose dress

[Scene at Pekin, Described by Mr Ellis.] Mandarins of all buttons were in waiting; several princes of the blood, distinguished by clear ruby buttons and round flowered badges, were among them the silence, and a certain air of regularity, marked the immediate presence of the sovereign. The small apartment, much out of repair, into which we were huddled, now witnessed a scene I believe unparalleled in the history of even Oriental diplomacy. Lord Am-larly inquisitive in his inspection of our persons and herst had scarcely taken his seat, when Chang de- inquiries. His chief object seemed to be to commulivered a message from Ho (Koong-yay), stating that nicate with Sir George Staunton, as the person who the emperor wished to see the ambassador, his son, had been with the former embassy; but Sir George and the commissioners immediately. Much surprise very prudently avoided any intercourse with him. was naturally expressed; the previous arrangement It is not easy to describe the feelings of annoyance for the eighth of the Chinese month, a period certainly produced by the conduct of the Chinese, both public much too early for comfort, was adverted to, and the and individual: of the former I shall speak hereutter impossibility of his excellency appearing in his after; of the latter I can only say that nothing could present state of fatigue, inanition, and deficiency of be more disagreeable and indecorous. every necessary equipment, was strongly urged. Chang was very unwilling to be the bearer of this answer, but was finally obliged to consent. During this time the room had filled with spectators of all ages and ranks, who rudely pressed upon us to gratify their brutal curiosity, for such it may be called, as they seemed to regard us rather as wild beasts than mere strangers of the same species with themselves. Some other messages were interchanged between the Koongyay and Lord Amherst, who, in addition to the reasons already given, stated the indecorum and irregularity of his appearing without his credentials. In his reply to this it was said, that in the proposed audience the emperor merely wished to see the ambassador, and had no intention of entering upon business. Lord Amherst having persisted in expressing the inadmissibility of the proposition, and in transmitting through the Koong-yay a humble request to his imperial majesty that he would be graciously pleased to wait till to-morrow, Chang and another mandarin finally proposed that his excellency should go over to the Koong-yay's apartments, from whence a reference might be made to the emperor. Lord Amherst having alleged bodily illness as one of the reasons for declining the audience, readily saw that if he went to the Koong-yay, this plea, which to the Chinese (though now scarcely admitted) was in general the most forcible, would cease to avail him, positively declined compliance. This produced a visit from the Koong-yay, who, too much interested and agitated to heed ceremony, stood by Lord Amherst, and used every argument to induce him to obey the emperor's commands. Among other topics he used that of being received with our own ceremony, using the Chinese words, 'ne mun tih lee'-your own ceremony. All proving ineffectual, with some roughness, but under pretext of friendly violence, he laid hands upon Lord Amherst, to take him from the room; another mandarin followed his example. His lordship, with great firmness and dignity of manner, shook them off, declaring that nothing but the extremest violence should induce him to quit that room for any other place but the residence assigned to him;

A message arrived soon after the Koong-yay's quitting the room, to say that the emperor dispensed with the ambassador's attendance; that he had further been pleased to direct his physician to afford to his excellency every medical assistance that his illness might require. The Koong-yay himself soon followed, Koong-yay not disdaining to clear away the crowd, and his excellency proceeded to the carriage. The the whip was used by him to all persons indiscrimi indecorous, according to our notions, the employment nately; buttons were no protection; and however might be for a man of his rank, it could not have been in better hands.

Lord Amherst was generally condemned for refusing the proffered audience. The emperor, in disgust, ordered them instantly to set out for Canton, which was accordingly done. This embassy made scarcely any addition to our knowledge of China. Ma JOHN FRANCIS DAVIS, late chief superintendent in China, has published two interesting works, which give a full account of this singular people, so far as known to European visitors. These are, Sketches of China, partly during an Inland Journey of Four Months between Pekin, Nankin, and Canton; and The Chinese: a General Description of the Empire of China and its Inhabitants. The latter work was published in 1836, but has since been enlarged, and the history of British intercourse brought up to the present time. Mr Davis resided twenty years at Canton, is perfect in the peculiar language of China, and has certainly seen more of its inhabitants than any other English author. The Journal of Three Voyages along the Coast of China, in 1831, 1832, and 1833, by MR GUTZLAFF, a German, is also a valuable work. The contraband trade in opium formed a memorable era in the history of Chinese commerce. It was carried on to a great extent with the Hong merchants; but in 1834, after the monopoly of the East India Company had been abolished, our government appointed Lord Napier to proceed to Canton, as special superintendent, to adjust all disputed questions among the merchants, and to form regulations with the provincial authorities. The Chinese, always jealous of foreigners, and looking upon mercantile

* They are distinguished by round badges.

employments as degrading, insulted our superintendent; hostilities took place, and trade was suspended. Lord Napier took his departure amidst circumstances of insult and confusion, and died on the 11th of October 1834. The functions of superintendent devolved on Mr Davis. The Chinese, emboldened by the pacific temperament of our government, proceeded at length to the utmost extent; and not satisfied with imprisoning and threatening the lives of the whole foreign community, laid also violent hands on the British representative himself, claiming, as the purchase of his freedom, the delivery of the whole of the opium then in the Chinese waters-property to the amount of upwards of two millions sterling. After a close imprisonment of two months' duration, during which period our countrymen were deprived of many of the necessaries of life, and exposed repeatedly, as in a pillory, to the gaze and abuse of the mob, no resource was left but to yield to the bold demands of the Chinese, relying with confidence on their nation for support and redress: nor did they rely in vain; for immediately the accounts of the aggression reached London, preparations commenced for the Chinese expedition."* After two years of irregular warfare, a treaty of peace and friendship between the two empires was signed on board her majesty's ship Cornwallis, on the 29th of August 1842. This expedition gave rise to various publications. LORD JOCELYN wrote a lively and interesting narrative, entitled Six Months with the Chinese Expedition; and Commander J. ELLIOT BINGHAM, R. N. a Narrative of the Expedition to China. Two Years in China, by D. MACPHERSON, M.D. relates the events of the campaign from its formation in April 1840 to the treaty of peace in 1842. Doings in China, by LIEUTENANT ALEXANDER MURRAY, illustrates the social habits of the Chinese. The Last Year in China, to the Peace of Nankin, by a Field Officer, consists of extracts from letters written to the author's private friends. The Closing Events of the Campaign in China, by CAPTAIN G. G. LOCH, R. N. is one of the best books which the expedition called forth.

[Chinese Ladies' Feet.]

[From Captain Bingham's Narrative.]

During our stay we made constant trips to the surrounding islands; in one of which-at Tea Islandwe had a good opportunity of minutely examining the far-famed little female feet. I had been purchasing a pretty little pair of satin shoes for about half a dollar, at one of the Chinese farmers' houses, where we were surrounded by several men, women, and children. By signs we expressed a wish to see the pied mignon of a really good-looking woman of the party. Our signs were quickly understood, but, probably from her being a matron, it was not considered quite comme il faut for her to comply with our desire, as she would not consent to show us her foot; but a very pretty interesting girl of about sixteen was placed on a stool for the purpose of gratifying our curiosity. At first she was very bashful, and appeared not to like exposing her Cinderella-like slipper, but the shine of a new and very bright 'loopee' soon overcame her delicacy, when she commenced unwinding the upper bandage which passes round the leg, and over a tongue that comes up from the heel. The shoe was then removed, and the second bandage taken off, which did duty for a stocking; the turns round the toes and ankles being very tight, and keeping all in place. On the naked foot being exposed to view, we were agreeably surprised by finding it delicately white and clean; for we fully expected to have found it otherwise, from the

* Macpherson's Two Years in China.'


known habits of most of the Chinese. The leg from the knee downwards was much wasted; the foot appeared as if broken up at the instep, while the four small toes were bent flat and pressed down under the foot, the great toe only being allowed to retain its natural position. By the breaking of the instep a high arch is formed between the heel and the toe, enabling the individual to step with them on an even surface; in this respect materially differing from the Canton and Macao ladies; for with them the instep is not interfered with, but a very high heel is substituted, thus bringing the point of the great toe to the ground. When our Canton compradore was shown a Chusan shoe, the exclamation was, He yaw! how can walkee so fashion?' nor would he be convinced that such was the case. The toes, doubled under the foot I have been describing, could only be moved by the hand sufficiently to show that they were not actually grown into the foot. I have often been astonished at seeing how well the women contrived to walk on their tiny pedestals. Their gait is not unlike the little mincing walk of the French ladies; they were constantly to be seen going about without the aid of any stick, and I have often seen them at Macao contending against a fresh breeze with a tolerably good-sized umbrella spread. The little children, as they scrambled away before us, balanced themselves with their arms extended, and reminded one much of an old hen between walking and flying. All the women I saw about Chusan had small feet. It is a general characteristic of true Chinese descent; and there cannot be a greater mistake than to suppose that it is confined to the higher orders, though it may be true that they take dimensions than the lower classes do. High and low, more pains to compress the foot to the smallest possible rich and poor, all more or less follow the custom; and when you see a large or natural-sized foot, you may blood, but is either of Tartar extraction, or belongs to depend upon it the possessor is not of true Chinese the tribes that live and have their being on the this Chinese habit of distortion, as the accompanying waters. The Tartar ladies, however, are falling into edict of the emperor proves. For know, good people, you must not dress as you like in China. You must follow the customs and habits of your ancestors, and wear your winter and summer clothing as the empe ror or one of the six boards shall direct.' If this were the custom in England, how beneficial it would be to ners. Let us now see what the emperor says about little our pockets, and detrimental to the tailors and millifeet, on finding that they were coming into rogue among the undeformed daughters of the Mantchows. Not only does he attack the little feet, but the large Chinese sleeves which were creeping into fashion at court. Therefore, to check these misdemeanours, the usual Chinese remedy was resorted to, and a flaming edict launched, denouncing them; threatening the heads of the families with degradation and punish ment if they did not put a stop to such gross illegalities; and his celestial majesty further goes on and tells the fair ones, that by persisting in their vulgar habits, they will debar themselves from the possi bility of being selected as ladies of honour for the inner palace at the approaching presentation!' How far this had the desired effect I cannot say. When the children begin to grow, they suffer excruciating pain, but as they advance in years, their vanity played upon by being assured that they would be exceedingly ugly with large feet. Thus they are per suaded to put up with what they consider a necessary evil; but the children are remarkably patient under pain. A poor little child about five years old was brought to our surgeon, having been most dreadfully scalded, part of its dress adhering to the skin. During the painful operation of removing the linen, it only now and then said 'he-yaw, he-yaw.'





this, he again repaired to the continent, and visited the Tyrol and Spain. His travels in both countries were published; and one of the volumes-Spain in The embassy of Lord Amherst to China was, as 1830-is the best of all his works. He next produced we have related, comparatively a failure; but the a novel descriptive of Spanish life, entitled The New return voyage was rich both in discovery and in roGil Blas, but it was unsuccessful-probably owing to mantic interest. The voyage was made, not along the very title of the work, which raised expectations, the coast of China, but by Corea and the Loo-Choo or suggested comparisons, unfavourable to the new islands, and accounts of it were published in 1818 aspirant. After conducting a newspaper for some by MR MACLEOD, surgeon of the Alceste, and by CAP- time in Jersey, Mr Inglis published an account of the TAIN BASIL HALL of the Lyra. The work of the Channel Islands, marked by the easy grace and piclatter was entitled An Account of a Voyage of Disco-turesque charm that pervade all his writings. He very to the West Coast of Corea, and the Great Loo- next made a tour through Ireland, and wrote his Choo Island. In the course of this voyage it was valuable work (remarkable for impartiality no less found that a great part of what had been laid down than talent) entitled Ireland in 1834. His last work in the maps as part of Corea consisted of an imwas Travels in the Footsteps of Don Quixote, published mense archipelago of small islands. The number of in parts in the New Monthly Magazine. these was beyond calculation; and during a sail of upwards of one hundred miles, the sea continued closely studded with them. From one lofty point a hundred and twenty appeared in sight, some with waving woods and green verdant valleys. Loo-Choo, however, was the most important, and by far the most interesting of the parts touched upon by the expedition. There the strange spectacle was presented of a people ignorant equally of the use of firearms and the use of money, living in a state of primitive seclusion and happiness such as resembles the dreams of poetry rather than the realities of modern life.


SIR FRANCIS HEAD has written two very lively and interesting books of travels-Rough Notes taken during some Rapid Journeys across the Pampas, 1826; and Bubbles from the Brunnens of Nassau, 1833. The Pampas described is an immense plain, stretching westerly from Buenos Ayres to the feet of the Andes. The following extract illustrates the graphic style of

Sir Francis:

[Description of the Pampas.j

Captain Basil Hall has since distinguished himself by the composition of other books of travels, written with delightful ease, spirit, and picturesque- The great plain, or Pampas, on the east of the Corness. The first of these consists of Extracts from a dillera, is about nine hundred miles in breadth, and Journal Written on the Coasts of Chili, Peru, and Mexico, the part which I have visited, though under the same being the result of his observations in those countries latitude, is divided into regions of different climate in 1821 and 1822. South America had, previous to and produce. On leaving Buenos Ayres, the first of this, been seldom visited, and its countries were also these regions is covered for one hundred and eighty greater objects of curiosity and interest from their miles with clover and thistles; the second region, political condition, on the point of emancipation from which extends for four hundred and fifty miles, proSpain. The next work of Captain Hall was Travels duces long grass; and the third region, which reaches in North America, in 1827 and 1828, written in a the base of the Cordillera, is a grove of low trees and more ambitious strain than his former publications, shrubs. The second and third of these regions have and containing some excellent descriptions and re-nearly the same appearance throughout the year, for marks, mixed up with political disquisitions. This the trees and shrubs are evergreens, and the immense was followed by Fragments of Voyages and Tra- plain of grass only changes its colour from green to vels, addressed chiefly to young persons, in three brown; but the first region varies with the four seasmall volumes; which were so favourably received sons of the year in a most extraordinary manner. that a second, and afterwards a third series, each in winter the leaves of the thistles are large and luxuthree volumes, were given to the public. A further riant, and the whole surface of the country has the collection of these observations on foreign society, rough appearance of a turnip-field. The clover in this scenery, and manners, was published by Captain season is extremely rich and strong; and the sight of Hall in 1842, also in three volumes, under the title the wild cattle grazing in full liberty on such pasture of Patchwork.



is very beautiful. In spring the clover has vanished, the leaves of the thistles have extended along the ground, and the country still looks like a rough crop of turnips. In less than a month the change is most One of the most cheerful and unaffected of tourists wood of enormous thistles, which have suddenly shot up extraordinary: the whole region becomes a luxuriant and travellers, with a strong love of nature and a to a height of ten or eleven feet, and are all in full poetical imagination, was MR HENRY DAVID INGLIS, bloom. The road or path is hemmed in on both sides; who died in March 1835, at the early age of forty. the view is completely obstructed; not an animal is Mr Inglis was the son of a Scottish advocate. He to be seen; and the stems of the thistles are so close was brought up to commercial pursuits, but his pas- to each other, and so strong, that, independent of the sion for literature, and for surveying the grand and prickles with which they are armed, they form an imbeautiful in art and nature, overpowered his busi-penetrable barrier. The sudden growth of these plants ness habits, and led him at once to travel and to is quite astonishing; and though it would be an unwrite. Diffident of success, he assumed the nom de usual misfortune in military history, yet it is really guerre of Derwent Conway, and under this disguise possible that an invading army, unacquainted with he published The Tales of Ardennes; Solitary Walks this country, might be imprisoned by these thistles through Many Lands; Travels in Norway, Sweden, and before it had time to escape from them. The summer Denmark, 1829; and Switzerland, the South of France, is not over before the scene undergoes another rapid and the Pyrenees in 1830, 1831. The two latter works change: the thistles suddenly lose their sap and verwere included in Constable's Miscellany, and were dure, their heads droop, the leaves shrink and fade, deservedly popular. Mr Inglis was then engaged as the stems become black and dead, and they remain editor of a newspaper at Chesterfield; but tiring of rattling with the breeze one against another, until the

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