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The plan of this work is highly commendable, and the execution is good. We are particularly pleased with the Compiler's having avoided every sentiment that might gratify a corrupt mind, or in the least degree, offend the eye or ear of Innocence." Gentleman's Magazine, February, 1799.

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"There is very considerable merit in this compilation, the contents of which are pretty equally made up of the agreeable and the useful. We do not fear discrediting our judgment, by recommending to all sects and degrees of people this portable volume; which though professedly compiled for the instruction of youth, will not be found unuseful to persons of riper years.' Nero London Review, July, 1799.

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"This work may be recommended as a useful companion to the young of both sexes." Critical Review, July, 1799.

"We have formerly mentioned, with praise," English Exercises," by this Author. The present publication is well adapted for the use of young persons. The selections are made with good taste; and with a view to moral and religious improvement, as well as mere entertainment.” British Critic, April, 1800.

"Instead of attempting to display the merits of this useful and pleasing work, by remarks of our own, we shall transcribe the author's preface; which shews that he was actuated by superior motives, which do him honour, &c."-" The ends proposed by this respectable author, have, we hope, been accomplished to his utmost wish; for public approbation has crowned his labours." Guardian of Education, July, 1803.

"Mr. Murray's Grammar, as well as his other publications, has received the uniform approbation of literary characters and journalists. We do not hesitate warmly to recommend them to the instructers of youth in every part of the United States, as eminently conducive to pure morality and religion, and to the acquisition of a correct and elegant style. They deserve to take place of all other works of the same kind which are now used in our schools." American Review.



ad with propriety is a pleasing and important attain; productive of improvement both to the understande heart. It is essential to a complete reader, that he perceive the ideas, and enter into the feelings of the vhose sentiments he professes to repeat; for how is it > represent clearly to others what we have but faint or e conceptions of ourselves? If there were no other benting from the art of reading well, than the necessity it der, of precisely ascertaining the meaning of what we the habit thence acquired, of doing this with facility, reading silently and aloud, they would constitute a compensation for all the labour we can bestow upon et. But the pleasure derived to curselves and others, ar communication of ideas and feelings; and the strong le impressions made thereby on the minds of the reader udience, are considerations, which give additional imto the study of this necessary and useful art. The tainment of it doubtless requires great attention and joined to extraordinary natural powers; but as there degrees of excellence in the art, the student whose hort of perfection, will find himself amply rewarded exertion he may think proper to make.

c rules for the management of the voice in reading, by necessary pauses, emphasis and tones, may be discovput in practice, is not possible. After all the direccan be offered on these points, much will remain to be the living instructer: much will be attainable by no ns, than the force of example influencing the imitative the learner. Some rules and principles on these heads, ever, be found useful to prevent erroneous and vicious utterance; to give the young reader some taste of the and to assist him in acquiring a just and accurate mode y. The observations which we have to make, for these


of the shearwretions contained in this preliminar

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purposes, may be comprised under the following heads; Proper Loudness of Voice; Dis'inctness; Slowness; Propriety of Pronunciation; Emphasis; Tones; Pauses; and Mode of Reading Verse.

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· The first attention of every person who reads to others, doubtless, must be, to make himself be heard by all those to whom he reads. He must endeavour to fill with his voice the space oc. cupied by the company. This power of voice, it may be thought, is wholly a natural talent. It is, in a good measure, the gift of nature: but it may receive considerable assistance from art. Much depends, for this purpose, on the proper pitch and management of the voice. Every person has three pitches in his voice; the HIGH, the MIDDLE, and the Low one. The high, is that which he uses in calling aloud to some person at a distance. The low is when he approaches to a whisper. The middle is that which he employs in common conversation, and which he should generally use in reading to others For it is a great mistake, to imagine that one must take the highest pitch of his voice, in order to be well heard in a large company. This is confounding two things which are different, loudness or strength of sound, with the key or note on which we speak. There is a variety of sound within the compass of each key. A speaker may therefore render his voice louder, without altering the key: and we shall always be able to give most body, most persevering force of sound, to that pitch of voice, to which in conversation we are accustomed. Whereas, by setting out on our highest pitch or key, we certainly allow ourselves less compass, and are likely to strain our voice before we have done. We shall fatigue ourselves, and read with pain; and whenever a person speaks with pain to himself, he is always heard with pain by his audience. Let us therefore give the voice full strength and swell of sound: but always pitch it on our ordinary speaking key. It should be a constant rule, never to utter a greater quantity of voice, than we can afford without pain to ourselves, and without any extraordinary effort. As long as we keep within these bounds, the other organs of speech will be at liberty to discharge their several offices with ease; and we shall always have our voice under command. But whenever we transgress these bounds, we give up the reins and have no longer any management of it. It is a useful rule too, in order to be well heard, to cast our eye on some of the most distant persons in the company, and to consider ourselves as reading

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We naturally and mechanically útter our words with ree of strength as to make ourselves be heard by the m we address, provided he is within the reach of our this is the case in conversation, it will hold also in others. But let us remember, that in reading, as well rsation, it is possible to offend by speaking too loud. ne hurts the ear, by making the voice come upon it indistinct masses.

abit of reading, when young, in a loud and vehement voice becomes fixed in a strained and unnatural key; ered incapable of that variety of elevation and deich constitutes the true harmony of utterance, and afo the reader and pleasure to the audience. This unch of the voice, and disagreeable monotony, 'are most in persons who were taught to read in large rooms; ccustomed to stand at too great a distance, when readteachers; whose instructors were very imperfect aring; or who were taught by persons, that considexpression as the chief requisite in forming a good 'hese are circumstances which demand the seriousf every one to whom the education of youth is


ext place, to being well heard and clearly understood, of articulation contributes more than mere loudness The quantity of sound necessary to fill even a large maller than is commonly imagined; and, with distinct , a person with a weak voice will make it reach farthe strongest voice can reach without it. To this, every reader ought to pay great attention. He must sound which he utters its due proportion; and make able, and even every letter in the word which he , be heard distinctly; without slurring, whispering, sing any of the proper sounds.

rate knowledge of the simple, elementary sounds of ge, and a facility in expressing them, are so necessary ess of expression, that if the learner's attainments are, pect, imperfect, (and many there are in this situation,) acumbent on his teacher, to carry him back to these rticulations; and to suspend his progress, till he be

he cannot completely articulate every elementary sound of the language.


In order to express ourselves distinctly, moderation is requi site with regard to the speed of pronouncing. Precipitancy of speech confounds all articulation, and all meaning. It is scarcely necessary to observe, that there may be also an extreme on the opposite side. It is obvious that a lifeless drawling manner of reading, which allows the minds of the hearers to be always outrunning the speaker, must render every such performance insipid and fatiguing. But the extreme of reading too fast is much more common, and requires the more to be guarded against, because, when it has grown into a habit, few errors are more difficult to be corrected. To pronounce with a proper degree of slowness, and with full and clear articulation, is necessary to be studied by all, who wish to become good readers; and it cannot be too much recommended to them. Such a pronunciation gives weight and dignity to the subject. It is a great assistance to the voice, by the pauses and rests which it allows the reader more easily to make; and it enables the reader to swell all his sounds, both with more force and more harmony.

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AFTER the fundamental attentions to the pitch and management of the voice, to distinct articulation, and to a proper degree of slowness of speech, what the young reader must, in the next place, study, is propriety of pronunciation; or, giving to every word which he utters, that sound which the best usage of the language appropriates to it; in opposition to broad, vulgar, or provincial pronunciation. This is requisite both for reading intelligibly, and for reading with correctness and ease. Instruc

tions concerning this article may be best given by the living teacher. But there is one observation, which it may not be improper here to make. In the English language, every word which consists of more syllables than one, has one accented syllable. The accents rest sometimes on the vowel, sometimes on the consonant. The genius of the language, requires the voice to mark that syllable by a stronger percussion, and to pass more slightly over the rest. Now, after we have learned the proper seats of these accents, it is an important rule to give every word just the same accent in reading, as in common discourse.

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