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Chorus-a number of singers. That part of a song which is repeated many times by a whole company, while the rest of the song is sung by one person only, is called the chorus.

Hospitality is kindness and politeness shown by persons who are in their own houses to the people who come there. The negro woman showed hospitality to Mungo Park.

Translate.-To translate is to express what has been written or spoken in one language in the words of another.

Persevere-to continue to try to do a thing, even if it be difficult.


WE say this year is 1848; this means, it is 1848 years since Jesus Christ was born. Christians are the only people who believe the religion that Jesus Christ taught men.

The people of Europe, and the United States of America, (where we live,) are Christians. When Christians say any thing happened on a particular year, as— -Dr. Franklin was born in 1706, or General Washington died in 1799they mean, that one was born 1706 years after Christ was born, and the other died 1799 years after Christ was born. We call the year Anno Domini, which means, year of our Lord, year since the birth of our Saviour. A. D. stands for Anno Domini.


CHILDREN say an orange is round-a pencil is round-a ring is round- -a cent is round-all these things are round-in this they are alike; but they are different in other respects.

An orange or a football, is a sphere or globe.
A candle, or a pencil is a cylinder.

A cent, which is flat, solid, and round, is a wheel.

A ring, is a circle.

All these shapes are circular, because a circle can be made round any of them.

The middle of a circle is the centre.

A thing made by the hand of man is a manufacture.

The place where it is made, is a manufactory.

The person who makes it, is a manufacturer. All things which grow are productions. A tree is a production; the wool which grows upon the sheep's back is a production. When wool is spun, woven, and dyed, it becomes cloth. The cloth is a manufacture.

When a hot liquor is poured upon a sub stance, in order to extract, or draw something from it, it is called an infusion. Water is clear, and without color; when poured upon tea leaves it extracts from them color and flavor. The tea which is poured out of the tea-pot does not look, or taste, like the water which was

poured into the tea-pot. The water, then, has taken color and flavor from the tea. The tea which we drink is an infusion.

When a substance is put into cold water, and they are boiled together, the liquor becomes a decoction. Meat is put into water: after they have been boiled some time together the water becomes soup. Soup is a decoction of meat.

When a substance is put into cold water, and suffered to remain in it a long time, it is called a maceration. Ink powder is put into cold water the water draws the black color from the powder and it becomes ink. The powder is macerated.

When a solid substance is put into a liquor, and the substance melts, leaving the liquor clear, it is a solution. Sugar melts in tea, and the tea remains clear: that is a solution of sugar. The sugar is said to have dissolved.

When a substance is thrown into a liquor, and thickens and colors the liquor, it is called a diffusion. Cream poured into tea is a diffu


What we call steam is sometimes called vapor. Look at the tea-pot when the top is off: something like smoke rises out of it; this is vapor. Put a little water on the stove; in a short time it will be all gone. Where is it? It has dried up, or gone away in vapor. To dry up, is to evaporate. Clothes, that have been washed are hung up to dry; the water which is in them evaporates: it goes into the air and rises into the sky.


A great quantity of vapor, from a great many places, and a great many things, collects, or meets together in the sky, and forms clouds: when the clouds become very heavy, they fall in drops of water: this is rain. If the air is cold, the water freezes, and makes snow and hail.

Hold a knife over the tea-pot, when the hot steam rises from it; the steam will collect in little drops; it will condense upon the knife. To condense, is to become thick. Dense, thick. Things are not all dense, or hard, alike.

Molasses is more dense than milk; soap is more dense than molasses; wood is more hard than any of these substances; stones are harder than wood. A beautiful white stone, which looks like glass, which is called the diamond, and which is worn in rings and pins, is the hardest substance that is known.

Some liquids dry, or evaporate, much sooner than others. Water is liquid; oil is liquid. Pour a drop of water upon a piece of paper; pour a drop of oil upon a piece of paper: the drop of water soon evaporates; the drop of oil does not evaporate-it remains, or stays, in the paper.

A fluid which dries very quick, is volatile. Water is more volatile than oil or grease.

Fluid. The substances which can be poured from one vessel to another, without separating the parts, are fluids. Water and beer are fluids. Meat and wood are solids.

Sand and meal can be poured from one vessel to another; but they are not fluids. The

particles, (that is, the little grains of which they are composed,) are separate from one



GUNPOWDER is in little black grains; it is used to kill animals and men. Almost every body has heard the noise made by guns and cannon; it is very loud like thunder. This noise is caused by gunpowder. The gunpowder is put into the gun, or cannon, and as soon as it is touched by fire, it bursts from the gun with a great noise. This is called an explosion. Gunpowder is used to blast rocks.

Gunpowder is made of three things: sulphur or brimstone; nitre, or saltpetre, and charcoal.

The art of making gunpowder was found out or discovered, before the art of printing was invented. Gunpowder, first made 1380.

Before men had learned to make gunpowder, they used to kill one another with swords; now, when they fight, they take pistols, guns, or cannon, fill them with gunpowder, and leaden or iron balls, and point to the spot whither they wish the balls should fly; the balls kill the persons whom they strike.

The Bible says that men shall "turn their swords into ploughshares, and learn war no more ;" and when the angels announced the Messiah, they declared, "Peace on earth, and good will to men."

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