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the smell, or perfume of a thing. Sulphur, has a disagreeable odor-Roses, have a fragrant odor. Some odors are aromatic, as those of cinnamon and nutmeg. Those substances which afford odor

are odoriferous


There are different tastes. We taste with the mouth. We sometimes say the palate-by that, we mean the part of the mouth and throat which tastes. If we like the taste of a thing we say it is palatable; if it cannot be eaten it is unpalatable. The taste of any substance is its flavor. Flavors are various-sweet, sour, bitter, pungent, salt, insipid.

Sugar is sweet-lemon is sour-wormwoood is bitter-mustard is hot, or pungent-rice is insipid. Insipid means having very little


Among the things which are taken into the stomach by man, some taste well and do him good; some do him harm; some make him sick when he is well, and others make him well when he is sick. Those which make the sick well are medicines. Those substances which kill people, when swallowed, are poisons.

We feel in every part of our bodies.

Whatever the organs of sense feel is a sensation. The prick of a pin is a painful sensation. The kiss of one who loves us, and whom we love, is a sweet sensation.

Sensations are not thoughts. Thoughts belong to the mind. Sensations to the body.

It is easy to tell the difference between a thing, a thought or idea, and a word.

A thing may be perceived by the senses. A

house is a thing. When we do not see it, or hear of it, we can think of it. There is not a house in our minds; there is the idea of a house. "An idea is whatever is in the mind when a man thinks." A very wise man, Mr. Locke, said this-a little child can understand it.

The letters, h-o-u-s-e, make a word; we can see it when it is printed or written; we hear it when it is spoken; the seeing, or the hearing of it, presents to our minds the idea of a house. Words are the signs of our ideas. Grammar, is not about things: it is about words.


OUR minds feel and think; our bodies do not think. There are two sorts of beings. Those which live and think, and those which do not live and think.

Soul, spirit, mind, intellect, are names of that which lives and thinks.

God, who created all, is a spirit. He has given mind to many creatures which he has made; but to many he has not given mind.

All that we can know is about God, and about the things which he has made. He has made the heavens, which we see over our heads, and all the bright lights that are there; he has made us, and has placed us in this world; and he has made us able to learn a great deal about the things which are in our world.

There are three sorts of things which we see

here-animals, plants, and minerals.

Plants grow,

Animals are living creatures. but do not feel, that we know of, nor do they move of themselves.

Minerals are all the substances found below the surface of the earth.

Besides these, there are water, air, thunder, fire, and light.

We know something about God. We know that he is good, and wise, and that he can do what he pleases to do. The science which treats of God, is called Theology.

We know something of men's minds; we know that we can learn many things; we know that we love some things, that we do not love other things, and that we remember some things. The history of the powers of men's minds, and of the laws which govern minds, is called Metaphysics.

We know something of our own bodies; we know that we breathe, eat, and sleep; that we feel, see, hear, smell, and taste, We know that we have bones, flesh, blood, and skin; that we have limbs to move, and strength to move them—that we have eyes, and ears, &c. An account of the different parts of the human body is Anatomy.

We know something of animals, of man, quadrupeds, birds, fishes, insects, reptiles. The history of all animal life is Zoology.

We know something of plants-that they have roots, trunks, stalks, leaves, flowers, seeds, and that these parts have various properties and uses. The natural history of vegetables is Botany.

We know something of the inside of the earth, something of minerals; we know sand, chalk, clay, iron, stones, sulphur. The history of minerals is Mineralogy.

People have learned the history of a great many birds, how long they live, what they eat, how they build their nests, how many eggs they lay, what different countries different sorts in habit. The natural history of birds is Ornithology.

People have caught many kinds of fishes, they know which are good to eat, and which are not good; what kinds live in the great ocean, and what live in the rivers. The history of fishes is Ichthyology.

All those beautiful shells which have so many colors, that are so smooth and are of so many shapes, come out of the sea; once there were living creatures in them. The history of shells is Conchology.

We are acquainted with insects-the bees that make honey, the moschetos that sting us, the flies that buzz in our ears, the aphis which crawls on the rose bush. The history of insects is Entomology.

Some people have looked a long while at the sky; they have looked there, with large glasses called telescopes; they have given names to the stars; they have counted them, have observed their places, and seen how fast, and how far they move. The history of the heavenly bodies is Astronomy.

Some people have been all round the world in ships, and have been backwards and forwards

across the ocean. called Navigation.

Men carry the things which grow in one country to another, they bring back to their own country the things which are produced and are made in the countries whither they go; they give money for what they bring home, and take money for what they leave behind. The exchange of commodities for money is Commerce.

The art of guiding ships is

Some persons never leave their homes; they stay in the country, plough the fields, keep cows, and horses, and sheep, cut grass, and make hay, sow wheat, and corn, and reap the grain, and eat some of it, and sell some of it The cultivation of the fields is Agriculture.

Some persons have seen a great many coun tries, and seas; they have learned what others know of all the countries and oceans in the world; they have drawn maps showing the places of the different countries, the rivers, the towns, the mountains, and the lakes. An account of the earth is Geography.

The history of thunder, fire, air, water, and light is called Natural Philosophy.

The noise of thunder, and the bright light which is seen when it thunders is caused by Electricity.

Dr. Franklin found out electricity. Fire is in every thing with which we are acquainted, even in ice. Things which cause the feeling of heat have a great deal of fire in them; things which cause the feeling of cold have a smaller quantity of fire in them. Fire gives light, if there is enough of it; another substance, called phosphorus, gives light. Perhaps children have seen

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