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MOVE, SÓN, WOLF, FOOT, MOON, ÔR; RILE, PULL; EXIST; ¤=E;&=J; §=2; Çп=8.
Regular verbs form the past tense, and participle of the past, by taking ed, and the participle of the present tense by taking ing; as, called, calling, from call. The letter p. stands for past tense; ppr. for participle of the present tense; and a. for agent.
Monosyllabic verbs ending in a single consonant after a single vowel, and other verbs ending in a single accented consonant after a single vowel, double the final consonant in the derivatives. Thus, abet, abetted, abetting, abettor.
Verbs having a digraph, diphthong, or long vowel sound before the last consonant, do not double that consonant.
Verbs ending in two consonants, do not double the last."
Verbs ending in a single consonant, preceded by a single vowel, the last consonant or syllable not being accented, ought not to double the last consonant in the derivatives.
BÄR, LÅST, €ÂRF, гALL, WHẠT; пËR, PREY, THÊRE; GET; BIRD, MARÏNE; LINK;
The name of the agent, when the verb admits of it, is formed in like manner, without doubling the last consonant, as, caviler, worshiper, duelist, libeler, traveler. So also adjectives are formed from these verbs without doubling the last consonant, as, libelous, marvelous.
When verbs end in e after d and t, the final e in the past tense and participle of the perfect tense, unites with d and forms an additional syllable, but it is dropped before ing. Thus, abate, abated, abating.
ab di cate d ing
ded i cate á ing
vin di cate d ing
In verbs ending in e after any other consonant thand and t, the past tense is formed by the addition of d, and this letter with the final e may form a distinct syllable; but usually the e is dropped and d is blended with the last syllable of the verb. Thus abridged, is pronounced abridjd; abused, abaste. Before ing, e is dropped.
Note. Although ed in the past tense and participle is thus blended with the last syllable of the verb, yet when a noun is formed by adding ness to such participles, the ed becomes a distinct syllable. Thus blessed may be pronounced in one syllable; but blessedness must be in three.
ow, ew, and ey, have regular derivatives in ed and ing.
Verbs ending in ay, oy,
A few monosyllables, as pay, say, and lay, change y intò i, as
paid, said, laid.
Verbs ending in y, change y into i in the past tense and participle of the perfect, but retain it in the participle of the present tense.
MOVE, SON, WOLF, FOOT, MOON, ÔR; RULE, PULL; EXIST; ¤=K; &=J; §=Z; CH=SH Verbs ending in y change this letter to i in the second and third persons, and in the name of the agent. Thus:
Familiar Style. Agent.
The past tense, and participle of the present, are regular.
The regular plural of nouns is formed by the addition of s to the singular, which letter unites with most consonants in the same syllable, but sounds like z after all the consonants except f, p, q, t, k, or c with the sound of k.
When the noun ends in e, if s will coalesce with the preceding consonant,
If s will not coalesce with the preceding consonant, it unites with e, and
Nouns ending in y after a consonant, form the plural by the changing of y into i, and the addition of es; the termination ies being pronounced ize, in monosyllables, and iz in most other words.
BÄR, LÅST, CÂRE, FALL, WHẠT; HÊR, PREY, THÊRE; ĞET; BÏRD, MARÏNE; LINK;
Nouns ending in ay, ey, oy, ow, ew, takes only to form the plural.
When the singular ends in f, the plural is usually formed by changing 1
into v, with es.
Nouns formed from adjectives in y, by changing y into i and taking ness.
Adverbs formed from adjectives in y, by a change of y into i, and the
addition of ly.
Adverbs formed from adjectives by the addition of ly.
MOVE, SON, WOLF, FOOT, MOON, ÔR; RULE, PULL; EXIST;C=K;&=J;§=Z; ÇU=SIK Adjectives formed from nouns by ful, from which adverbs are formed by
ly and nouns by ness.
a ad n skill ful ly noss
grace ful ly ness
peace ful ly ness
The termination ist added to words denotes an agent.
art ist form a list loy al ist or gan ist du el ist
hu mor ist
zo ol o gy
zo ol o gist
In some words, y is changed into i.
or ni thol o gist
The prefix ante denotes before.
ante-diluvian past ante-past penult ante-penult nuptial ante-nuptial
The prefix anti usually denotes opposition or against.
Christ anti-christ Christian anti-christian febrile anti-febrile
Bo, a prefix, denotes nearness or intensity.
daub be-daub dew be-dew friend be-friend labor be-labor siege be-siege moan be-moan speak be-speak sprinkle be-sprinkle The prefix con, or co, denotes with or against; con is changed into col
The prefix counter denotes against or opposition.
balance counter-balance act counter-act evidence counter-evidence plead counter-plead work counter-work part counter-part
The prefix de denotes from or down.
base de-base bar de-bar compose de-compose cry de-cry form de-form fame de-fame face de-face garnish de garnish Dis denotes separation, departure, and hence gives to words a negative sense. able dis-able agree dis-agree allow dis-allow belief dis-belief credit dis-credit esteem dis-esteem grace dis-grace honor dis-honor Fore denotes before in time, sometimes in place.
bode fore-bode father fore-father know fore-know noon fore-noon tell fore-tell taste fore-taste warn fore-warn run fore-run In, which is sometimes changed into il, im, and ir, denotes on, upon, or against; hence it often gives to a word a negative sense; sometimes it only gives more strength to the sense of a word; as, bank, imbank, brown, imbrown; bitter, imbitter.
In the following, it gives a negative sense.
material im-material moderate im-moderate mutable im-mutable