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bói fled mór la bricpind Nemchenga do Chonchobup mac Nerra 1 do Ultaib huile. bliadain lán dó oc tinól na plede. Doponad iarum tegdas chumtachta lair fri frithailem tomalta na plede. Conpotacht iapum a tech sin la bricpind i ndún Rudraige fó chosmailius na Craebruaidi in emain Macha; acht nammá poderscaizestar a tech so eter adbar & elathain, eter cháimi 1 chumtachte etes úatni & airinigi, eter lígrad & lógmaire, eter sochraide & súachnide, eter imscartad & imdorus do thigib inna haimpipi sin uli. Is amlaið trá doronad a tech sin : sudigud Tige Midchuarta fair.

2. Translate into English :-

Mad lett ém caupathmíp mo thige-re, bid lat caupathmíp Emna do grés. 'Is cóir curathmíp mo thige do chornom,' op re, 'ní caupathmíp tige meraige. Atá dabach hi talla tríar and dí lathaib gaile fer n-Ulad, iap n-a linad do fín acneta. ατά τοnc peche mbliadan and; 6 sobo orc becc ní dechaid inn a béolu acht bittiu lemnachta ocus menadach in eppoch, ocup Fircroith 1 fíplemnacht is-sampud, eithne cnó 1 fípchruithnecht hi fogomup 1 Feóil 7 enbruche hi gempud. Atá bó thuir and dia n-at slána a secht mbliadna; 6 sobo lóeg bec ní dechaid fráech no foigdech inn a béalu acht píplemnacht & luigfér Glasfeoir & arbar. Atát cóic fichit barzon cruithnechta and iar n-a fuine tria mil.

3. Translate into English:

Immóradi inn a menmain iap suidiu al-léim dochúatás a aes comtha tapsin cathraig, ar bá mór & bá Lethan ba hárd al-léim. ba dóig lais-seom trá co 1

mbad 6 lemum dochúatár ind laith gaile taipse. Dammidethar fá dí día lémaim & forémid. 'Maisg dopumalt an imned dopumalt-sa cur tpath-sa imm a caupaomíp,' ol Cuchulainn, ocup a techt úaim la féimmed ind lémme dochúatar ind fir aile.'-Fled Brierend, pp. 2, 8, 110.

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4. Write grammatical notes on:—a tech pin (text 1), alléim, lemum, lemaim, lemme (text 3).

5. Translate texts 1 and 2 into modern Irish.


6. Translate into English :

Do bestsat bó ¿áinte iomda 7 cpeacha coṁaidble leo hiccoinne Uí Dhoṁnaill go Baile Átha an Ríog ; ocus ge go pobaissiot an barda an baile do bardacht nír bo torba dóib an tinnsccettal, uair so chuirsiot muintep Uí Dhoṁnaill teinnte 7 tendála fri doissib daingen-dúnta an baile 7 tucsat dreimireda dioṁora dia saicció 7 sochuissiot fris na múpaib iad go ndeachrat pop taiblib an múip. Ro lingsiot iaraṁ do na taiblib go mbátar for sráidib an baile 7 ro epplaicpiot na doippi don lucht bátap imuig.

Gabait iaraṁ for tożail na ttigead ttaiscceada 7 na tteźdas ffoipiata co puccsat eistib ina mbao indib d'ionnmapaib 7 d'édalaib. Airisit in adaiġ sin ipin mbaile hipin. Níp bó robaing píoṁ nó aipeaṁ ina puccao d'uma, d'iapann, d'évach 7 d'urad as in mbaile. rin ap na mápach.-Four Masters, vol. vi., 2008.




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1. If the proposition I shall pass my examination is at this moment either true or false, the truth of one of the two opposites must be already determined, and thus the result of my examination is not contingent, but necessary. If, however, this conclusion is absurd, does it follow that the proposition is neither true nor false at the present moment?

2. (a) Excluded Middle warrants a universal comparison of any possible subject-notion with any possible predicate-notion, and the predicate must either inhere or not in the subject.'

(b) There is a third between + A and – A, viz. A in its absolute value, and O is a third between + and -.'

(c) The mean between the contradictory predicates is often the true predicate.'

Examine each of these statements so far as they concern the primary laws of thought.


3. Explain: Whenever the individual facts are so close beneath that we can see them through the thin medium of the universal proposition, then Mill's account of the syllogistic process is the simplest and best. Often, however, the facts are too remote to be thus readily reached, and in these cases Mill's explanation is a transgression into the province of psychology: an attempt to determine the ultimate sources of knowledge.'

4. Discuss with appropriate criticism reasoning in comprehension.

5. Describe the experimental method of Science, distinguishing the various stages in the process from the first observation to a complete verification.

6. Is it possible to have any one adequate criterion of truth, and, if so, is the law of contradiction a sufficient criterion?


[Candidates will answer in two sections only, ONE of which must be section A.]



1. As men have erred in apparently intuitive judg ments, consensus of experts and coherence with other beliefs are important supplementary securities even for apparently self-evident truths.' With what reservations or limitations would you accept this remark?

2. Thou canst not prove that I who speak with thee
Am not thyself in converse with thyself.'

By what arguments wonld you attack this position ?
3. Explain and examine one of these statements :-
(a) Taste is a kind of extempore judgment.'

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(b) Quam multo vident pictores in umbris et in eminentia quae nos non videmus !'

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[For Candidates taking Course I. in Calendar.]


4. Finite being presupposes infinite being.' Is this, in your view, the idea of infinite being or its actual existence ? By what process does St. Thomas reach the affirmation of the Infinite ?

5. Compare the substantia (esse per se) of St. Thomas with the Thing-in-itself (Ding an sich) of Kant.

6. How do the phenomena of dual consciousness affect your view of Personality?


[For Candidates taking Course 11. in Calendar.j


7. Give a brief exposition of any two of these statements:

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(a) According to you, Hylas, real sounds may possibly be seen or felt, but never heard.'

(b) When I perceive a great number of intermediate objects, I form a judgment that the object 1 see beyond them is at a great distance.'

(c) You admit, Philonous, that there is spiritual substance, although you have no idea of it; while you deny there can be such a thing as material substance because you have no notion or idea of it. Is this fair dealing?'

8. Write a brief but clear account of what you take to be Green's view of Personality or of Reality.

9. 'When we speak of a development of higher from lower forms of intelligence, there should be no mistake about what we mean and what we do not mean.' Show how by appropriate explanation such mistakes may be avoided.


REV. PROFESSOR WOODBURN; REV. PROFESSOR DARLINGTON. [Candidates will answer on two sections only, ONE of which must be section A.]


1. The true beginning of Metaphysics must be sought in Ethics.' Discuss this statement.

2. Trace the connexion between Plato's theory of Ideas and his ethical teaching.

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