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he inevitable, for they may follow an invariable law, yet they may often be the very opposite of what is expected by us. When we increase pauperism by almsgiving; when we tie up property without regard to changes of circumstances; when we say hastily what we deliberately disapprove; when we do in a moment of passion what upon reflection we regret; when from any want of self-control we give another an advantage over us-we are doing not what we will, but what we wish. All actions, of which the consequences are not weighed and foreseen, are of this impotent and paralytic sort and the author of them has 'the least possible power' while seeming to have the greatest. For he is actually bringing about the reverse of what he intended. And yet the book of nature is open to him, in which he who runs may read if he will exercise ordinary attention. Every day offers him experiences of his own and of other men's characters, and he passes them unheeded by.




1. Write a short essay in Greek on one of the following subjects:

(a) Banking in Greece, its methods and its importance. (b) The career of Thucydides and its influence on the production of his history.


2. Candidates are requested to answer ANY FIVE of the following questions:

(a) Give some account of the foreign influences which are reputed to have affected Greek art in early times.

(b) Describe concisely the Harpy Monument, and say what views have been taken as to the motive of the several figures.

(c) Mention the principal reputed works of Paeonius, Alcamenes, Lysippus, Pheidias.

(d) Give as full an account as you can of the Doryphorus, the Nereid Monument, the Niobe Group.

(e) What are the chief points in which the Ionic order differs from the Doric?

(f) What are the chief classes of optical corrections used in the construction of the Parthenon?

(g) Briefly describe the Erechtheum. Point out and account for the peculiarities of its construction.

(h) Describe the Greek sword as to size, shape, and material, and say how Iphicrates altered it.

(i) Describe the game of Kottabos.




(a) Illustrate and account for the variety of forms presented by the several Greek dialects in their equivalents for the word 'four.'

(b) State what you know with regard to the history and value of e in Attic Greek.

(c) Inquire into the causes of Prothesis in Greek.

(d) Explain points philologically interesting contained in the following extracts :

στυφλός τε γῆ καὶ χέρσος.

εὐρύτερος ὤμοισι.

θάπτε με ὅττι τάχιστα, πύλας ̓Αίδαο περήσω.





1. Translate literally :

pa budon hie hiera mægum þæt hie gesunde from codon; ond hie cuædon pat tæt ilce hiera gefērum geboden wære be ær mid þam cyninge wærun. pā cuadon hie pat hie hie pas ne onmunden þon mã þe cowre geferan þe mid þam cyninge ofslagene wærun.' Ond hie pa ymb þa gatu feohtende waron op þæt hie bærinne fulgon, ond bone æbeling ofslogon, ond þa menn þe him mid wærun, alle būtan ānum, sẽ wæs þæs aldormonnes godsunu; ond he his feorh generede, ond beah he was oft gewundad.

Comment on the more remarkable grammatical forms occurring in the above passage.

2. Translate literally :—

Þær wear wicingum wiperlean ägyfen:
gehyrde ic þæt Eadweard anne slōge
swide mid his swurde, swenges ne wyrnde,
þæt him at fötum feoll fæge cempa;
pæes him his peoden panc gesæde,
þām būrthēne, þa he byre hæfde.
Swa stemnetton stichyegende
hyssas æt hilde, hogodon georne
hwa þær mid orde ærost mihte
on fægean menn feorh gewinnan,

wigan mid wæpnum; wæl feoll on eorðan.

Write notes on wīcingum, jāgean, stemnetton. Mention some synonyms of hyssa and hild.

3. Sketch the history of the various forms of strong verbs, up to and including the time of Chaucer.

4. Describe briefly the Cadmonian poems, with special reference to the question of their authorship.


Give some account of Middle English religious poetry. 5. Discuss the place of Ben Jonson in the history of English Drama.


Give an account of the Pastoral in English literature. 6. Examine how far the literary era of Pope may be described as an age of refinement.'

7. Discuss the influence of the scientific and critical spirit on the earlier Victorian literature.



1. Discuss the relation of The Knight's Tale to its Italian source, and illustrate from it Chaucer's distinctive merits as a narrative poet.

2. Render the following passages into modern English, stating the context, and adding any notes that may seem to you desirable :

(a) It is ful fair a man to bere him evene,

For al-day meteth men at unset stevene. (b) For sooth is seyd that love ne lordshipe

Wol noght, hir thankes, have no felawshipe.

(c) The careyne in the bush, with throte y-corve: A thousand slayn, and not of qualm y-storve.

3. Illustrate, from Colin Clout's Come Home Again, the autobiographical elements in Spenser's poetry.

Write notes on- 'The Shepherd of the Ocean'; 'Astrofell'; Urania; Phyllis, Charillis, and Sweet Amyrillis.'

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4. Trace the influence on Henry V. of the 'imperial spirit' of the Elizabethan Age, and on The Tempest of its exploring activity.

5. (a) Examine carefully, with illustrations, the blank verse of Henry V., The Tempest, and Comus, respectively. (b) Contrast the rhymed couplet of Chaucer with that of Dryden.

6. Trace the growth of Milton's Puritan tendencies in the poems written during his residence at Horton.

7. What do you consider Clarendon's special merits as a historical writer ?

8. What are the qualities of Absalom and Achitophel which render it epoch-making in the history of English satire ?



1. Trace carefully the development of Swift's arguments in the Drapier's Letters, and account for the effect produced by these writings.

2. Compare Swift and Pope as satirists, making allowance for the necessary differences between satire in prose and satire in verse.

3. How do Burke's Reflections on the French Revolution illustrate his remarkable political insight and foresight?

4. Compare Wordsworth's blank verse with that of Milton and with that of any other master of blank verse amongst English poets.

5. Criticise Scott's narrative style and method, and comment upon the irregular octosyllabic measure as a vehicle of narrative poetry.

6. Compare Scott's with Wordsworth's powers of describing natural scenery and human character.

7. Describe, after De Quincey, Wordsworth's relations with Coleridge, and the characters of the two poets.

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