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2. Mount a transverse section through the stem. Sketch and briefly describe.

3. Identify and briefly describe specimens C and D.




1. Give an account of the arrangement of the internal organs of a Sea-Urchin, with sketches.

2. Describe the external anatomy of a Cirrhiped, and recapitulate the larval stages it passes through.

3. Describe the nasal cavity of a Rabbit, and compare it with that of (a) a bony Fish, (b) a Frog.

4. Give an account of the notable characters of the endoskeleton of an osseous Fish.

5. Concisely describe the chief peculiarities of the cranium and dentition in Marsupialia.

6. Describe the lymphatic system and its functions.




1. Expose the brain and spinal nerves in the animal provided; sketch, name, and briefly describe.

2. Mount in glycerine a portion of gill; sketch and describe.

3. Identify, name, and briefly describe the specimens provided.


SUMMER, 1902.


N.B. No Candidate can obtain Honours unless he answers satisfactorily on the Honour Questions set at the Examination.



1. Give the substance of Maine's criticism and discussion (in the Early History of Institutions) of the way in which Hobbes and Austin bring under their system such bodies of rules as the English Common Law.

2. How does Maine summarize the theories of modern Irish writers as to the original relations of the Irish tribe and its chief in regard to land?

What view does he himself take on the subject?

3. Give some instances of the difficulties caused by the want or weakness of a sanction in the Brehon law.

4. What is the nearest English counterpart' of the Roman Responsa Prudentum ? What is the essential difference between the two, and what result had this difference in the development of Roman and English law, respectively?

5. The conception of a Will or Testament . . . is a member, and not the first, of a series of conceptions.'

What are these, and what is their dependence upon one another ?

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6. What proofs does ancient law furnish for the theory that the earliest administrators of justice simulated the probable acts of persons engaged in a private quarrel '?

7. What classes of so-called laws are, according to Austin, exceptions to the proposition that laws are a species of commands?

8. In what cases are duties said by Austin to be


With what other duties are these contrasted?

9. What are the necessary elements in

(a) the state of mind called 'a present intention to do a future act';

(b) an attempt ?

10. Upon what ground may the principle be justified. that ignorance of the law is no excuse'?

In certain cases the Roman law allowed such ignorance to be an excuse. How could this be justified?



1. State briefly the purport of the ordinance of William I. in reference to ecclesiastical jurisdiction. Explain the following sentence occurring in the ordinance :-'Ille autem qui vocatus ad justitiam episcopi venire noluerit, pro unaquaque vocatione legem episcopalem emendabit.'

2. What is meant by the phrase town in demesne'? Point out an important difference between the representation of counties and of boroughs in the parliaments of the thirteenth century.

3. What were the provisions of peace' and 'scheme of government' approved by the parliament of 22 June, 1264?

4. In the fourteenth century treatise entitled 'modus tenendi parliamenti' (Stubbs' Charters, Part VII.), what provisions are contained a) De absentia Regis in Parliamento, and (b) De stationibus loquentium?

5. What provisions were made in reference to Civil List Pensions on the accessions of William IV. and Victoria, respectively?

6. What are the tribunals of ultimate appeal, and from what sources do they respectively derive their origin?

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7. Hearne points out that the good old method of stopping supplies' is wholly inappropriate to our modern. constitution.' Discuss this question, and mention the last occasion on which recourse was had to this once great political remedy.

8. What principles in reference to the peerage) were established in the cases of the barony of Grey of Ruthyn and Lord Wensleydale, respectively?

9. Mention the expedients to which recourse was had by Charles I. for the purpose of raising a revenue during the period of what has been called his personal government.

10. The first king of the House of Stuart was in the eye of the law a usurper.'-TASWELL-LANGMEAD.

Discuss the above extract, and state how (in the opinion of its author) James I. subsequently became a legitimate sovereign.



1. In what ways might a testator, by his will, make a bequest of liberty to a slave? Whose freedman did the slave become in each of these cases, respectively? Why was it important to ascertain who was to be patron?

What was the effect of a testator's making a bequest of liberty to another man's slave?

2. Classify praedial servitudes, and mention some of the most important servitudes in each class.

How could such servitudes be created in the time of Justinian ?

3. What were the requisites for the valid execution of a written will in the time of Justinian?

Why was this branch of the law called jus tripertitum ? 4. In what ways might a testament be annulled?

5. Explain :-(a) quarta Antonina; (b) quarta Falcidia; (c) quarta Pegasiana.

6. Explain the nature of the several contracts coming under the head of obligationes quae re contrahuntur.

7. What were the chief provisions of the Lex Aquilia (de damno)?

Distinguish between actiones directae and actiones utiles under that statute.

8. What was meant by an actio noxalis ?

Explain the maxim: omnis noxalis actio caput sequitur. 9. Give an outline of the procedure in a criminal trial taking place before the quaestiones perpetuae.

10. Translate and explain :

Praeterea novatione tollitur obligatio. Veluti si id quod tu Seio debeas, a Titio dari stipulatus sit. Nam interventu novae personae nova nascitur obligatio et prima tollitur translata in posteriorem, adeo ut interdum licet posterior stipulatio inutilis sit, tamen prima novationis iure tollatur; veluti si id quod Titio debebas, a pupillo sine tutoris auctoritate stipulatus fuerit, quo casu res amittitur; nam et prior debitor liberatur et posterior obligatio nulla est. Non idem iuris est, si servo quis stipulatus fuerit, nam tunc prior proinde obligatus manet, ac si postea nullus. stipulatus fuisset. Sed si eadem persona sit, a qua postea stipuleris, ita demum novatio fit, si quid in posteriore stipulatione novi sit, forte si condicio aut dies aut fideiussor adiiciatur aut detrahatur.



1. What was the original meaning of mortmain, and how was that meaning subsequently extended? How could a holding of lands in mortmain be licensed at different periods of English history?

2. What is the difference between a remainder and a reversion? State clearly the rule in Shelley's Case.

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