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Rome and Materialism, 126. Lucretius; his character and tendency,

129. Contents of the First Book ; religion as source of all evil, 132.

Nothing can come from nothing, and nothing can be annihilated,

133. Void space and atoms, 134. Praise of Empedokles ; the in.

finity of the universe, 136. Idea of gravity, 137. Adaptations as

persistent case among all possible combinations, 138. Contents of

the Second Book ; the atoms and their motion, 140. Origin of sen-

sation; the infinite number of originating and perishing worlds, 143.

Contents of the Third Book; the soul, 145. The vain fear of death,

147. Contents of the Fourth Book ; the special anthropology, 149.

Contents of the Fifth Book; cosmogony, 149. The method of pos-

sibilities in the explanation of nature, 150. Development of inan-

kind; origin of speech, of the arts, political communities, 152.

Religion, 155. Contents of the Sixth Book; meteoric phenomena;

discases; Avernian spots, 155. Explanation of magnetic attraction,

157

Pp. 187-214

The Aristotelian confusion of name and thing as basis of the Scholastic

philosophy, 187. The Platonic conception of genus and species, 190.

Fundamental ideas of the Aristotelian metaphysic, 192. Criticism

of Aristotle's notion of Potentiality, 194. Criticism of the notion of

Substance, 198. Matter, 200. Modern modifications of this notion,

201. Influence of the Aristotelian notions on the doctrine of the

soul, 202, The question of Universals ; Nominalists and Realists,

207. Influence of Averroism; of the Byzantine logic, 210. Nomi.

Dalism as forerunner of Empiricism, 213.

CHAPTER III.

THE RETURN MATERIALISTIC THEORIES WITH THE REGENERA-

TION OF THE SCIENCES .

Pp. 215-249

O

Scholasticism as a bond of union in the civilisation of Europe, 215. The

Renascence movement ends with the reform of philosophy, 216. The

doctrine of twofold truth, 218. Averroism in Padua, 219. Petrus

Pomponatius, 220. Nicolaus de Autricuria, 225. Laurentius Valla,

226. Melanchthon and various psychologists of the Reformation

period, 227. Copernicus, 229. Giordano Bruno, 232. Bacon of

Verulam, 236. Descartes, 241. The soul with Bacon and Descartes,

244. Influence of animal psychology, 245. Descartes' system, and

his real opinions, 246.

CHAPTER III.

centuries, 291. Circumstances in England favouring the spread of

Materialism, 292. The union of scientific Materialism with religious

faith ; Boyle and Newton, 298. Boyle; his life and character, 300.

His predilection for experiment, 302. Adheres to the mechanical

theory of the universe, 303. Newton's life and character, 306. Con-

siderations on the true nature of Newton's discovery; he shared the

general belief in a physical cause of gravity, 308. The idea that this

hypothetical agent determines also the motion of the heavenly

bodies lay very near, and the way was already prepared for it, 309.

The reference of the combined influence to the individual particles

was a consequence of Atomism, 311. The supposition of an impon-

derable matter, producing gravitation by its impulse, was already

prepared for, through Hobbes's relative treatment of the notion of

atoms, 311. Newton declares most distinctly against the now pre-

vailing notion of his doctrine, 312. But he separates the physical

from the mathematical side of the question, 314. From the triumph

of purely mathematical achievements arose a new physics, 315. In-

fluence of the political activities of the age on the consequences of

the systems, 317. John Locke, his life and intellectual development,

318. His “ Essay concerning Human Understanding,” 320. Other

writings, 323. John Toland, his idea of a philosophical cultus, 324.

The treatise on “Motion Essential to Matter," 326,

First Book.

HISTORY OF MATERIALISM

UNTIL KANT.

A

VOL. I.

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