« PreviousContinue »
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Rome and Materialism, 126. Lucretius; his character and tendency,
129. Contents of the First Book ; religion as source of all evil, 132.
Nothing can come from nothing, and nothing can be annihilated,
133. Void space and atoms, 134. Praise of Empedokles ; the in.
finity of the universe, 136. Idea of gravity, 137. Adaptations as
persistent case among all possible combinations, 138. Contents of
the Second Book ; the atoms and their motion, 140. Origin of sen-
sation; the infinite number of originating and perishing worlds, 143.
Contents of the Third Book; the soul, 145. The vain fear of death,
147. Contents of the Fourth Book ; the special anthropology, 149.
Contents of the Fifth Book; cosmogony, 149. The method of pos-
sibilities in the explanation of nature, 150. Development of inan-
kind; origin of speech, of the arts, political communities, 152.
Religion, 155. Contents of the Sixth Book; meteoric phenomena;
discases; Avernian spots, 155. Explanation of magnetic attraction,
The Aristotelian confusion of name and thing as basis of the Scholastic
philosophy, 187. The Platonic conception of genus and species, 190.
Fundamental ideas of the Aristotelian metaphysic, 192. Criticism
of Aristotle's notion of Potentiality, 194. Criticism of the notion of
Substance, 198. Matter, 200. Modern modifications of this notion,
201. Influence of the Aristotelian notions on the doctrine of the
soul, 202, The question of Universals ; Nominalists and Realists,
207. Influence of Averroism; of the Byzantine logic, 210. Nomi.
Dalism as forerunner of Empiricism, 213.
THE RETURN MATERIALISTIC THEORIES WITH THE REGENERA-
TION OF THE SCIENCES .
Scholasticism as a bond of union in the civilisation of Europe, 215. The
Renascence movement ends with the reform of philosophy, 216. The
doctrine of twofold truth, 218. Averroism in Padua, 219. Petrus
Pomponatius, 220. Nicolaus de Autricuria, 225. Laurentius Valla,
226. Melanchthon and various psychologists of the Reformation
period, 227. Copernicus, 229. Giordano Bruno, 232. Bacon of
Verulam, 236. Descartes, 241. The soul with Bacon and Descartes,
244. Influence of animal psychology, 245. Descartes' system, and
his real opinions, 246.
centuries, 291. Circumstances in England favouring the spread of
Materialism, 292. The union of scientific Materialism with religious
faith ; Boyle and Newton, 298. Boyle; his life and character, 300.
His predilection for experiment, 302. Adheres to the mechanical
theory of the universe, 303. Newton's life and character, 306. Con-
siderations on the true nature of Newton's discovery; he shared the
general belief in a physical cause of gravity, 308. The idea that this
hypothetical agent determines also the motion of the heavenly
bodies lay very near, and the way was already prepared for it, 309.
The reference of the combined influence to the individual particles
was a consequence of Atomism, 311. The supposition of an impon-
derable matter, producing gravitation by its impulse, was already
prepared for, through Hobbes's relative treatment of the notion of
atoms, 311. Newton declares most distinctly against the now pre-
vailing notion of his doctrine, 312. But he separates the physical
from the mathematical side of the question, 314. From the triumph
of purely mathematical achievements arose a new physics, 315. In-
fluence of the political activities of the age on the consequences of
the systems, 317. John Locke, his life and intellectual development,
318. His “ Essay concerning Human Understanding,” 320. Other
writings, 323. John Toland, his idea of a philosophical cultus, 324.
The treatise on “Motion Essential to Matter," 326,