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Spain, under republican fervour, and that of the past year, it will flicker for a the democratic Constitution of 1812, while, and then totally disappear.” which sets out with the principle of universal suffrage, as now given which all history is filled, are utterly

These, and similar examples, with by Mr Michael Burke, the accuracy inexplicable by the democratic party, of whose observations and predictions and therefore they style history an oid regarding the Peninsula has been so

almanac, and by common consent completely established by recent

make it a rule never to refer to, or events. “ The Constitution of 1812, may now

pay any regard to its disagreeable les

But to any person, who consibe said to rule the kingdom of Spain. Es. tablished for the second time by a military who reflects that it is “ deceitful above

ders the nature of the human heart, insurrection, this form of government, in

all things, and desperately wicked ;" every respect unsuitable to the character

that there is “ no one guiltless, no not of the Spaniards, cannot prove of long duration. The presidents of every consti

one;" and who has observed how tutional junta in the country are military completely these assertions of univerinen, and, with scarcely an exception, the

sal and inherent corruption are conmost unprincipled persons in the nation.

firmed by unvarying experience, both Nor are the other members of these juntas

of the affairs of nations and of single more deserving of public confidence. Com- men, it will appear noways surprising posed for the most part of indigent em- that the attempt to purify the affairs of ployés and petty luwyers, who endeavour to Government, and eradicate the vices grin, in a day or week of revolution, the of its administration, by merely multifortune which their slender talents could plying the number of persons who are never procure for them in peaceable times, to be actuated by its passions, and setheir first measure has invariably been the duced by its temptations, is of all hopeimposition of heavy contributions. It were less undertakings the most hopeless. idle to say that the sums thus raised have And he will probably be of opinion, been made use of for the benefit of the that if democratic institutions ever are

The most vexalious hardships, the to exist with safety in an old state, it most unjust persecution, the most shameful will be in a country where the incesrobbery, and the direst oppression, form the

sant influence of a beneficent religion catalogue of the labours of the constitutional has gone far to uproot the seeds of juntas of Andalusia. Men, however com

wickedness in our common nature, and mendable their conduct may have been

that the first reform which must preduring life, however sincere their admiration of rational liberty, if rich, are sus

cede all others, and is at once the most pected of Carlism, and heavily fined_if important and the most difficult, is the poor, they are not unfrequently cast into

reform of the human heart. He will a loathsome prison, and forced to herd conclude, that till this is done, all atwith common malefactors. Such are the tempts at Republican institutions must auspices under which the groundwork of prove either nugatory or pernicious, Spanish regeneration has commenced. On and that Pope Pius VI. proved himthe 25th of July, Malaga began the revo- self a more profound politician, as well Jution by the assassination of the military as a better man, than any of our moand civil governor of the town; and in dern Reformers, when he said, in 1797, Madrid the idolized Constitution was pro- when still bishop of Imola—“ A declaimed on the 15th of August, and cele- mocratic government is not contrary brated by the murder of General Quesada. to the Gospel ; only it requires those But even the vile populace of Malaga — sublime virtues which cannot be learnthe very galley slaves let loose for the oc

ed but in the school of Jesus Christ. casion-respected the dead bodies of the That virtue, whose duties are previetims. To the people of Madrid—of scribed to us by the light of nature, the heroica villa of Madrid-it was re

and fully brought to light by the served to hack and mangle the corpse of a brace general, and again exhibit to Europe ble of bringing mankind to perfection,

Christian dispensation, is alone capathe horrible barbarity of a scene similar to that represented in Barcelona on the 5th

and preparing them for supreme feliof August, 1835. And can such a sys- city; it and it alone can be the true tem, originating in bloodshed, and sup- foundation of a prosperous democracy. ported by the most cruel exaction, find

Clothed with mere moral virtues, we favour in the eyes of the Spanish people ?

should be but imperfect beings : it is A momentary enthusiasm may exist religious truth which alone can inspire amongat a part of the people ; but, like the graces requisite for general self


government. The foundation of such neral influence of religion as can ena system must be, that every one is to able the people to withstand the seducrespect the rights of his neighbour as tions of power, and keep the rapacity much as his own, which is only an- of indigence from laying its covetous other way of stating the Christian pre- hands on other men's goods. But to cept, to love your neighbour as your- commence the work of regeneration self. The Gospel of Jesus Christ is by destroying religion ; to begin the

. the sole code which can bring man to system of national self-government, perfection, even in the social affairs of by unloosing the bonds of individual this world, and ensure, without dis- self-control ; to imagine that men, returbance, the exercise of those reason- leased from all restraint but their own able privileges, which, assumed as the desires, are to keep their covetous basis of our temporal constitution, are hands off each other, or their bloody not less the foundation of our eternal weapons from mutual destruction, is felicity. Mere human wisdom and vir. certainly, of all human extravagantue leave a frightful void in this parti- ces, the most monstrous. cular : the Gospel alone is capable of The Republicans are aware of the filling it up:

absurdity of this expectation ; but It is not thus, however, that our mo- they have a panacea for this and all dern reformers and esprits forts rea- other political evils. Education is to

The great object of their efforts unloose the Gordian knot : intellecis to ridicule, weaken, and cast down tual, mere intellectual cultivation is to religion ; to establish equality of pri- eradicate all the vices of the human vileges on the ruins of the Church; heart, and by preparing all men for to elevate mere intellectual culti- the duties of self-government, render vation upon a total neglect of moral the sway of rulers unnecessary. This virtues and religious precepts. Cer- is perhaps the grossest delusion under tainly the coalesced herd of Radicals, which the nation has laboured for the rakes, libertines, roués, Dissenters, last half century; and yet, if the suband Papists, have no intention of ject be considered attentively, it is the establishing their Utopian democracy one in which the sophism lies most on the great basis of doing to others completely on the surface. Educaas they would they should do unto tion, that is, the conferring the power them. No men have a weaker sense to read and write, has no tendency of the distinction of meum et tuum; whatever to check crime : it neither none pant more ardently after a gene- disarms passion, nor checks desire : ral system of spoliation and injustice, it confers power, but does not fix the provided only that they are to be the direction which it is to take, or the gainers, not the losers by it ; none are objects to which it is to be applied. more ardent in the pursuit of pleasure. It is an instrument of vast force; but none more unscrupulous in the means whether that force is to be exercised of attaining it. From such men and to good or bad purposes, depends ensuch principles, we say it fearlessly, tirely on the habits of the people to nothing but social ruin, individual suf- whom it is intrusted, and the desires fering, and national decline can be an- in the public mind with which it coticipated. Their very first position, the exists. It is generally considered as necessity, ante omnia, of destroying the the deadliest foe of despotism, and the Church, proves that they are either in- only bulwark of freedom; but this is different to,or ignorant of the only basis a total mistake, and has generally on which a general system of self-go. spread only from the efforts of the vernment, and the practical exercise press in this country having been hiof the powers of administration by the therto chiefly on the side of freedom. people must be founded. If in the But the examples of Imperial France complicated and artificial system of proves that in other circumstances, society in which we live, it is pos- and under the influence of different sible with safety to any class to estab- passions, it may become the most terlish a really practical Democracy, un- rible instrument of Oriental bondage, questionably the only foundation on and of Republican America the sewhich it can be rested, is, such a ge- verest scourge of injured innocence.

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The Devil, it has been well observed, Bulwer in his France, or the Monarchy was the great prototype of the per- of the Middle Classes. “ While crimes fection of intellect without virtue; against the person are most frequent and truly every day's experience de- in Corsica, the provinces of the southmonstrates, that the mere cultiva- east, and Alsace, where the people are tion of the intellectual faculty, with- well instructed, there are the fewest of out a proportionate care of moral those crimes in Berry, Limousin, and and religious instruction, is only Britanny, where the people are the letting loose a legion of devils on the most ignorant. And as for crimes world.

against property, it is almost invariably The bubble of mere intellectual cul- those departments that are the best intivation, however, like most of the formed which are the most criminalother Whig bubbles, is rapidly burst- a fact which, if the tables be not altoing. Experience, that cold invidious gether wrong, must show this to be monitor which drowns so many of their certain, that if instruction do not infantasies, has laid his chill grasp on crease crime, which may be a matter this pernicious dogma ; statistical de- of dispute, there is no reason to betails have demolished the dreams of hu- lieve that it diminishes it.' man perfectibility. For forty years To illustrate this important statistipast the most indefatigable efforts have cal truth, M. Guerry has prepared been made both by Government and maps of all the eighty-six departments private societies to promote education, of France, from which it distinctly apin England, France, and Germany; pears, that wherever the number of and the result is precisely analogous educated persons is the greatest, there to what revelation long ago declared, crime is most frequent, and that wherthat wherever knowledge among the ever it is the least, crime is most rare, great body of mankind is made in- and without any regard to the density strumental to diffusing that religion of the population, the prevalence of mawhich was preached to the poor, it is nufactures, or almost any other cause. productive of the most blessed effects; The tables on which these maps are if it is for a time severed from this founded, drawn from the laborious reconnexion, and made to rest on intel- turns which the French Government lectual culti tion only, it becomes ave obtained from all the departments the grand and most prolific source of their empire, are so important, and of evil.

so utterly fatal to the whole school In France, we need not now tell our of mere intellect-cultivation, that we readers, an experiment has been made make no apology for transcribing on a great scale for the last half cen- them in a note for the information tury, of extending, as far as possible, of our readers. With truth does the intellectual cultivation, and at the liberal but candid Mr Bulwer add, same time depressing religion, so as to “ Mr Guerry bowls down at once all render it, in all but the rural parishes, the ninepins with which late statistipractically speaking, a mere enfeebled cal writers had been amusing themrelic of the olden time. Now attend selves, and again sets up many of the to the result of this great experiment, old notions, which, from their very upon the growth of crime, and the pro- antiquity, were out of vogue." I gress of human depravity, as evinced In Great Britain, the whole expein the accurate and elaborate statisti- rience of later times, since the educacal tables of M. Guerry, a liberal tion-mania has been systematically writer, enamoured of popular educa- embraced by the Whig party, and tion and democratic institutions, and largely acted upon by all classes of the who is in consequence utterly bewil- people, goes to prove that the increase dered by the result of the returns of crime, instead of having been diwhich he himself has digested in so minished in consequence, has been luminous an order. The result is thus greatly increased. The returns from given in his own words, which haye been two great penitentiaries, the Coldquoted with great candour by Mr bathfields house of correction, and

Bulwer's France, i. 182 ; and Guerry, 264. † We have been obliged to leave them out.

# Bulwer, i. 172.



the Glasgow bridewell, demonstrate, and alarming fact, namely, that the that in the last year, the educated pri- increase of crime, of late years, has soners were to the uneducated, in the been much more rapid in England and proportion, taking an average of the Wales than that of the population ; two, of about 7 to 1: a much greater and that in Scotland, where education proportion than the educated class ex- is almost universal, it is more rapid ceeds the uneducated over the whole than in England. The following is island.* But the same inference is the increase of crime in England and deducible from a still more general Wales, from 1820 to 1832 :

Population. 1820 13,710




16,564 11,978,875 1822 12,241


18,675 1823 12,263






20,829+ 13,894,574 1826

16,164 Thus, while the population, from 1821 to 1831, added about a sirth to its numbers, crime added a half to its victims. And this was the period when the education mania was at its height. The total persons committed in the

Population. 7 Years ending 1818




13,089,000 Thus, from 1812 to 1832, crime on that unhappy land, and the total over England and Wales has just inefficiency of such education to corDOUBLED ; while the population has rect their combined influence.|| only advanced, during the same pe- Our limits will not permit us to enriod, I somewhat under a half.

ter upon the corresponding facts which In Scotland, where education is so we have accumulated from America. general, the criminals committed in Suflice it to say, that the United States 1832 were 2431, which, for a popula- afford still stronger demonstration of tion of 2,400,000, is as nearly as pos- the total inadequacy of education to sible one in 1000 : indicating a much correct the corruption of our nature more rapid increase than in England ; or arrest the progress of crime, and for in 1812, the committals were not that it is admitted by Beaumont and 500 over the whole counties to the Tocqueville, the great advocates of innorth of the Tweed.

struction, and the enlightened travel In Ireland, in the year 1832, the lers in that interesting Republic: committals were 16,056, on a popula- “ Nevertheless, we do not think that tion of 8,000,000, or about 1 to 500. you can attribute the diminution of And there, the proportion of persons crimes in the northern states of the who can read is fully as great as in Union to instruction ; because in Coneither Scotland or England : an ex- necticut, where there is far more intraordinary proof of the combined ef- struction than in New York, crime infect of agitation and the Catholic faith creases with a terrible rapidity; and


Coldbathfields prison, 1835, average of prisoners

Prisoners educated, 863

Prisoners uneducated, 104 Glasgow Bridewell, 1835, average of prisoners.

Prisoners educated, 274

Prisoners uneducated, 52 From these facts, the chaplain of Coldhathfields draws the conclusion, “ That it is not the want of education, but the absence of principle, which leads to crime.”

† Porter's Parl. Tables, i. 139. # Porter's Parl. Tables, ii. 81, and i. 139. & Parl. Return. Porter, ii. 87. || Ibid. ii. 87.


if one cannot accuse knowledge as the the result of observation, alike in the cause of this, one is obliged to acknow- past and the present, is, that it is ledge it is no prevention."*

not in the cultivation of the intellec. Nothing can be more plain, there. tual faculties that an antidote to the fore, than that this, the great panacea corruption of our nature is to be found, of the Liberal party—the vast rege. but that the only real regeneration, nerator which is to banish sin from either of society or of its political inthe world, and fit men for the impor- stitutions, must begin with those meatant duties of self-government, is a to- sures which augment the spread and tal delusion, and that mere intellectual increase the influence of that faith, education, so far from qualifying the which, setting itself in the outset to masses for political rights and the safe root out the seeds of evil in the huexercise of democratic powers, in real- man heart, can alone prepare men, ity renders them more than ever unfit by successfully governing themselves, for them, by increasing, on the one to take a useful part in the direction hand, the restless activity of their of others. minds, and augmenting, on the other, The

way in which general instructhe depraved tastes, corrupt desires, tion, when unaccompanied with a proand unbridled passions, which lead portional cultivation of the moral and them to turn that activity to wicked religious feelings, acts in this way, is, purposes. This fact, which utterly to any person practically acquainted bewilders the whole Liberal school — with the middling and lower orders, which is, literally speaking, to the perfectly apparent. It extends the Jews a stumblingblock, and to the desires of the heart and the cravings Greeks foolishness—with which Lord of the passions to a degree inconsisBrougham and all those smitten by tent with the destiny of the great mathe education-mania are sore per. jority of mankind on earth. In numplexed, without knowing how to ex- bers of the working classes it induces tricate themselves from its weight, is a disinclination to physical labour, by perfectly intelligible to, and was all which alone they can be rendered along predicted alike by the calm ob- comfortable, and a desire for intellecservers of human nature, who took tual pleasures or exertion, in which experience for their guide, and the line they cannot earn a decent livelisimple believers, who, without going hood. It drives them, in consequence, farther than the gospel, were aware into those desperate circumstances, that in religion alone was an antidote and induces that recklessness of conto the poisonous fruit of the tree of duct, which is at once the parent and knowledge to be found. Miss Edge. the excuse of crime. In all ranks it worth showed her knowledge when engenders an uneasy restlessness and she put into the mouth of one of her dissatisfaction with their condition, characters --" Edication will do a which is the fruitful parent of disorgreat deal, but it won't change the ders both private and political. By magnatur that is in them." History in nifying to the imagination the pleaevery age has taught, that it was in sures of wealth, while it induces à disthe latest ages of society that know- satisfaction with bodily labour, it both ledge was most generally diffused, and strengthens the temptations to vice corruption most widely spread. Ex- and weakens the habits by which perience every where around us shows, alone competence can be safely and that in those situations where the hu- honestly acquired. By clothing in a man race is most densely massed to- more voluptuous and seductive form gether, instruction, at least on poli- than they naturally possess the pleatical subjects, is most common, and sures of sense, it adds fuel to a fame depravity of every sort most abun- which already burns fiercely enough dant. Coupling these facts together, in the human heart. By strengthen


Beaumont and Tocqueville, Sur les Pénitentiaires d'Amerique, 204. † M. Guerry states, that sexual irregularity is in every part of France just in proportion to the spread of information, and that almost all the prostitutes of Paris come from the highly educated and excited departments of the north and east. (See Guerry, 174.) There are 2,300,000 bastards in that country, and no less than 1,092,910 individuals who have been abandoned from their birth by their parents, and brought up by public hospitals.

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