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the army of the Duke of York in the pleasure is predominant in most men, Netherlands. The issue of this un- he did not shrink from the dangers fortunate expedition is well known. or hardships of the service, but was The Duke retreated, followed by the determined to seek distinction whereenemy, and several severe encounters ever it could be found. took place. The campaign termina- When Colonel Wellesley arrived in ted by the re-embarkation of the India the Company's territories were troops in the spring of 1795. During in a state of profound peace.
But the retreat, Colonel Wellesley com- the peace was treacherous, for never manded a brigade, and on several oc- were our Eastern possessions in a casions was engaged with the enemy. state of greater peril than at that moDuring these inglorious operations ment. Lord Wellesley, who arrived there were of course few honours to at Calcutta in the spring of the folbe gained; but his conduct was such lowing year as Governor-general, foras to attract the applause of Sir James tunately possessed not only the sagaCraig and several other generals of city to discover the secret machinadistinction. The fact is interesting, tions of the native powers, but the as it enables us to discern the first wisdom and decision to disconcert dawning of that reputation which sub- them. It becomes necessary that we sequently filled the whole horizon with should here briefly advert to the po its light.
litical events which gave rise to the After his return to England, Colo- second Mysore war, in order that the nel Wellesley did not long remain in reader may fully understand the milithe enjoyment of inglorious ease. The tary services to which his attention 33d regiment was ordered to the West will subsequently be directed. Indies, and sailed with that destina- The war of 1789, though it had tion. After being six weeks at sea, greatly diminished the power of Tiphowever, the fleet was driven back by poo Sultan, had neither converted him tempestuous weather, and the regi- into a safe friend, nor deprived him ment relanded. In a few weeks it of the power of becoming a formidaembarked for India, and, with its ble enemy. He had been compelled, commander, reached Bengal in Fe- it is true, to cede nearly one half of bruary 1797.
his territories to the Company and It is evident, we think, from the their allies, but he still ruled with abfacts above narrated, that from the solute power over a country nearly very commencement of his military two hundred thousand square miles in life, young Wellesley devoted himself extent, with a revenue and population with zeal and ardour to the duties of equal to maintaining an army of his profession. He was no holyday 150,000 men. Tippoo was a man of soldier; he did not belong to that bold and martial temperament, though numerous, and, we fear, increasing not of high talents, and the blow which class, who seek in the army merely an fell on him at the termination of the agreeable mode of passing a few years, former war in 1792, seems to have irand quit it whenever they are ordered ritated him almost to madness. From to an unpleasant station, or succeed that time his whole soul was occupied to fortune by the death of a relation. with schemes of vengeance, and he Such men regard the service as a pas- waited only for a favourable conjunctime rather than a profession. Their ture to employ all his great resources lot is not permanently cast in it, and in attacking the British. His territhey look upon its duties as things to tory was most favourably situated for be performed when necessary, and the hostile purpose he entertained. The avoided when possible. Very different Mysore country occupied a central posifrom that of such men was the course tion between oursettlements, and might of Wellington's early life.
be said to command their communicatered the service with the true spirit tion by land, while by a sudden irof a soldier. We have seen that in * ruption into the Carnatic, he could at Flanders his zeal and exemplary any moment place Madras in a situaconduct were conspicuous : That he tion of great peril. Judging by the embarked for the West Indies, and contents of the papers which fell into subsequently accompanied his regi- our possession by the capture of Sement to the East. It thus appears ringapatam, this was the favourite prothat even at an age when the love of ject of Tippoo, and to promote it
success he had secretly kept up a sued an invitation to all French citifriendly communication with the Na- zens to join the standard of Tippoo, bob of the Carnatic, and of whose and it was speedily ascertained that a good wishes he felt secure.
considerable number had actually been Though the British Government in conveyed to Mangalore by a French India were of course aware of Tippoo's frigate. Intelligence also reached character, and regarded him with some Calcutta, that the Sultan had despatchjealousy, still they appear to have ed envoys to Zemaun Shah, the sovebeen by no means apprehensive of any reign of Cabul, urging him to invade immediate demonstration of hostility the British territories from the north. from Mysore. For some time previous Lord Wellesley no sooner became the Sultan had been occupied in re- aware of the hostile intentions of the ducing some refractory Poligars, and Sultan, than he adopted the most vigowas therefore supposed to be in no rous measures to prevent their execucondition to molest any of his neigh- tion. He immediately sent orders to bours. In case of aggression, how- General Harris, the commander-inever, there were few of the native chief at Madras, to assemble all his powers whose fidelity could be relied disposable force in the Carnatic, and
Our chief ally, the Nizam Sou- proceeded in person to Fort St George, bahdar of the Deccan, had, in a recent in order to be nearer to the scene of war with the Peshwah, suffered great action, and thus accelerate the arrangereverses, and retained in his service a ments. From thence he again wrote corps of 14,000 men, commanded by to Tippoo, expressing surprise that his a French adventurer named Raymond, former communications had remained and the subordinate officers of which unanswered, and threatening dangerwere likewise French. These men ous consequences in case he should not were all eager partizans of the French instantly furnish a satisfactory explaRepublic, and
the tricolor nation of his intentions. Even this cockade. It was even expected that letter, however, drew forth no they would quit the French standard sponse, and the business of military at Hyderabad, the capital ; and the preparation went vigorously on, notNizam, though personally faithful to withstanding the apprehensions of his alliance with the Company, was of many of the most experienced officers, too feeble and irresolute a character who assured Lord Wellesley that an to free himself from the domination of immediate war with the Sultan must these mercenaries.
expose the Madras territory to immiAll remained calm, however, when nent danger. Lord Wellesley arrived at Calcutta. A At this period the political slight difference, it is true, had arisen horizon was dark beyond precewith the Sultan, relative to some dent. The Sultan had largely infrontier districts of little value, which creased his army, and was a formihe alleged had been unwarrantablydable enemy. The French in Egypt occupied by the Company. On inves- were in the full career of success. Zetigation the claim was discovered to maun Shah threatened invasion from be just, and the first communications the north. The army of our chief of Lord Wellesley announced that these ally the Nizam was officered by French districts should be restored. The in- mercenaries, who, on the breaking out tentions of the Government, therefore, of hostilities, would undoubtedly join were decidedly pacific, but a circum- the Sultan, and the fidelity of the stance at this moment occurred, by Nabob of the Carnatic, whose territowhich the political aspect of India ries would most probably become the became entirely changed. A procla- scene of immediate war, was not to be mation by General Malartic, governor depended on. of the Mauritius, reached Calcutta, Lord Wellesley, however, was not which announced the arrival of two appalled, and the policy with which he ambassadors from the Sultan of My- • met these dangers was distinguished sore, proposing an offensive and defen- by its wisdom and boldness. By negosive alliance, for the purpose of expel- tiations with the Nizam, he succeeded ling the English from India. The in obtaining the consent of that soveauthenticity of this document was at reign to the dishanding of the corps of first doubted, but was soon abundantly Raymond, and to a treaty containing a confirmed. General Malartic had is. stipulation that all the French serving
in his army should be sent to Europe. and his army to bring the war to a To enforce the execution of this ar- successful termination. rangement, he moved an additional The advance of General Harris was force into the Deccan, and a mutiny slow, for his army was encumbered having fortunately broken out in the with materials for siege, and deFrench corps, it was immediately sur- lays were occasioned by the failure of rounded and disarmed. No bloodshed the carriage bullocks, which died in occurred, and Lord Wellesley had the great numbers during the march. It satisfaction of perceiving that one of was the 27th of March before the the dangers he had most dreaded was army reached Mallavelly, where the at once happily removed.
army of Tippoo became for the first At length, the preliminary arrange- time visible. It was drawn up on ments being complete, on the 3d some high ground, and manifested a of February the Governor-General disposition to attack. issued an order for the advance of ment ensued. Colonel Wellesley's brithe army into the Mysore territory. gade, consisting of the 33d regiment, The invasion took place simultane- and some battalions of the Nizam's ously from different points. General infantry, formed the left of the army, Harris, with the main body of the supported by the regular cavalry army, entered from the Carnatic. under General Floyd. The King's General Stuart, with the Bombay troops were stationed on the right. force from the west ; while two corps, Tippoo observing an opening beamounting together to about 9000, tween two brigades, immediately atand commanded by Colonel Brown tempted to penetrate with his cavaland Colonel Read, advanced from the ry. The British, on the right, howsouthern districts of the Carnatic and ever, succeeded in outflanking his left, the Baramahl. The whole strength and no bad consequences resulted of the invading force may be estimat from the movement. The right of the ed at 55,000 men.
Mysore army was strongly posted on The Sultan, alarmed by these power- a rocky height. Against this, Colonel ful and combined demonstrations of Wellesley advanced in echellon of bathostility, at length endeavoured to talions, supported by the cavalry. temporize. He wrote to Lord Wel. The ememy advanced to meet the lesley, consenting to receive a minis- attack, but were soon driven back in ter charged with the proposals of the disorder, and General Floyd, taking British Government, a measure to advantage of the opportunity thus which he had hitherto refused his con- afforded, charged with his cavalry, sent. But the concession came too and their confusion became complete. late. The season for military opera
The conduct of the 33d regiment dutions had arrived, and further delay ring this engagement was admirable. would have been at once impolitic They charged gallantly with the bayand dangerous. It would have secured onet, with complete success. to Tippoo another year of impunity, General Harris, instead of taking and enabled him to consolidate and the usual route to Seringapatam, perfect his means of resistance. Gene- crossed the Cauvery at Sosilay. In ral Harris, therefore, was directed to the former war, Lord Cornwallis had continue his movement on Seringapa- been unable to discover a practicable tam, and the Sultan was informed that ford to the southward of Seringapaany further proposals he might be de- tam, and had been compelled, in consirous of making must be addressed sequence, to make a long detour to to General Harris, to whom full the north. This movement, therefore, powers as a negotiator had been de- disappointed the calculations of the legated.
Sultan. It is difficult otherwise to The Sultan, thus attacked on all account for his total inaction at this sides, seems to have been stricken critical juncture. He fell back on his with a presentiment of his approach. •capital; and, on the 5th of April, the ing fate. It is certain, at least, that army of General Harris took up its he displayed little of that skill and position for the siege. The ground activity, so remarkable in his conduct selected was opposite the western face of the former war, when it required of the fort. The right was posted on the utmost efforts of Lord Cornwallis elevated ground, gradually declining
towards the left flank, which was co- abled him to keep up an annoying vered by the aqueduct and the river fire of rockets on the camp.
There Cauvery. The aqueduct was of con- were also several villages in front, siderable importance as an intrench- from which it was deemed proper to ment. For some distance it took an dislodge him. We extract the foleasterly direction, and then turned off lowing letter, which was found among towards a tope or thicket, which af- the papers of the late General Lord forded cover to the enemy, and en- Harris:
6 Colonel the Hon, A. Wellesley to Lieut.- General Harris.
** MY DEAR Sir,
Camp, 5th April, 1799. “ I do not know where you mean the post to be established, and I shall therefore be obliged to you if you will do me the favour to meet me this afternoon in front of the lines, and show it to me. In the mean time I will order my battalion to be in readiness.
Upon looking at the tope as I came in just now, it appeared to me, that when you get possession of the bank of the Nullah, you have the tope as a matter of course, as the latter is in the rear of the former. However, you are the best judge, and I will be ready.
“ I am, my dear Sir," &c.
The tope alluded to in the above enemy fired under cover, and the 33d letter was the same which Colonel regiment, in particular, suffered seWellesley led a column to attack after verely. The extreme darkness of nightfall. It consisted of the 33d the night rendered the smallest disregiment and a native battalion; and order in the assailants an irreparable Colonel Shaw, with the 12th regi- misfortune, and Colonel Wellesley, ment, and two sepoy battalions, at finding it impracticable to carry the the same time advanced to drive tope judiciously, confined his operathe enemy from the villages. The tions to causing a diversion in favour attack of Wellesley on the tope failed, of Colonel Shaw. Admitting, thereand Colonel Shaw, with great diffi- fore, that the attack failed, the follow. culty, was enabled to retain posses- ing extract from Lord Harris's prision of one of the villages. All mili- vate journal proves that, in his tary men are aware that the success opinion, not the slightest blame atof night attacks is uniformly precari- tached to the conduct of Colonel
In the present instance, the Wellesley :
A literal extract from the private Diary of Lieut - General Harris, Commander-in
Chief of the British Army marching in the Mysore country in the year 1799, between the 4th and 8th of April.
“ 4th April. Commissioned General Baird to form a party of not less than the flank companies of his brigade, supported by the picquets, to beat up a tope in front of the ground the picquet was on, and said to have had parties of men with arms assembling on it. It appears to me, from the report, they are only intended for rocketing ; but our beating them up, instead of their attempting us, will have the best effect; for if our intelligence is true, his whole army are in a complete state of terror ; of course we should keep it so.
“ 5th April. Marched to Seringapatam ; rocketed a little on the march. our ground nearly for the siege. Concluded the arrangement for detaching General Floyd and General Stuart. Formed parties for the attack of the post occupied formerly by the Bombay troops, and the tope of Sultaunpettah. Lieut.-Colonel Shawe to command the detachment for the Bombay post'; Colonel Wellesley that of the tope, as being composed of his own people. Remained under great anxiety till near twelve at night, from the fear our troops had fired on each other. Lieut.-Colonel Shawe very soon reported liimself in possession of the post ; but a second firing commenced, and as he had previously sent to know what had become of the two native battalions, I could not be satisfied but that, in the dark, they had mistaken each other. It proved that all the firing was from the enemy, his Majesty's 12th regiment scarcely firing a shot the whole night. Near twelve, Colonel Wellesley came to my tent in a good deal of agitation, to say he had not carried the tope. It proved that the 33d, with which he attacked, got into confusion and could not be formed, which was a great pity, as it must be particularly unpleasant to him. Altogether, circumstances considered, we got off vety well. General Baird's expedition of last night so far answered our expectations, as he fell in with a small party of the enemy's horse, and cut up eight or ten of them, which will tend to prevent their plaguing us with rockets, I trust. He missed his road coming back, although one would have thought it impossible ; no wonder night attacks so often fail. “ 6th April.
Determined to make another attack on the tope, Lieut.-Colonel Bowser's and Halyburton's corps, with the Scotch brigade (supported by the 25th dragoons and 2d regiment native cavalry, on seeing the Sultan's cavalry appearing from the fort), were destined to assist in this service, and, with scarcely any opposition, carried it.
Sunday the 7th. Yesterday evening walked down to the advanced post with Baird and Macleod. Found it very strong against so contemptible an enemy as we have to deal with; and such as may, with a little trouble, be made very strong against any. How fortunate thus to find a good parallel prepared to our hands! The fort fired a great deal yesterday, with no other effect than furnishing shot to us. A long line of cavalry seen coming out of the fort about twelve ; reported at three, by Colonel Wellesley, to have come more round our right; and that he has therefore ordered the battalions we spoke of when looking what they were about, on the road which leads to Periapatam. Our foraging party coming in fast ; but this cannot be their object, and they would move more rapidly than they have done. Great many of us much fatigued. Beatson, among the rest, very much relaxed and weak. Our duties pretty severe ; but if the whole is not pressed on with vigour we shall fail ; for no doubt there will be more difficulties to overcome than we yet forsee.
" Monday, 8th. Visited the post taken possession of by Colonel Wellesley on the 6th instant. Found it a continuation of the nullah which makes Shawe's post, but not so favourable in that part for keeping hold of. Directed a burnt village, on a rise above the Nullah, to be made the right hand post, by barricading the streets and cutting down the walls to six feet, thickening them next the fort, and putting a banquette within. Brisk cannonade from the fort. Colonel Close brought Dallas and Hart to speak about the bullock drivers, &c.”
On the following day, General the river to the village of SultaunpetHarris directed three simultaneous tah. attacks to be made, with a view to We insert the following notes and drive the enemy from the whole line letters, because they afford evidence of his outposts. That on the Sultaun- of the general activity and vigilance pettah tope was again intrusted to displayed by Colonel Wellesley in the Colonel Wellesley. On this occasion discharge of his duty. They are init was completely successful. The teresting, too, as Colonel Gurwood other columns likewise succeeded in justly observes, from the illustration dislodging the enemy on the right they afford of the degree in which and left, and by these assaults Gene- even the details of the army he comral Harris was enabled to occupy a manded were conducted by General strong connected line, formed chiefly Harris :by the aqueduct, and extending from
“ Colonel the Hon. A. Wellesley to Lieut.-General Harris.
“ MY DEAR SIR,
Camp, 6th April, 1799. “ I find that by moving Malcolm's corps to the rear a little, and by an arrangement of my posts on my right and rear, I shall be able to protect Meer Allum, the brinjarries, the park, and the cavalry from any attempts that may be made by horse and rocket boys, which alone seem to me to be destined to annoy us in that quarter.
“ I shall now go out and see what support I can give to my post at Sul. taunpettah, and will report to you on my return.
"I am, my dear Sir,"' &c.