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proud Rajpoot, whose family had for ages been of high consideration, chafed at this subjection to a lowborn Mahratta, and took advantage of the general confusion in 1857 to rebel against him. With the British he always declared he had no quarrel. Sindiah, however, was our ally, and our columns attacked his rebellious vassal when they came across him, without putting themselves much out of the way to hunt him up. The latter never retaliated. Two officers travelling along the grand trunk road in October, encamped at one end of a village, while Maun Singh was at the other, and he sent to beg they would not disturb themselves. Having never committed himself by any of the murderous acts which disgraced other leaders, and seeing the hopelessness of a struggle against Sindiah backed by us, Maun Singh resolved to make his peace by betraying Tantia Topee, with the secret of whose haunts he was well acquainted, and for whom, as a Mahratta Brahmin, he had small sympathy. He came to Brigadier Smith's camp with his proposals, and asked for twenty sepoys of the

10th Bombay Native Infantry, unaccompanied by a European officer, to carry them out. Our camp, he said, was so infested by spies, that the departure of a European officer with ever so small a detachment, would be noticed and watched. Tantia Topee had recovered from his fatigues, and retired to rest one night in April, intending the following day to rejoin his friend the Rao Sahib. He had set no guard, and awoke at midnight to find himself bound hand and foot by the sepoys. During his short imprisonment Tantia behaved with dignity, showing neither fear nor sullenness, and answering any questions which were asked. He was hanged at sepree. The Rao Sahib has not been heard of for long. Feroze Shah still haunts the wild country in Bundlecund and the banks of the Soane, in spite of all the efforts of our police and irregulars to dislodge him. It is more agreeable to get rid of such wretches by British steel than by British gold, but if another Maun Singh can be found to deliver them to justice, we shall not shed tears over their fate.


[Part of a letter written by Mr Chase to his sister, giving her an account of the Great Earthquake which happened at Lisbon in the year 1755.]

ABOUT three-quarters after nine o'clock in the morning, on Saturday the 1st of November 1755, I was alone in my bed-chamber, four stories from the ground, opening a bureau, when a shaking or trembling of the earth (which I knew immediately to be an earthquake), gentle at first, but gradually becoming violent, much alarmed me. Turning round to look at the window, the glass seemed to be falling out. Surprised at the continuation of the motion, and calling to mind the miserable fate of Callao, in the Spanish West Indies, I dreaded like catastrophe ; and, remembering that our house was so old and weak that any heavy carriage passing made it shake throughout, I ran directly into the Arada, to see if the neighbouring houses were agitated with the same violence. This place was a single room at the top of the house, with windows all round the roof, supported by stone pillars. It was only one story higher than my chamber, but commanded a prospect of some part of the river, and of all the lower part of the city, from the King's Palace up to the Castle. I was no sooner up the stairs than the most horrid prospect that imagination can figure appeared before my eyes! The house began to heave to that degree, that, to prevent being thrown down, I was obliged to put my arm out of a window and support myself by the wall. Every stone in the wall separating and grinding against each other (as did the walls of the other houses, with variety of different motions), causing the most dreadful jumbling noise ears ever heard. The adjoining wall of Mr Goddard's room fell first; then followed all the upper part of his house, and of every other as far as I could see towards the Castle, when, turning my eyes quick to the front of the room (for I thought the whole city was sinking into the earth), I saw the tops of two of the pillars meet, and saw no more. I had resolved to throw myself upon

the floor, but suppose I did not; for I immediately felt myself falling, and then, after I know not how long, just as if waking from a dream, with confused ideas, I found my mouth stuffed full of something that with my left hand I strove to get out; and not being able to breathe freely, struggled till my head was quite disengaged from the rubbish. In doing this I came to myself, and, recollecting what had happened, supposed the earthquake to be over; and from what I had so lately seen, expected to find the whole city fallen to the ground, and myself at the top of the ruins. When attempting to look about me, I saw four high walls near fifty feet above me (the place where I lay was about ten feet in length and scarcely two feet wide), without either door or window in any of them. Astonished to the last degree at my situation, I remembered that there was such a place between the houses; and, having seen the upper parts of both fall, concluded that either the inhabitants must be all destroyed, or at least that there was no probability of their looking down. there again time enough for my preservation; so that, struck with horror at the shocking thought of being starved to death, immured in that manner, I remained stupefied, till the still falling tiles and rubbish made me seek for shelter under a small arch in the narrow wall opposite my head as I lay, at the bottom of which there appeared to be a little hole quite through it. Upon approaching the aperture, with difficulty dragging myself out of the rubbish, I found it much larger than I had imagined; and, first getting in my head and arm, by degrees I pulled all my body after, and fell about two feet into a small dark place, arched over at the top, which I supposed to be only a support for the two walls; till, feeling about, I found on one side a narrow passage, that led me round a place like an oven, into a little room, where

stood a Portuguese man covered with dust, who, the moment he saw me coming in that way, starting back and crossing himself all over, cried out, as their custom is when much surprised, "Jesus, Mary, and Joseph! who are you? where do you come from?"-of which being informed, he placed me in a chair. This done, clasping his hands together, he lifted them and his eyes towards the ceiling, in show of the utmost distress and concern. This made me examine myself, which before I had not leisure to do. My right arm bung down before me motionless, like a dead weight, the shoulder being out and the bone broken; my stockings were cut to pieces, and my legs covered with wounds; the right ankle was swelled to a prodigious size, with a fountain of blood spouting upwards from it; the knee also was much bruised, and my left side felt as if beat in, so that I could scarcely breathe; all the left side of my face likewise swelled up-the skin was beat off, and the blood streaming from it; with a great wound above, and a small one below the eye, and several bruises on my back and head. Barely had I perceived myself to be in this mangled condition, when another shock, threatening as the first, came on. The Portuguese flew directly out of the door. The violence of the shock, and the falling of the houses, with the screams of the people, made me again seek shelter below the arch I had entered in at; where waiting till it had abated, I returned back again, and, nobody appearing, went out at the same door I had seen the man do, in hopes to find him again, or meet with some other person; but instead of a room as I expected, it was only a narrow staircase, which with a few steps brought me, to my surprise, into the street, not imagining myself to have been so near it. The people were all at prayers, covered with dust, and the light appeared as of a dark cloudy day; when, flattering myself that my legs might still support me to the water-side, I turned and saw the street below (which was very narrow) filled with fallen houses as high as the tops of the remaining ones. I then, in hopes to get into the country, advanced a few steps up the hill,

but the same sad prospect appeared above! and in a street to the right I saw no other. I knew not what to do, my strength failed, and I fell prostrate just where the three streets met. I then thought myself so much past all assistance, that though Mr Branfill, Mr Goddard, and their people came to the very spot where I lay, I spoke not to any of them, although they stood close by me, till Mr John Ernest Jorg, a German, and merchant of the city of Hamburg, coming to his door, told them he saw no way for their escaping out of the city; therefore begged they would go up into a garden he had by the top of his house, which was the safest place he knew of. This they complied with, and how long afterwards I lay there I know not; but, recovering a little strength, I raised myself up, and set my back against the wall of this gentleman's house, who appearing again at his door, I heard him say, "What miserable wretch is this? He seems by his dress to be a stranger,"-and coming down from his door round to the other side of my face, he cried out, "Dear Mr Chase, what a shocking sight is this! Let me carry you up-stairs, and try what we can do for you." My answer was, “Many thanks, but it is now too late." "Never think so," said he; "I hope the worst is past, and you shall have the very first assistance that can be procured:" then calling some of his people, he had me conveyed up-stairs, and put me in a chair till he had got me something to drink; and a bed being made ready, he laid me there, desiring me to compose myself as much as possible.

But he had not left me long, before another shock made me lay my left arm over my eyes, expecting soon to be released from further misery, till all the plaster falling from the walls covered the bed, causing such a dust that I was roused to exert all my strength to open the door just at the bed's head, and get out. The noise I made soon brought Mr Jorg out of his garden, when, begging of him to lay me there with the other people, to abide the common chance, he said there was a room on one side of it, and he would order a bed to be

made ready immediately He placed me there accordingly, telling me he had already sent for the English surgeon, Mr Scrafton; but his house was down, and there was no knowing what had become of him. Mr Jorg and Mrs Goddard came constantly between the shocks (now much less violent and frequent), to offer me their assistance; and during one of the intervals Mr Jorg and his uncle dressed my leg with some plasters that they happened to have in the house.

Mr Jorg's uncle would not go into the garden during the shocks, but remained in the house, declaring he had lived a long time, and if it so pleased Providence, he was as ready to die in that manner as in any other. Mrs Goddard also acquainted me with the deaths of several already known (whose fate I then thought much happier than my own), and that three fires had broken out in the city, which did not then alarm me much. One of the fires and a large part of the city I could see from the bed as I lay, for I was now again at the top of a high house, some part of which had fallen, and the remainder was much shattered.

About two o'clock, the earth having enjoyed some little respite, the cloud of dust was dissipated; and the sun appearing, we began to hope the worst was over; as indeed it was with regard to earthquakes, but still every succeeding shock, though it did little harm, was attended with the same dread and terror as the foregoing ones. However, this made the people in the garden (consisting of English, Irish, Dutch, and Portuguese) recover spirits enough to think of attempting to get out of the ruinous city; when Mr Jorg, wholly intent on assisting everybody, desired them only just to stay to eat some fish he had ordered to be got ready, and they would then be the better enabled to bear any future fatigue. To oblige his great care I ate a little, without any inclination; imagining, from the painful condition I was in, a very few hours more would release me from further suffering; nor did anybody hitherto flatter me with other hopes. This was one reason, as well as knowing that all people

were so intent upon their own preservation as not to be at leisure to assist others, that I suffered Mr Jorg's garden by degrees to grow quite empty-and Mr Branfill, Mr Goddard, and their people, after dining and taking leave of me, to go away without asking their assistance, or even desiring them to send any help to me, till finding Mr Jorg was left with only his old uncle, an old lame lady of his acquaintance, whom he had sent his servants to fetch from her house (where she was left alone, and very probably would have perished had he not thought of her), and two or three of his people; and supposing he intended to quit his house, I begged of him to endeavour to hire some people to carry me out of town. He said he feared it would be impossible that all his servants but one had left him, and the city was quite deserted; that if it was my request, he would try, but for his own part, he was determined to take the fate of his house, as he thought venturing out of it would be only to encounter greater danger; and in my condition he would advise me to do the same. This assurance quite satisfied me, little imagining how much more distress I had still to support.

All that afternoon I passed in most melancholy reflections, whilst the flames spread everywhere within my view with inexpressible swiftness, till about five o'clock they seemed approaching close to the window of the room where I lay. Mr Jorg then came in, and looking at me without speaking, which hitherto he had always done, retired, shutting the door close after him. Full of suspicions, from what he had before said, that there was no assistance to be had, I was struck by the stillness in the adjacent room, and with difficulty raising myself up, listened a considerable time without hearing anything stir, when I concluded that he had found himself obliged to leave his house, and, lacking courage to tell me the horrid fate I must submit to, he had quitted it without speaking at all.

In the utmost agony of body and mind I determined to ascertain if this were the case, and if so, to endeavour if possible to reach the

gallery on the east side of the window, and, by throwing myself down the hill, put an end to all my excessive miseries at once. By the help of two chairs I just got within reach of the door with the greatest pain, and was then so spent I was obliged to sit down, nor could I have gone a step farther had the room been on fire. Recovering a little strength, I opened the door, and found Mr Jorg, the old lady, and two other persons, all silently sitting round the outer room. Surprised to see me got so far, he asked me the reason of it; to which I replied, that as I was fully sensible both of the great distress we were reduced to, and of his inability to assist me, I begged (with tears in my eyes) as the greatest favour, that before he found himself obliged to quit his house, he would either throw me over the gallery, or in any other way despatch me, and not leave me in agony, lingering a few hours, to die a dreadful death! He desired me not to talk in that manner, and assured me most affectionately he never had intended to leave me, and if no other help came, he would himself carry me upon his back, and we should take our chance together,that the fire had not yet surrounded us, and that there was still a passage free to the Terrio do Paco (a large square before the King's Palace), and as soon as necessity obliged us, he hoped we might all get there very safe; therefore I had much better lie down again, and he would be careful to acquaint me in time. But as I still suspected that only his good-nature made him promise this, I desired to stay with them, which he permitted me; going up himself every half-hour to the top of his house, to observe what progress the fire made; till about eleven o'clock, when there came two servants of a German gentleman, who I think was his nephew, at that time also in the house. Mr Jorg then declared he thought it time to remove; and with great composure going for his hat and cloak, returned with a cap and quilt for me, telling me perhaps I might find it cold when I was carried out; and then desired the German gentleman

and his servants to carry me to the square first, and return again to fetch the lame lady. They carried me in one of the room chairs, with the quilt over me (which proved afterwards of great service), and another person went before with a torch. I heard some poor wretches begging for help as I was carried through a narrow alley down a steep hill, which was the only passage left free from ruins.

Opposite to the bottom of the alley was a church belonging to a convent of friars, the door of which was open. There stood lighted candles upon the high altar, the friars seemed very busy in their church dresses, and in the porch lay some dead bodies. Thence through a narrow street to the Church of St Mary Magdalene. I saw no houses fallen down into that street, but everywhere great stones scattered about; and as I passed, looking up a street, could see over the ruins the upper windows of our houses still standing. The Church of St Mary Magdalene had not fallen; its doors were open, and some lights and people in it. I observed the fire had already taken possession of the street leading to the Cathedral. In the Silversmiths Street there were no houses quite fallen, and some few people seemed to be employed in throwing bundles out of the windows.

As I passed the end of the Rua Nova I saw both sides of it were on fire, as well as the next street, which runs parallel with it. At the square I found the King's Palace (which made one side of it) and half of the adjoining side on fire, burning slowly, the little wind driving it gently onwards. In the opposite part Mrs Adford met me, and told me her sister Mrs Graves and her family were there, sitting on some bundles of clothes they had saved; but as it was in the open air, my conductors chose rather to place me in a stall, with some others in my condition.

To find myself thus, so much beyond all expectation, suddenly relieved from the constant apprehension of falling houses, and dangers of the fire (as I thought, at least), when I was in the greatest despair, and had given up all hopes of assistance, raised my spirits to that degree, that now for the first time, notwithstand

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