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the machinery into working gear £11,000,000, of which, however, only after their departure. It is on the £2,000,000 are required this year. manufacturing and commercial classes We have advocated delay in the conthat the blow would fall heaviest, struction of these fortifications (and and they should be ever watchful that of the landward defences only), that we are prepared to award it. in order to have a comprehensive reWe do not doubt that patriotic in- port on the defences of the United dignation would overpower all other Kingdom laid before Parliament, in considerations at the last; and even lieu of, or in addition to, this report Mr Bright, whom we have treated regarding our dockyards. There is rather unceremoniously at the begin- plenty of time for this before next ning of this article, be found harangu February. By defences we do not ing the Manchester operatives on the mean fortifications only, but men, necessity of keeping their powder guns, and rifles. The first thing in a dry, and their mills from capture. fortress is plenty of men, and proviAfter all, it is the lower orders who sions for them; the next, plenty of must decide how long the contest guns, and ammunition for them; can be prolonged, and history does last, and least, the ramparts and not show that the peasant is less ditches. Where a garrison is large, jealous of his country's honour an -15,000 or 20,000 men, for instance, the peer, nor can any man say be- --the difference in their influence on forehand what wretchedness the po- the defence between the very best and pulace will not submit too, rather very worst fortifications is not twenty than pass under the yoke. Take the per cent. The public, now more sieges in the Netherlands, or in Spain. accustomed to military subjects, has According to Sir A. Alison, at the got to understand that the “stupen. siege of Saragossa, when the garrison dous fortifications” of Sebastopol was perishing of fever and famine, were a myth — that Todtleben did those suspected of desiring accom- wonders, but could not perform mirmodation with the enemy were hung acles. In fact, his works were not in the market-place; and when Pala- equal to those of a fifth-class fortress. fox signed a favourable capitulation It was the men and guns that held out after fifty-four thousand had perished, Sebastopol for so long. Sebastopol and six thousand corpses lay unburied was fortified in a fortnight; our forin the streets, it was with difficulty tifications are to take three years : that the ruling junta prevented an in- and if their sieges begin this decade, surrection for the purpose of carrying and last in proportion to Sebastopol, on the contest to the last extremity. they will be surrendered by garrisons

An invasion of England would cer- yet unborn. The practical deduction tainly be a desperate undertaking. which we wish to enforce is, that To attempt it, the Emperor must be strong garrisons can defend weak at peace with all Europe, or he could fortresses, but strong fortresses cannot collect a sufficient army. He not protect weak garrisons. Of must utterly demolish our Channel course, if you can get a strong garrifleet, or never hope to return to son and a strong fortress, so much France. If both these points are in the better, and our dockyards are his favour, he may land; but before well worthy of both. We must not he can carry off the Duke of Welling- have all to do at the declaration of ton's statue to grace the Invalides, war. Some organisation for the dishe must prove that Englishmen can- tribution of firearms among the ponot fight on their native soil, as they pulation-some plan on which garfought at Badajos, at Vittoria, or risons are to be furnished by volunWaterloo.

teers-is required. If this is all cut

and dry in the War-Office, may we P.S.-Since writing the above re- not have a peep at it? We have had marks, we have seen the Ministerial too much of ships without sailors to statement of Monday evening. Go- desire forts without soldiers. vernment propose to carry out the We are glad to see Mr Sidney Herrecommendation of the Comunission- bert does not propose surrounding ers, and look to the country for London with forts. We do not, VOL. LXXXVIII.-NO, DXXXVIII.

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however, despair of seeing an in- regards economy, a camp covering trenched camp constructed such as ten square miles, at ten miles from has been recommended in this article, London, would surely not cost more and which we are confident would be than £400 an acre, and two square the best system of defence, both as miles would amply suffice for the regards efficiency and economy. If forts necessary to render it impregever an enemy marches on London, nable if held by an army; leaving the proper way for our army and eight square miles of ground to relevée en masse of Londoners to afford main under cultivation or pasture. each other mutual support, is, not to The ground need not even be bought be mixed up together, but to have a outright; the power of forbidding post assigned to each for which they enclosures or buildings would suffice. are fitted : the Londoners to man We have already said we should be the suburban enclosures, where dis prepared to meet an enemy both on cipline and military formations would the side of Surrey and Essex, but we be of little avail ; our army to remain might commence with one camp on compact in a strong camp clear of the the Surrey side, and £2,000,000 suburbs, and operate on the enemy's would more than cover the whole rear if they tried to pass onwards. expense. We believe this scheme The invader would thus have an un- will bear the strictest investigation disciplined but brave force in his by military men, and it would be front on ground where discipline was very useful, when the cry is raised of of little use, and a regular army to “Wolf !” to have some dog to point contend with in rear, where military to with which we could throttle him. manæuvres were more practicable. John Bull knows London is open to If our army loses a battle near the attack, and will have something in coast, it will lose all its artillery, as the shape of fortifications to swear is always the case after a defeat in by. An intrenched camp can be held an enclosed country. They ought to either by regulars or volunteers ; so, have some place on which to retire with 2,000,000 people close at hand, and refit, and where could this be so we should never be at any loss for a well done as near Woolwich ? As garrison.

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LORD MACAULAY AND DUNDEE.

Few celebrated men have suffered the form and lineaments of the dead, more injustice at the hands of pos- but of breathing into that form terity than John Grahame of Claver- the very soul by which it had been house, Viscount Dundee. A perverse animated—was unequalled by any but fate seems to have pursued his me- Shakespeare himself; and his mind mory. Falling upon evil days, and was far too great, his sympathies too playing an important part in the catholic, and his disposition too geneclosing scenes of a dark and tragic rous, to permit him to pervert this period, it is not to be wondered at power to the service of party aims, or that his acts should have been mis- the promulgation of his individual represented, and his character distort- opinions and predilections. His fault ed, by contemporary malice and false. lay in the opposite direction. His hood. But the ill fortune of Claver- opponents found more than justice house has pursued him to our own at his hands, whilst those with times. Sir Walter Scott once re- whose opinions and characters he marked, with perfect truth, “that no sympathised, sometimes found less. character had been so foully traduced He has adorned Balfour of Burley as that of the Viscount of Dundee- with a wild heroism far higher than that, thanks to Wodrow, Crook- should be awarded to the savage shank, and such chroniclers, he, who murderer of Archbishop Sharpe, and was every inch a soldier and a gentle- has dealt out but scant measure of man, still passed among the Scottish justice to the accomplished and chivvulgar for a ruffian desperado, who alrous Grahame of Claverhouse. rode a goblin horse, was proof against Lord Macaulay's errors were of a shot, and in league with the devil."* different kind. They proceeded from

Unbappily it is not among the a too eager partisanship, a too fervid Scottish vulgar alone that misconcep- attachment to the creeds and tradition as to the character of Dundee tions of the party to which he behas prevailed. It is indeed only longed. We have never grudged our very lately, and principally in con- share of the tribute universally and sequence of the reaction produced justly paid to the eloquence, the by the unscrupulous virulence of re- power, the varied research, the vast cent attacks upon his memory, that knowledge, which combine to chain investigations have been made, which the reader by a magical influence to have placed his character in a truer the pages of his History. It stands light, and removed the load of ob- like that fair cathedral, whose unloquy under which it has so long finished towers are reflected in the and so unjustly lain. True as Sir waters of the Rhine, a mighty and a Walter Scott's instincts and sym- beautiful fragment. We trust that pathies were, even he has admit- no feebler hand will attempt its comted into his masterly portrait of pletion; and we indulge with pleaClaverhouse some touches darker sure the belief that future volumes than can be justified by what we now would have redeemed the injustice know of his character. This is to be into which his impetuous temperaattributed partly to the fact that ment, his love of striking and picmany circumstances have come to turesque effects, and soinetimes a light since Old Mortality was writ- natural, though dangerous, delight in ten, and partly to the excellences of the exercise of his own powers, have Sir Walter Scott's own character, too often betrayed the historian. which became, by excess, defects. There are few occurrences in life His acquaintance with the times of that so deeply impress the mind and which he wrote was profound ; his touch the heart, as when a noble anpower of reproducing the character tagonist is struck down in the full he depicted- of evoking not merely vigour of his powers. The eloquent

* LOCKHAKT's Life of Scot, vol. iv. p. 33.

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pen which placed in vivid reality cious and profane, of violent temper and hefore our eyes the defence of Derry of obdurate heart, has left a name which, and the trial of Warren Hastings, wherever the Scottish race is settled on which painted the court of Charles II. the face of the globe, is mentioned with with the gaiety of Watteau, and the

a peculiar energy of hatred. To recaBlack Hole of Calcutta with the pitulate all the crimes by which this man,

and men like him, goaded the peasantry power of Rembrandt, has dropped of the Western

Lowlands into madness, from the hand that guided it; the would be an endless task.” flashing eye which heralded the impetuous words to which we have often We confess that we are at a loss listened with delight is dim; and the to understand the extreme horror stores of that marvellous memory, with which the satanic sports of the where priceless jewels and worthless soldiery seem to have inspired Lord trifles were alike treasured up, will Macaulay. One would not expect never more be poured out in prodi- the amusements of troopers to be of gal generosity for our instruction and the most refined description, but it delight.

is going rather far to conclude that a Justice to the mighty dead with dragoon must necessarily be “wild, whose ashes his own are now mingled, wicked, and hard-hearted,” because has, however, frequently compelled he hits a comrade across the shoulus to point out what have appeared ders in sport, and calls him Beelzeto us to be the errors, the mistakes, bub. Sportive allusions to the prince and the faults of Lord Macaulay's of darkness and his imps do not History.

necessarily imply allegiance to his The conqueror of Blenheim, the power. King George III. was certainly founder of Pennsylvania, the hero a pious prince, yet "the story runs,

, of Killiecrankie, and the victim of as Lord Macaulay would say, that Glencoe, stand now no furtherfrom us when Lord Erskine presented the than he whom we have so lately lost. corps of volunteers belonging to the The narrow line over which we may Inns of Court to his Majesty, the be as suddenly summoned, is all that King exclaimed, “What! what! all separates us. Silent shadows, they lawyers ? Call them the Devil's Own demand equal justice. But we enter

-call them the Devil's Own." And upon our present task with mournful “the Devil's Own” they were called feelings, and we trust that we shall from that day forward ; their learned keep carefully in view, that in writing and gallant successors, who drill in of the dead it is the duty no less of Lincoln's Inn Garden and King's the critic than of the historian to Bench Walks still rejoicing in the keep ever in mind that he is dealing same infernal designation, and being with those who cannot reply. rather proud of it. We remember a

Lord Macaulay's portrait of Cla- jeu d'esprit, currently ascribed to an verhouse is dashed in with the bold- eminent Whig pen, which ran the est handling, and in the darkest circuit of the papers some twenty colours. Every lineament is that of years ago, in which every eminent a fiend. Courage-the courage of a

member of the Tory party was adorned demon fearing neither God nor man

with his particular diabolical cogno-is the only virtue, if indeed such men. We quote from memory, but courage can be called a virtue, he we have a very distinct recollection allows him. A few lines suffice for of the following lines as a part of the sketch :

the catalogue : “Pre-eminent among the bands which Mephistopheles Lyndhurst and Mammon

“Devils of wit and devils of daring, oppressed and wasted these unhappy dis

Baring; tricts, were the dragoons commanded by Devils of wealth and devils of zeal, John Grahame of Claverhouse. The story Belial Croker and Beelzebub Peel." ran that these wicked men used in their revels to play at the torments of hell

, Yet we never heard that the veneand to call each other by the names of rable ex-chancellor felt his dignity devils and damned souls. The chief of compromised, or that Sir Robert this Tophet, a soldier of distinguished Peel ever considered whether there courage and professional skill, but rapa might not be three courses open to

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him, any one of which he might se- ings of the Government became even lect to punish the andacious poet. more severe. “ Letters of intercomNor, we conceive, would Lord Macau- muning," as they were called, were lay have denounced him as "wicked issued, denouncing the severest penal. and profane."

ties against all who should afford To descend from kings and states- meat, drink, or shelter to an outlaw.ll men to “mortal men and miscre- The field-preachers were hunted ants,” we remember when the “Olym- down by the soldiery, but their pic Devils” was the most popular hearers rallied round them, and conof all amusements. It was in our tests, frequently bloody and often of younger days, when, in that pleasant doubtful issue, occurred. The Bass little theatre behind the Strand was converted into a prison, the Church, men, and women too, who, dungeons of which were crowded we trust, were not of any extreme with captive ministers, and the wickedness, used to play at the Highland host was called in to ratorments of hell," and certainly to vage the unhappy Western Lowlands call each other by very diabolical at the latter end of 1677.1 pames. Yet the chief of that These were the outrages by which Tophet in Wych Street, an actress of the country was “goaded into maddistinguished beauty and professional ness." But Claverhouse had not, skill, was, we trust, neither rapacious nor could he have, any part or share nor profane, and certainly not of vio- whatever in them. He was absent lent temper nor obdurate heart, and from the country during the whole has left a name which, wherever the of the time during which they were English race is settled on the face of committed, and did not return to the globe, is mentioned with a pecu- Scotland until the early part of the liar energy of anything but hatred.

year 1678.**

The first mention of To come to more important mat- him that occurs in Wodrow is in ters: When Lord Macaulay asserts May 1679, immediately before the that Claverhouse was one of those skirmish of Drumclog. Lord Macwhose conduct "goaded the peasantry aulay had Wodrow before him-he of the Western Lowlands into mad- refers to him as his sole authority for ness,” he shows an utter disregard this passage; yet it is upon Wodrow's both of facts and dates. There is pages that the dates and facts are to probably but one opinion now as to be found which contradict his deliberthe insanity of the attempt to force ate and often-repeated assertion. Episcopacy upon Scotland. But Lord Macaulay selects five instances Prelacy was restored in May 1662 ;* of the crimes“by which the peasantry the ministers were ejected in the of the Western Lowlands were goaded month of November in the same into madness.” An ordinary reader year.t The Court of Ecclesiastical would certainly infer from his lanCommission commenced its proceed- guage that Claverhouse wasconcerned ings in 1664. The military oppres- in all these instances, and would be sions raged in 1665. The insurrec- somewhat surprised, after perusing tion which terminated in the defeat Lord Macaulay's narrative, to find, on of Pentland took place the following turning to his authority, that in three year. Then followed countless exe- out of the five cases Claverhouse had no cutions, civil and military. The share whatever, and that in a fourth boot and the gibbet were in constant he acted the part of an intercessor employment. In 1668 the life of for mercy, and exerted himself in Sharpe was attempted by Mitchell. vain to save the life of the victim. In 1670, rigorous laws were passed In the most cruel of all-that of Maragainst conventicles; at the same garet Maclachlan and Margaret Wiltime, the tyranny and insolence of son-we find, on referring to WodLauderdale excited universal hatred row, that a Colonel Graham was conand disgust. In 1676 the proceed- cerned, but it was Colonel David

* LAING, ii. 21, 1st edit., vol. iv. of 2d edit.

+ Ibid., 27. Ibid., ii. 34.

& Ibid.

|| Ibid., ii. 68. WODROW, i. 480, fol.

Napier, Memoirs of Dundee, 185.

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