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Of Subftantives declined with the Partitive Article.
A Subftantive Masculine, beginning with a Confonant.
A Subftantive Mafculine, beginning with an h mute.
De l'honneur, Some honor; | Des honneurs, fome honors. d'honneur, of fome honor; d'honneurs,
of fome honors: à de l'honneur, to fome honor. à des honneurs, to fome honors.
After the manner of thefe various Examples, and with their refpective Articles, may be declined both Common and Abstract Subftantives, when used in the same sense.
Of Subftantives proper, declined with Particles.
Names of Men and Women beginning with a Confonant.
Names of Men and Women, beginning with a Vowel,
Names of Men and Women with an h afpirated or mute.
Names of Cities, Towns, Villages, and other places.
This is the manner of declining moft proper Names of Men, Women, Cities, Towns, &c. as alfo the names of Months; as Janvier, January; Février, February ; &c.
Of Adjectives in General.
Q. WHAT is an Adjective?
A. It is a word that expreffes the quality or condition of a Subftantive, but has of itfelf no precife or determinate meaning, as bon, good; mauvais, bad; grand, great; petit, fmall; &c.
Q. How can Adjectives be diftinguished from Subftantives? A. By adding the word chofe (thing) to them; for those that will admit of that word, and make fense with it, are Adjectives; and thofe that will not, are Subftantives; for, we may fay une bonne chofe, a good thing; une mauvaife chofe, a bad thing, &c. But we cannot fay un Livre chofe, a Book thing; une Table chofe, a Table thing, &c. Q. What Grammatical difference is there between the French and English Adjectives?
A. French adjectives are, generally speaking, liable to vary their termination, in order to agree in Gender and Number with their Subftantives; I fay generally Speaking, because those ending with an e not accented, as jeune, young; facile, eafy; &c. have their Masculine and Fe minine terminations alike.
Q. How do French Adjectives vary their Termination with respect to Gender and Number?
A. The general Rules are to annex an e to them, for the feminine Gender; and an s for the Plural Number; as
and makes grande, for the feminine Gender fingular; and grands masculine, grandes feminine, for the plural; as to their irregularities, fee the Grammar, p. 64. Q. What is meant by degrees of Comparison?
A. As Adjectives are made ufe of to exprefs the qualities or conditions of Subftantives, there are expreffions called Degrees of Comparifon, which ferve to increafe or diminish thofe qualities, &c, in order to ascertain the real or apparent differences of the objects of our discourse,
Q. How many degrees of Comparison are there?
A. Three, which are diftinguished by the denominations of POSITIVE, COMPARATIVE, and SUPERLATIVE.
Q. What is the Pofitive?.
A. The Pofitive is the adjective in its natural fignification, without any regard to the increafing or diminishing of it; as grand, great; petit, fmall; fort, ftrong; &c. Q. What is the Comparative?
A. The Comparative increases or diminishes the signification of the Pofitive; and is formed, in French, by putting either plus (more) or moins (lefs) before the Adjective; as plus grand or moins grand, greater or less great; plus petit, or moins petit, fmaller or lefs fmall.
Q. What is the Superlative?
A. The Superlative expreffes the fignification of the Adjective in the highest or lowest degree of all; and is formed, in French, by putting le plus, la plus, les plus (the most) or le moins, la moins, les moins, (the leaft) before the Adjective, according to the Gender and Number of the Substantive it relates to; as in these Examples: il eft le plus grand, mais le moins fort de tous, he is the tallest, but the weakest of all; votre Tante eft la plus riche, mais la moins libérale de vos Parens, your Aunt is the richest, but the leaft liberal of your relations; &c.
Q: Do all French Adjectives form their Degrees of Comparison in the fame manner?
A. No; for the three following Adjectives have a Comparative and Superlative of their own; viz.
le meilleur, the best;
Yet, the two laft may also be compared with plus and le plus, prefixed to their Positive; for we frequently say plus mauvais, plus petit,&c. But never plus bon.
Of Pronouns in general.
WHAT are Pronouns ?
A. They are Words of a peculiar ufe in Speech; fome ferving as fubftitutes for Subftantives, and others performing the office of Adjectives.
Q. How many forts of Pronouns are there?
A. There are fix forts, which are diftinguished by the fol
lowing names; viz.
Q. What are the Perfonal Pronouns ?
A. They are those which directly denote Perfons, and are ufed instead of their names; as Je I, tu thou, il he, elle fhe, for the Singular; Nous we, vous you or ye, ils or elles they, for the Plural. See the Conjugations of Verbs, which are annexed to CHAP. vi. p. 116.
Q. What are the Conjunctive Pronouns ?
A. The Conjunctive Pronouns are alfo ufed instead of the names of Perfons and Things, but differ from the Perfonal Pronouns in this refpect, that they are either governed by Verbs, or fet after Prepofitive particles; as moi or me me; toi or te thee; le, la, elle, or lui, fe, foi, which may be rendered by him, her, or it, in the Singular; Nous us; vous you or ye; eux, elles, les, leur or fe, for the Plural; according to the fenfe they imply.
Q. What are the Poffeffive Pronouns?"
A. They are Pronouns which indicate the Poffeffion of the Object before which they are placed; as mon livre, my book; ta plume, thy pen; fon chapeau, kis hat ; &c.