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A Substantive Masculine, beginning with a Confonant.

PLUĶAL. Då papier, jome paper;; Des papiers, some papers.

. de papier, of or from some paper; de papiers, ne

of some papers. à du papier,

to some paper. | à des papiers, to some papers.

A Substantive Feminine, beginning with a Consonant.

PLURAL. De la poudre, some powder; | Des poudres, some powders, de poudre, of some powder; de poudres, of some powders, à de la poudre, to some powier. | à des poudres, to some powders.

A Substantive Masculine, beginning with a Vowel.

De l'eau, fome water;

fome waters. , d'eau,

of some water; I d'eaux, of some waters. à de l'eau,

to some water. | à des eaux, to some waters,


Des eaux,

A Substantive Masculine, beginning with an h mute.

De l'honneur, some honor; Des honneurs, Tome honors.

' . d'honneur, of fome honor; d'honneurs, of fome honors: à de l'honneur, to fome honor. à des honneurs, yo fome honors.

After the manner of these various Examples, and with their respective Articles, may be declined both Common and Abstract Substantives, when used in the same sense.

Of Substantives proper, declined with Particles.

Names of Men and Women beginning with a Confonant.

John; | Marie,

Maria. de Jean, |

of or from John; de Marie, of or from Maria. to John. à Marie,

to Maria.

à Jean,

Names of Men and Women, beginning with a Vowel,

Antoine, Anthony; | Anne,

Anna. d'Antoine, of Anthony ; d'Anne,

of Anna. à Antoine, to Anthony. à Anne.

to Anna.

Names of Men and Women with an h aspirated or mute,
With an h aspirated.

With an h mute.
Henry; | Hélène,

Helena. de Henri,

of Henry; d'Hélène, of Helena, à Henri,

to Henry. à Hélène, to Helena.

Names of Cities, Towns, Villages, and other places.

London; 1 Oxford,

Oxford. de Londres, of London ; d'Oxford, of Oxford, v à Londres, to London. à Oxford,


to Oxford.

6 This is the manner of declining most proper Names of Men, Women, Cities, Towns, &c. as also the names of Months; as Janvier, January; Février, February ; &c. F 6





Of Adjectives in General. Q. WHAT is an Adjective?

A. It is a word that expresses the quality or condition of a Substantive, but has of itself na precise or determinate meaning, as bon, good; mauvais, bad; grand, great ; petit, small; &c.

c Q. How can Adjectives be diftinguished from Substantives? A By adding the word choje (thing) to them ; for those that

will admit of that word, and make sense with it, are Adjectives; and those that will not, are Substantives; for, we may say une bonne chose, a good thing ; une mauvaise chose, a bad thing, &c. "But we cannot say un Livre

chose, a Book thing; une Table chose, a Table thing, &c. Q. What Grammatical difference is there between the French

and English Adjektives? A. French adjectives are, generally speaking, liable to vary

their termination, in order to agree in Gender and Number with their Substantives ; I say generally speaking, because those ending with an e not accented, as jeune, young ; facile, easy, &c. have their Masculine and Fe

minine terminations alike. Q. How do French Adjectives vary their Termination with

respect to Gender and Number A. The general Rules are 10 annex an e to them, for the

feminine Gender; and an s for the Plural Number; as
goof and makes grande, for the feminine Gender singular;
and grands masculine, grandes feminine, for the plural;
as to their irregularities, fee the Grammar, p. 64.
What is meant by degrees of Comparison ?
As Adjectives are made use of to express the qualities or
conditions of Subftantives, there are expressions called
Degrees of Comparison, which serve to increase or diminish
those qualities, &c, in order to ascertain the real or ap-
parent differences of the objects of our discourse,


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Q. How many degrees of Comparison are there?
A. Three, which are distinguished by the denominations of

Q. What is the Positive?
A. The Positive is the adjective in its natural signification,

without any regard to the increasing or diminishing of it;

as grand, great; petit, small ; fort, strong ; &c. Q. What is the Comparative? A. The Comparative increases or diminishes the signification

of the Positive; and is formed, in French, by putting either plus (more) or moins (less) before the Adjective; as plus grand or moins grand, greater or less great; plus petit,

or moins petit, smaller or less small, Q. What is the Superlative? A. The Superlative expresses the signification of the Adjec

tive in the highest or lowest degree of all; and is formed, in French, by putting le plus, la plus, les plus (the most) or le moins, la moins, les moins, (the leaft) before the Adjective, according to the Gender and Number of the Substantive it relates to ; as in these Examples : il est le plus grand, mais le moins fort de tous, he is the tallest, but the weakest of all; votre Tante est la plus riche, mais la moins libérale de vos Parens, your Aunt is the richest,

but the least liberal of your relations ; &c. Q: Do all French Adjectives form their Degrees of Comparison

in the same manner ? A. No; for the three following Adjectives have a Compa

rative and Superlative of their own; viz.

Positive. Bon, good; Mauvais, bad ; Petit, little ;

COMPARATIVE. meilleur, better; pire, worse; moindre, less;

SUPERLATIVE. le meilleur, the best: le pire, the worst; le moindre, t he least,

Yet, the two last may also be compared with plus and le plus, prefixed to their Positive; for we frequently say plus mauvais, plus petit, &c. But never plus bon.


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are Pronouns?

A. They are Words of a peculiar use in Speech; some serving as substitutes for Substantives, and o hers

performing the office of Adjectives. Q. How many forts of Pronouns are there? A. There are fix forts, which are distinguished by the fol

lowing names; viz.
The Personal,

Les Personnels.
The Conjunctive, Les Cinjori Etifs.
'The Poffeffive,

Les PoDelfifs.
The Absolute,

Les Abfolus.
The Demonftrative, Les Démonstratifs.
The Relative,

Les Relatifs.
Q. What are the perfonal Pronouns ?
A. They are those which directly denote Persons, and are

used instead of their names; as Je I, tu thoui, il he, elle fhè, for the Singular; Nous we, vous you or ye, ils or elles they, for the Plural. See the Conjugations of

Verbs, which are annexed to CHAP. vi. p. 116. Q. What are the Conjunctive Pronouns? A. The Conjunctive Pronouns are also used instead of the

names of Persons and Things, but differ froin the Perfonal Pronouns in this refpect, that they are either governed by Verbs, or set after Prepositive particles ; as moi or me me; toi or te thee; le, la, elle, or lui, se, foi, which may be rendered by him, her, or it, in the Singular ; Nous us; vous you or ye ; eux, elles, les, leur or se, for the

Plural; according to the sense they imply. Q. What are the Poll live Pronouns ? A. They are Pronouns which indicate the Poffeffion of the

Object before which they are placed ; as mon livre, my book; ta plume, thy pen ; son chapeau, bis hat; &c.


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