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and an attentive audience. With the singular resolutions of
fire. An agreeable duty. Ripe pears and excellent apples.
An amiable woman and a pretty child. With the government's
firm regulations. A necessary duty. An important measure. firme The ill success of the unworthy project.
With the supreme
A beautiful view of the hermoso
town and wooded environs. On the top of a high mountain.
The disinterested views of the worthy magistrate. An old hat
and a new coat, with a full purse. The venerable trees of the
ancient forest. The gay tone of the young people. On the
various species of wild beasts. A little picture in a large
frame. The miserable efforts of the poor soldiers.
umbrella for a rainy day. By the united voices of an immense
Comparatives and Superlatives.
As adjectives represent qualities, they naturally possess different degrees of these qualities; thus expressing equality, superiority, and inferiority.
To produce these different forms in Spanish, certain little words are prefixed to the adjective, which I will explain in regular order. Let us begin with
Comparisons of Equality.
The English particles, so―as, and as—as, are rendered into Spanish by the words tan-como.
John is as learned as Peter.
The son was not so happy as the father.
Juan es tan docto como Pedro.
El hijo no fué tan feliz como el padre.
Comparatives between adverbs are formed in the same way.
Peter sings as well as his master.
Pedro canta tan bien como su maestro.
When such comparison of equality is made between nouns, and is expressed in English by means of the words as much—as, as many―as, and so much—as, so many-as, the adjectives tanto, tanta, tantos, tantas, como must be used.
There are as many windows as
days in the year.
Peter has as much talent as John.
Hay tantas ventanas como dias
Pedro tiene tanto talento como
The word como then is used unchanged in the different examples we have given; but should a verb follow the correlative as, then instead of como it must be rendered by cuanto
subject to the changes to which its position renders it liable; thus
We bought as much cloth as was
Compramos tanto paño cuanto bastó para cubrirnos.
Fueron preparadas tantas camas cuantas eran las personas.
Comparatives and Superlatives of Superiority.
These comparatives, expressed in English by the terminations er or r, and the word more, are rendered into Spanish by the adverb mas, which precedes the adjective; whilst the English correlative than becomes in Spanish que, and sometimes de.
John was more learned than Peter.
Juan era mas docto que Pedro.
The superlative is formed by adding the masculine or feminine article to the mas, as el mas, la mas, &c.; thus
The superlative degree may be so in comparison with another object, or it may be so without reference to comparison. As in the English phrases,
A most beautiful woman.
A very excellent specimen, &c.
This superlative, which we will call the superlative absolute, is ordinarily expressed in Spanish by the addition of adverbs,
thus following the same plan as in English; muy, very, is just as much used as very is in English.
very ugly. very learned.
But there is another form, not so much in use, but having great power when employed, which it is necessary you should be made acquainted with; and that is the termination in isimo, isima, &c., which is thus added to adjectives—
dulce, dulcisimo, dulcisima,
fino, finisimo, finisima,
sweet, very sweet, most sweet, &c.
Should the adjective end in ble, as amable, terrible, &c., then the termination must be in bilisimo.
There are a few adjectives which are liable to rather more irregularity in the formation of such superlative. These are
Comparatives and Superlatives of Inferiority.
In the comparison of inferiority, menos, less, takes the place of piu, more; que being, as in the former instance, the translation of the correlative than.
John was less learned than Peter.
Juan fue menos docto que Pedro. Las mugeres son menos fuertes que los hombres.
The superlative is rendered by el menos, la menos, &c., the least; as,
el menos fuerte,
la menos mala,
the least strong.
EXERCISE SIXTH.-ON COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES.
A fortunate man. More fortunate than the Prince's brother. Principe
The most fortunate circumstance in the world. As estimable estimable as wise. Less severe than the former tutor, but more regular primero
than learned. A more interesting book than the last. Full
of honours and more worthy than many of the pupils. A less
sincere man than the former minister. A boy with the best
resolutions and most unsteady conduct. Not so serious as
before, but more painful. A work as curious as clever. A
counsellor of the firmest resolves and most winning manners. consejero The worst prop in a moment of adversity. As much goodness
as sweetness of behaviour. The smallest room in the house, pequeño
yet the prettiest and most convenient. A servant as faithful
as the other. Not so good as last week. A more agreeable pasado
path than this. Not so favourable as the first notice, but more
satisfactory than the second. A resolution of the greatest satisfactorio
importance to the child's future happiness. The warmest importancia
wishes of a most affectionate friend. Not so much noise as deseo clamor
yesterday. The best books for the study of the language. A