Page images


al Union; and that in your opinion an army and navycupation of the capital. Juarez and his Cabinet left are constitutional means for suppressing that rebellion. own judgment, will tend to hinder the increase or favor Luis de Potosi. On the following day the leaders

2. That no one of you will do any thing which, in his the city of Mexico on the last day of May for San the decrease, or lessen the efficiency of the army or navy, of the Church party assembled and offered their alwhile engaged in the effort to suppress that rebellion; legiance to the Emperor Napoleon. On the 5th of and,

3. That each of you will, in his sphere, do all he can to June the first division of the French army entered have the officers, soldiers, and seamen of the army and Mexico, followed soon after by the entire force, who navy, while engaged in the effort to suppress the rebel- were received with apparently the warmest wellion, paid, fed, clad, and otherwise well provided and supported.

EUROPE. This document, thus signed, to be published by The Polish question presents no new aspects; but the President, and this publication to be of itself a the probability increases of serious difficulties among revocation of the order in the case of Mr. Vallandi- the European Powers. In answer to a question in gham, who, on his return to the United States, would Parliament, Earl Russell, on the 26th of June, offinot, however, be suffered to put himself practically cially denied the truth of a current report that the in opposition to the position of his friends. The French Government had renewed its proposition for President thought that such a statement from influ- a joint intervention in the affairs of America. He ential gentlemen of Ohio would more than compen- had previously stated that the blockade was suffisate for any possible harm that could arise from ciently efficient to entitle it to be recognized by forthe return of Mr. Vallandigham. This gentleman eign Powers.—The case of the steamer Alexa dra, meanwhile, having been sent South, escaping the supposed to be fitted out for the Confederate servblockade, reached Bermuda, and thence sailed for ice, was tried in the Court of Queen's Bench. The Canada. -The Constitutional Convention of Mis- fact that such was her destination was clearly souri, on the 1st of July, passed an ordinance for the proved; but the Court in effect decided that it was abolition of slavery in that State. Its essential no violation of English law to fit out vessels and features are that slaves who in 1870 are over 40 sell them to be employed in warfare against nations years of age are to be held as servants during life; with whom Great Britain is at peace. An appeal those under 12 till they are 23; those over 12 till was taken from this decision ; but if it is affirmed, the 4th of July, 1876. Other provisions refer to the as it probably will be, it will furnish a precedent for sale of slaves from the State.

action from which Great Britain will reap no beneMEXICO.

fit.-Disputes bave arisen between the Japanese The capture of Puebla, with almost the entire and the English and French, which, it is believed, Mexican army, opened the way for the French oc- will result in active hostilities.

Literary Jutires.

Journal of a Residence on a Georgia Plantation, swampy. The residence had but six rooms, of by FRANCES ANNE KEMBLE. Nearly a quarter of which three were hardly more than closets, with a century ago Mrs. Kemble, then Mrs. Butler, spent outbuildings on the most meagre scale. The wina winter at a rice and cotton estate belonging to her dows would hardly open or shut, and the door-latches husband, upon an island near the coast of Georgia. were raised by bits of pack-thread. Such being the She kept a full journal of the events of her daily house of the master, we need not describe the cabins life, which is at length published. As an English- of the slaves. The field-hands, she says, “ go to the woman, she was of course prejudiced against the in- fields at daybreak, carrying with them their allowstitution of slavery; but her Journal bears on every ance of food for the day, consisting wholly of Indian page evidence that she wished to record the truth, meal, which, toward noon, and not before, they eat, and only the truth. It contains a picture of every cooking it over a fire which they kindle as best they day life on a plantation which could only be pro- can, where they are working. Their second meal in duced by one in her circumstances. No mere visitor the day is at night, after their labor is over, having or tourist could have access to the facts which came worked, at the very least, six hours without interunder her observation. The estate, we trust, was mission since their noonday meal (properly so called, not a fair specimen of Southern plantations. It was for 'lis meal, and nothing else)." Those employed rarely visited by its owners, and had been for many at the mill and threshing-floor got their food from years under the charge of an overseer, who, besides the cook-house. They ate sitting on their doorrendering satisfactory profits to the owners, had man- steps or on the ground. They had no chairs, tables, aged to make a fortune for himself, with which he plates, knives, or forks, but ate out of a wooden tub had just bought a plantation in Alabama. He work or an iron pot--some with broken iron spoons, more ed the estate and the negroes to the very extent of with pieces of wood, and the children with their fintheir capacity, and was evidently a hard and severe gers. They regarded it as a special hardship that man, though not apparently wantonly cruel. Upon they were not allowed to keep pigs. Mrs. Kemble, the whole, Mrs. Kemble affirms that the slaves con- a woman and a mother, was especially moved by sidered themselves well off compared with those on the hard fate of the women, childbirth, even, afford. the neighboring plantations; and had, moreover, a ing them only a brief respite from the labors of the special horror of being sent off to the sugar-planta- field, the rule being that they must return to the tions, which are regarded by them as the Inferno to field three weeks after confinement. The Journal the Purgatorio of the rice and cotton estates. The is filled with details of the sufferings borne by her owners were, as we have said, absentees. Indeed, sex, and of the fearful mortality among the infants. there was little there to invite any thing more than A continuous wail came up to her from these poor the briefest residence. The island was low and creatures undergoing the trials which a woman and a mother only can understand. To these we can imputation of having carelessly put prussic acid into hardly make more than a passing allusion, nor 10 a composing draught. He marries the sister, who the domestic morals of the plantation. It is enough becomes in the end the chief instrument of detecting to say that the women were absolutely under the the crime, and escapes the gallows by committing control of the overseer, and that all the children of suicide. The crime and its detection are never for black mothers were not themselves black. Mrs. a moment out of sight. The story marches steadily Kemble gives us no pictures of absolutely perfect toward the dénouement, interrupted by no irreleslaves. There was no "Uncle Tom" on the estate. vant episodes, pausing for no elaborate delineations They were very much what might have been ex- of scene or character, or for any display of fine writpected--better rather than worse. The merit of the ing. The characters themselves are little more than book consists in its being indisputably, as far as it lay-figures. The reader is not expected to care for goes, a true picture of some of the inevitable aspects what they are, but only for what they did. He of that institution which the ablest man of the State hurries through the story as he would through a where the scene is laid declares to be “the chief police report; but few we imagine will ever read it eorner-stone in our new edifice.” As such, we con- a second time. The book once read will be forgotsider it the most powerful anti-slavery book yet ten. Herein lies the difference between the works written.

of Mrs. Wood and Miss Braddon and those of the We can speak briefly of only a few of the novels great masters of fiction. (Published by T B. Peterof the last two months: St. Olaves (published by son.) A Point of Honor, the latest Number of Harper and Brothers) is a story of English life of “Harper's Library of Select Novels," is notable for more than common merit. -Faith Gartney's Girl-three clearly conceived and carefully elaborated hood (published by Loring) is a quiet, simple story, characters: Gifford Mohun, the handsome, fascinanoticeable for purity of tone and delicacy of feeling ting, weak, and utterly selfish voluptuary; Jane rather than for vigor. In every respect it presents Gand, the patient, long-suffering, and forgiving a marked contrast with the “storm and stress" nov. woman; and Matty Fergusson, the clever, schemels of the day. The style is admirable, and the ing, and unscrupulous adventuress. The relations moral inculcated throughout is one which can not between those persons are wrought up into a story be too strongly commended to the attention of girls of very decided interest. growing up to womanhood. If not a great book, it A Critical History of Free Thought, by ADAM is something better -a good one. - In the Two STOREY FARRAR. This elaborate work forms the Pictures we can hardly congratulate Miss MARIA J. eight“Bampton Lectures" for 1862, delivered before M'Intosh upon having added to her well-earned the University of Oxford. The author uses the reputation. The slight historical element which is phrase "Free thought” in its technical sense, to deintroduced is not sufficient to remove the story from note “the struggle of the human mind against the the category of works of pure imagination. The Christian revelation, in whole or in part.” The author has written so much better books that we • Bampton Lectures” were founded and endowed for must pronounce this to be a failure. (Published by the purpose of defending the doctrines of ChristianiD. Appleton and Co.) Of Dickens's Tale of ty, as embodied in the Apostles

' and Nicene Creeds, Two Cities, which forms an installment of Sheldon's against the assaults of heretics and schismatics. Household Edition, we need only say that the two Mr. Farrar, in these lectures, assuming the truth of illustrations by Darley are worthy of the foremost Christianity as expressed in these formulas, underliving artist in his range. No other edition of takes to give a resumé of the views of its representDickens at all comparable to this has appeared in ative opponents from the earliest ages down to our Europe or America. -4t Odds, by the Baroness own times, criticising them from the stand-point of TAUTPHOEUS (published by J. B. Lippincott), is a his own orthodoxy. The volume is one of great story of German life at the time of Napoleon's cam- labor and research, and forms a valuable addition to paigns of 1805 and subsequent years. It is marked our theological literature. (Published by D. Appleby the same careful delineations of character and ton and Co.) manners which distinguished “The Initials” and Memoir of Theodore Frelinghuysen, by TALBOT W. “Quits," the two former novels by the same an- CHAMBERS, D.D. Our country has produced some thor. It is a tale of very decided merit, although greater men, but certainly no better one than Theothe action is rather slow, and the story hangs while dore Frelinghuysen. Descended from the sturdy the writer executes her minute character painting. Dutch stock by which New Jersey as well as New It belongs to the German rather than the English York was originally settled, Theodore Frelinghuysen school of novels. In marked contrast with most was born in 1787, studied law, and acquired an emof the foregoing novels is The Earl's Heirs, by Mrs. inent position at the bar before he had completed HEXRY Wood, who has within two or three years his twenty-fifth year. In 1829 he was elected Senproduced some of the most popular if not the best ator in Congress, and although he served but a single tales of the time. The secret of her success, as well term, he took a high place even among the great as that of her rival, Miss Braddon, is easily fath- men who then composed the Senate. In 1844 he omed. Both have a story to tell, involving some was nominated for Vice-President of the United great crime or series of crimes, the detection of which States, on the ticket which was headed by the name forms the motive of the work. A mere ordinary of Henry Clay as candidate for the Presidency. The crime, such as a forgery, a robbery, or a murder, is unexpected result of the election of that year, in quite too tame of itself for the purpose. It must which Clay and Frelinghuysen were defeated by be complicated by revolting accessories--adultery, Polk and Dallas, probably changed the whole future or bigamy, or the like. Thus in the "Earl's Heirs history of the nation. Meanwhile Mr. Frelinghuythe hero-villain, who is secretly married to one wo- sen had abandoned the profession of the law, and · man, falls in love with and pays court to a sister of accepted the Chancellorship of the University of his wife, although he is ignorant of the relationship. New York, which in 1850 he exchanged for the He poisons his wife just after her confinement, and Presidency of Rutger's College, which he retained manages to throw upon her medical attendant the until his death in 1862. The last twenty-five years

of his life were spent as an instructor of young men, productive power of the soil for hundreds of years, and in active co-operation in the great benevolent without having recourse to imported or manufacoperations of the day. Notwithstanding his eminent tured manures. Indeed, the most valuable part of position at the bar, the legal profession was not that his work is the extract from the Report of Dr. Mawhich accorded with bis tastes. While in the Sen- ron to the Prussian Minister of Agriculture on Japate he meditated entering the clerical profession, but anese Husbandry. Liebig's work, as it stands, is was deterred by the influence of his friends, who of high value; but the information is given in a thought he could do more good by remaining in form so technical as to render it unattractive, and public life. Among these was the venerable Gardi- perhaps incomprehensible to the general public. ner Spring, who had himself taken the step which Any practical farmer who possesses the faculty of Mr. Frelinghuysen meditated. He wrote: “I left imparting information in an attractive form could the bar because I got sick of it; I could not be happy hardly do a better work than making a brief abstract in it; I panted for a better work; but in this coun- of this elaborate volume. (Published by D. Appletry ministers of the Gospel can get very little influ- ton and Company.) ence on the State, and therefore there is more need The second year's issue of llarper's Hand-book for for men who are qualified, and have the spirit of Trarelers in Europe and the Eust, by W. PEMBROKE ministers, to retain their political influence." The FETRIDGE, contains nearly a third more matter than religious element was the predominant one in Mr. the edition of last year, while the whole has been Frelinghuysen's character, and to the delineation of carefully revised and brought down to the latest moit his biographer has devoted the greater portion of ment. It also contains an accurate map showing these memoirs. Few men even in the profession all the railways in Europe. This work has already ever performed as great an amount of what is gener- taken its place as an essential part of the equipage ally considered especially clerical labor. It is not a of every American tourist in Europe. To a great little remarkable that, notwithstanding his consist degree it supersedes the necessity of any of the twenent piety and blaineless life, he was always haunted ty-five or thirty volumes of English Hand-books, and by an almost morbid fear of death: not of mere the hundred and more of the French Guides." With physical pain, but his apprehensions went deeper this and the latest number of “ Bradshaw” the tourthan this. He feared that at the last he would be ist may think himself fairly provided with a Guide sound to have made shipwreck of his soul. This for his journeyings in every part of Europe, and those perpetual dread of the future life is one of the mys- parts of the East which he will be likely to visit, interies of our nature. If any man might look for- cluding Egypt and Palestine. ward with assured though humble confidence to fu- Paris in America, by EDOUARD LABOULAYE. Unture salvation, Theodore Frelinghuysen might, even der the whimsical form of an account given by a in the light of the stern theology in which he be- Parisian lunatic of a residence in the United States, lieved. But this dread of death which haunted this book contains many pungent criticisms upon the him through life disappeared when the final hour institutions, habits, customs, and government of approached. The burden was removed, and the France. The exaggerations, rendered necessary by dying man never grew weary of expatiating on the the fanciful plot of the work, ought not to blind the marvelous change. This volume will be welcomed reader to the real value of the social and political not merely by the religious public, as technically criticisms which it involves. Without having read understood, but by all who reverence a pure and no- the original, we are satisfied that the translator, Miss ble character. (Published by Harper and Brothers.) Marr L. Booth, bas given us a fair presentation of

The Natural Laws of Husbandry, by JUSTUS VON the work. (Published by Charles Scribner.) LIEBIG. The cardinal principle laid down and elab- It is beginning to be understood that no man is orated by Liebig is, that every plant abstracts some competent to write an elementary book upon any thing from the soil which is essential to its growth, science unless he is also competent to write an esand that unless this is somehow restored the pro- haustive work on the subject. Hence the constant ductive capacity of the soil must in time become formula in the preface to almost every school-book, cxhausted. In a state of nature a soil increases “The author has found no work on this important yearly in fertility, because all tho mineral matters science adapted to the practical use of the instructor. taken up are returned to it, and the plants absorb He has endeavored to supply this want, with what others from the great store-house of the atmosphere. success he leaves to the judgment of those who, like Hence the accumulation of organic matter which himself, have," etc. That this acknowledged want renders our Western prairies capable of producing, has been but imperfectly met, is shown by the numyear after year, a succession of large crops, which ber of elementary books that are continually thrust are sent to market, returning nothing to the soil. upon the public. The fact is that works of this But in time even this accumulation must be ex- class have, to a great extent, been written by those hausted, when the crops are sent away. The sys- who know little more of the subjects upon which tem of rotation in crops only postpones the evil day. they treat than is contained in their works. Not One crop succeeds where another has failed, either knowing what to omit, they consequently know only because it can dispense with some ingredients which imperfectly what to insert. Their productions are

the first has exhausted, or because its roots pene- imperfect from the absolute ignorance of the authors. . trate deeper, and so draws its supplies from a part of late years men of profound acquirements have

of the soil which the former has not exhausted. But undertaken the preparation of the most elementary every crop, any part of which is taken away, ex- books. But these also have not unfrequently fallen hausts the soil, and this must be made up by arti- far short of the requirements of the case. A thorticial manures, or sterility must sooner or later en- ough knowledge of any subject does not imply the sue. The whole subject of manures is elaborately possession of the faculty of presenting that knowldiscussed. Liebig considers the agricultural system edge in an attractive form. These two qualificaof Europe radically defective; and holds that the tions must be combined in the man who is to produce Chinese in a degree, and the Japanese wholly, have a satisfactory elementary book. HUMPHREY DAVY practically solved the problem of keeping up the possessed both, and he could have written an ele

Editor's Easy Chair.


mentary book on chemistry, which would have been they concede. Nature, they confess, has lavishly superseded only when that science had advanced, as endowed the Western Continent. But nature asit now has, beyond his stand-point. FARADAY pos- sisted by art-no, thank you ; that is something the sesses them; and his works on "Force" and "A Western Continent can not yet present. Candle," are among the most pleasant as well as in- Yet Mr. Dicey has been in Italy. He knows the structive which one can read. WORTHINGTON Hook- Cascine in Florence, the pretty wood along the Arno, ER possesses them, and we have more than once had and the Borghese Gardens in Rome, and the Villa occasion to speak in terms of unqualified commenda- Reale in Naples. He knows the grounds at Caserta, tion of his series of elementary works in the various at the Villa Pamphili Doria, at the Villa Pallavicini departments of Physical Science. His latest work, in Genoa. Does he compare either of those parks or the first of a series entitled “Science for the School gardens, in point of breadth and nobleness of design, and Family," treats upon Natural Philosophy. It is or in the general impression of stateliness and grandadmirably executed, and affords a sufficient guar- eur, with the Central Park? They have a certain antee for the value of those which will follow.-Pro- romantic interest, indeed, of which nothing in a new fessor Loomis, of Yale, long known by his treatises country has the least trace. They have a historic on the higher department of mathematics, has pre- and poetic charm which can not be rivaled elsepared a little book on the Elements of Arithmetic, de- wbere. But as great public works, as monuments signed for children, which seems to us to be precise- of art, skill, taste, and intelligence, they are not to ly what it should have been. -MARCIUS Willsox, be compared with our Park. Nor are the English whose series of “Readers" are so rapidly superseding public parks of such extent and beauty and design all others of their class, has prepared a Primary that an Englishman can safely sneer at ours. The Speller, which will delight children and their pa- gentleman who thinks that Hyde Park, or Green rents and teachers. (Published by Harper and Park, or Regent's Park, are magnificent public Brothers.)

grounds, may be pardoned for thinking that the Central Park is only so-so, Fine trees they have undoubtedly. And Windsor Forest and Windsor Park are spacious sylvan wildernesses. And the

luxuriance and beauty of English foliage are not to VERY honest man who wishes that one great be questioned. But all these combined do not au

public work near New York should be performed thorize any Englishman to smile at the claims of in the best possible way, and with an utter freedom the Central Park. from party machinations, must seriously regret the The objection that it wants great trees is valid. retirement of Mr. Olmsted from the superintendency But that it wants effects of foliage is untrue. While of the Central Park. He and his partner, Mr. Vaux, the exquisite forms of the ground in every direction the architect, by whose plans the Park has been laid -the perfection of the road work and gardening-the out, have resigned their situations, and the Central picturesque and beautiful bridges—the lovely sweeps Park is henceforth under the control of other men of water contrasted with lawny banks—the pictorial and other tastes.

effect of the terrace upon the water, so that you This is a public misfortune. The work thus far drive out of the city into the landscape that Claude has been so thorough in quality, and so magnificent and Watteau painted—and a pervasive poetic sugin effect, that there was every reason for hoping that gestiveness every where—these are the charms of it might be fully completed under the same direc- the Park; charms that remain when you have contion; and there is not a solitary reason, so far as the coded the deep delight of association to all other Park itself and the public are concerned, that it pleasure-grounds in the world. should fall into other hands. Since the original The Parisian drives contented in the Bois de Bouplan of Olmsted and Vaux was adopted the area of logne, or wanders about Versailles, or St. Cloudthe Park has been enlarged by the addition of a pic- the Viennese rolls to the Prater_Munich saunters turesquely undulating country beyond the upper res in the “ English Garden,” and all of these grounds ervoir and Mount St. Vincent, which offers the most are very delightful. And yet none of them are so admirable and enticing opportunity for the same broadly designed, or so thoroughly and tastefully genius that has already regenerated the rest of the constructed as the Central Park. domain. Had the old management continued, we It is a question of great public interest, therefore, might have been sure that the newer part would what is to be the future management of this work. have been as nobly designed as the rest; but the Its salvation, hitherto, has been its freedom from resignation of Mr. Olmsted and Mr. Vaux deprives the control of city politicians-gentlemen who conus of that confidence, except so far as we may de- spicuously display their taste and sense by such pend upon the irresistible force of the fine model performances as the Worth Monument in Madison which the finished portion offers.

Square. What monsters in architecture or statuary, The Central Park is the finest work of art ever or what signal crimes in landscape arrangement and executed in this country. It is the fashion of the treatment, may be yet in store for us, no Easy Chair foreign tourist to smile at our regard for it, and to can safely predict. Every man in the country knew, pat us on the back with the assurance that, after a while Mr. Olmsted was the directing mind, that no few hundred years or so, it will be a very respectable abominations of any kind would be tolerated. No retreat. Mr. Edward Dicey is the last authority of man can now be sure that they will not be solicited. this kind. These gentlemen arrive, so thoroughly The Central Park will become, like every other pubpersuaded that we are a young country, and a new lic work within the dominion of the city, a huge country, and an undeveloped country, that they as- job. Its army of laborers will be selected for partisume our incompleteness in every respect. Even san considerations, which has never been the case our oldest inhabitant is a subject of skepticism in hitherto. There is no kind of innovation upon the their minds. To them, therefore, it is quite impos- natural proprieties of a park which may not be exsible that we should have a Park worthy attention. pected. “And this, not because the late architect in Prairies, rivers, mountains, lakes, and a cataract, chief is the only man in the country competent to

the work, but because the influences which now con- rapidly by the influx of immigrants that it can not trol the work are those of city politics. The city of be well assimilated, there will be an ignorant popNew York owes to the State of New York two great ulation incompetent to their own good government. benefits. One is the Central Park; the other is the But, while you point at such a city as an arguMetropolitan Police system. When the city shall ment in favor of a return to some form of class or succeed in outwitting the State, it will undo the ad- monarchical government, please observe that the vantages of both.

mass of ignorant people who make the popular gov.

ernment impracticable were made and kept ignorant Our chat about the Central Park revives the by the very form of government which you propose question which has been often discussed around the to substitute for ours, while the reason that they Chair, whether the democratic system has not failed come to us is that our system promises them greater in the city of New York. The traveler who returns development and prosperity than their own. And from Europe impressed by the public order in the while, huddled in the city or sea-port, they are sure least details which is maintained by a despotic, "pa- to be the prey of demagogues, and to bring a poputernal" government, almost trembles with fear as lar government to shame, yet, in the broad view, wellas disgust at the hap-hazard order which is the the city is unimportant, and its misgovernment is rule of our great cities. The jam at a theatre—the one of the abuses and imperfections to which we passage to a wharf-the crowd at a railroad station agreed that we were liable. In other words, the in frantic doubt-the wild uproar and probable street necessary conditions for a fair experiment are wantfight at a fire-the pestilential fifth of the streets- ing in a great city of which the population is artifithe universal want of system and precision-at length cially replenished from foreign sources. shake his head with the doleful question, is the popu- If, then, the traveler, who thinks France better lar system itself a failure here? and might not the governed than the United States because his car“splendid despotism” for which the pure soul of riage in going to the opera was kept in line by a Mr. Fernando Wood was tempted to sigh, be almost mounted gendarme, should ask with a sigh whether a better alternative than Mr. Fernando Wood him- our war is not a sign of the general failure of our self governing the city by warrant of votes which system, he should be answered by the question what he is supposed and reported to have purchased on the form of government he finds better than our own if lowest terms?

civil wars are evidence of insufficiency. The hisThen the traveler, putting his hand upon the arm tory of every despotism or monarchy is the story of of the Easy Chair, says that it is clear the intelli- wars by the governors upon the people, or by the gence and worth of the city do not govern it, and people upon the governors. English history, for what are numbers in government without worth, instance, bristles with civil war. You may take wisdom, or principle? Are a hundred Neros, he the British annals since the death of James I., and asks, any better than one Nero? Are they not a if commotions, threatened or actual, disprove the hundred times worse? Can a crowd of blackguards worth of the system, the British Government is as or thieves be so safe a governor as one honest man? wretched as can be fancied. The long, long civil Is a mob which is controlled by the inflammation war of Charles I. and Cromwell—the long, long rotof its meanest prejudices and its basest passions the ting of Charles II. and James II., with the episode kind of Government by which the rights of men of Monmouth and the final expulsion of James by are likely to be protected or civilization advanced? William III.--the struggle of William III. against Do you not sometimes sigh, he asks, for the regu- Jacobite machinations--the incessant Irish rebellions larity and security of a "strong Government ?" And the Scotch Pretender insurrections—the dogged do you not find many men who think that our sys- mischief of George III., who did what he could to tem is certainly an experiment, and probably a fail- restore kingly prerogative, that Charles Fox said üre?

that forcible resistance was merely a question of Of course every body finds plenty of such grum- prudence-the fierce tumults of the Reform bill—the blers. But I never knew one man in good health terrible and continuous riots in city and country for and spirits who seriously wished a fundamental the last hundred and fifty years—the Smith O'Brien change. As for the city of New York, it may be attempt in Ireland-all these and similar phenomena conceded that it is better governed by the State are simply civil war, actual or latent; and if trouble than it is by its own citizens; and, still further, of this kind proves the inadequacy of the Governthat it would be better governed by the wisest and ment, the British system is condemned. best man in it than by all the people together. But Mere resistance to authority proves nothing but the question is not quite so easily settled. discontent, which exists in all human society. If “The good, 'tis true, are Heaven's peculiar care; that discontent is so constant and threatening and

But who but Heaven can tell us who they are ?" active as to hold the political system in endless The point is not what is abstractly the best con- peril, then it does prove the failure of the system. ceivable Government, but, given man and human But in our case the trouble springs not from the society, which is the best practicable Government. operation of the system, but from the determination In all forms there is friction. In every system not to permit its operation. Our war comes not there are abuses. And if you fix your eye and mind from democratic excess, but from aristocratic and steadily and solely upon them, the uses will be hope- oligarchical hate and fear of democracy. It is a lessly obscured to your perception.

war of a faction upon the people, and nobody has We must measure our system, not by its working ever claimed that a republican system could be free in any particular part of the country, but in the from faction. Far from proving democracy a failcountry altogether. The popular system assumes ure the war would not have arisen, except from the that an intelligent people will, upon the whole, gov- futile effort to combine the principle of privilege ern themselves better than any chance man or men with that of equal rights. That attempt was the can govern them. But it will happen that in great seed of war. The only hope of escaping it was that cities, especially sea-ports, or especially the cities privilege would peaceably yield to the natural and of any country of which the population increases so | inevitable predominance of right. But it never

« PreviousContinue »