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and squads were dispatched in different direc- Soon the Indian camp—now containing few tions on foraging or exploring expeditions. men, but mostly squaws and children — was Some returned with stories of thrilling adven- moved under a guard, first to Yellow Medicine, tures, hair-breadth escapes, or important inform- and thence with others there added, to Red ation ; others with potatoes and cabbages. Wood, the Lower Agency, and ultimately to

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Fort Snelling. Lieutenant-Colonel Marshal, On the 21st of October a perfect simoon with a detachment of two hundred men, was swept the prairies—dust and cinders darkened sent on farther into Dahkotah Territory. The the atmosphere. The wind bent, broke, and prairie grass, now rendered dry and brittle by uprooted trees on the river sides ; blew down the frost, commenced to burn, filling the air tents upon our heads, and sent us around like a with smoke so as at times, in broad day, com- brood of chickens in a rain-storm; took up barpletely to veil the sun from sight, or give it the rels and sent them from one end of the camp to appearance of a blood-red full moon , and pre- the other. Through this storm-his men litersenting in the night a gorgeous view, surpass- ally black with ashes and dust-Colonel Marshal ing all the fire-works of art. Cloud after cloud with his prize arrived back at Camp Release. of spark-speckled smoke rolled up in volumes The Indian men were imprisoned with the others over each other; streaks, and streams, and lakes in the jail; the squaws and children were sent on of red flames crackled over the grass and among with those previously taken. Other captures at and through the bushes; or, leaping with the Lac Qui Parle, Yellow Medicine, and elsewhere, wind as it lapped its length ahead, swept the by parties sent out for the purpose, also were prairie crop and left behind it a blackened plain. made at different times, and the prizes taken

Colonel Marshal crossed the Little Sioux and similarly disposed of. While at this camp Col. advanced a distance on the Coteau des Prairies-onel Sibley was promoted to a Brigadier-Generalan elevated, undulating, sterile table-land, full ship. two thousand feet above the level of the sea- The weather began to grow colder. The frosts presenting from the distance, as you approach it, and prairie fires having swept away nearly all the appearance of an unbroken mountain range, the forage, provender for the horses and cattle but gradually sloping up toward it. He ad- grew scarce. So on the 23d of October, having vanced in the direction of the James River. loaded the Indian prisoners, chained as they Being informed that by Wild-Goose-Nest Lake were, from twelve to fifteen in a wagon, the was encamped a part of Little Crow's band, tents were struck and the expedition commenced which had for the most part dispersed, stealth- a return march. A few weeks were spent at the ily by night he surrounded them, and in the Lower Agency, in Camp Sibley. The prisoners early morning captured the whole camp. The were incarcerated, as at Camp Release, in a jail “braves” attempted to run, but finding them- built for the occasion. The Military Commisselves completely hemmed in, with Indian indif- sion held its session in a small log-house, spared ference surrendered. The squaws rather took it from the Indian torch by accident, and there to heart-tore their hair, pounded their breasts, continued the trial of the four hundred prisoners screamed, and throwing themselves on the we then had, not including those sent to Fort ground, kicked in a most unladylike manner, Snelling. This accomplished, we again resumed the line of march toward Mankato, passing on line may be drawn between the condign punishour way by New Ulm.

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ment those Indians deserved and such revenge. On the advance of a military force—the im- A number of the men were put under arrest and mediate danger being supposed over-most of the mob soon dispersed. the inhabitants that had fled, after the attack, Crossing the Big Cottonwood River, we had returned to their homes. Without doubt marched on and pitched our tents within a they had suffered provocation of the utmost de- couple of miles of Mankato, on the bank of the gree in the loss of their property and the massa- Blue Earth River, in Camp Lincoln. The Mili. cre of their friends and relations; but still the tary Commission, that had completed its trials at demonstration they made as we passed New the Lower Agency, had condemned 303 of the Ulm, on Sabbath morning, was hardly to their Indians to be hung, and 18 to be imprisoned for credit.

life. These decisions, with detailed accounts of As the command passed the village the entire the trials, were sent on to Washington to be ratipopulation-men, women, and children-armed fied by the President. In the mean time they with pitch-forks, rakes, hoes, sticks, stones, brick- were left in jail, squatted side by side, smoking bats, knives, and guns, sallied out and attacked their kinickinick pipes. Another mob again atthe prison wagons. They were perfectly furi- tacked the jail, but were dispersed by the prompt, ous, the women danced about with aprons full decided action of Colonel Miller, who was then, of stones, and begged, “Oh, for just one chance from the absence of General Sibley, in command at those devils !” Some of them rushed up to of the camp. the wagons and discharged their missiles. One On the receipt of returns from Washington, woman pounded a chained Indian on the head ratifying for that time at least the sentence of only till he fell backward out of the wagon. , I regret thirty-eight of the condemned, immediate prepto give such items, but I do so that a distinct | arations were made for the execution. Not far

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from the jail a scaffold was built, so constructed | turned at large again with impunity. And so, that the entire platform on which the condemn- of course, even at the very worst, the Indians aned were to stand, each directly under his own ticipated nothing more after their late raid. halter, could be instantly dropped and the bod- Let the guilty now, as before, again go unpunies left hanging in the air. With their charac- ished, and in a few years our remissness will teristic indifference—it can scarcely be called have to answer for another outbreak. Permit stoicism—the Indians received their sentence, traders and lawless men again to rob and opand soon commenced a war dance with as much press them till their savage blood boils, and freedom as their chains would permit.

again our own will soak the frontier soil. JusThe execution was appointed for Friday the tice and protection from wrongs and robbery, as 26th of December. An immense crowd of men, well as punishment for theft and murder, are duc women, and children assembled from all the to an Indian as well as to a white man. Teach country round to see the spectacle. The scaf- them habits of civilization, not by pampering fold was encircled by soldiers, through a double them in idleness and smoothing them over with file of whom the victims were conducted. Their promises of annuities, but by placing them in hands were tied, their heads covered with mus- circumstances requiring them to work. Give lin caps; otherwise they were dressed in their them justice and equity, laws and a government native costume. Chanting their wailing death- to restrain and protect them, and another massong, they mounted the platform. The noose sacre will never again blot their history. was adjusted to the neck of each; and at a sig- Thus I have given an account of the late Sioux nal the one rope which held the platform was massacre and war in as brief a compass as possisevered; the platform fell; and the doomed ble. I have had to compress it greatly to bring it eight-and-thirty, clasped hand in hand, were within the limits of a magazine article. Of items I launched into eternity. After a proper inter- have given but enough to show the general charval the bodies were cut down, carried away, and acter of the whole; I found it difficult to select buried, in two rows, foot to foot, in a wide ditch from such a mass, seemingly all of equal interest. among the willows on a sand-bar by the river- I have given nothing but what I saw myself, or side. The other prisoners were kept in confine- received from those who saw it. I would gladly ment to await their doom, whatever it might be. tender my thanks to Albert Colegrave, of St. A force sufficient to protect them from violence Paul, now in Company G of the Sixth Regiment was left with them. The remaining troops were Minnesota Volunteers, for valuable assistance in stationed in winter-quarters at all the endanger- preparing the sketches for this article ; to Rev. ed points along the entire frontier.

Alfred L. Riggs for the Dahkotah tunes ; to Mr. So also, in a degree at least, was it several J. E. Whitney, also of St. Paul, for the portrait years ago after the Spirit Lake massacre. A few of Little Crow; and to other friends for assistwere partially if at all punished, and the rest | ance in collecting materials.


[The recent decision of the United States Court, which dom of the thing as much as ourselves. In apparently settles the question of property in the “New many places such was the luxuriant growth Almaden Quicksilver Mines," causes us to produce the following paper, describing a visit made to these Mines in that, despite our leathern leggins and the cov1857. The illustrations and descriptions are given with erings always attached to the California stirrups, out change. They represent the region as it was six we were quickly wet with the morning dew, years ago. Those who are now familiar with it will be which sprinkled in little showers as we galloped able to note the changes which these few years have

a path through the tall mustard and grass. made in the aspect of life in the Golden State.-EDITORS OF HARPER'S MAGAZINE)

To the right lay the Bay of San Francisco, still shrouded in a veil of mist, which the early


charming season of the year in California, vealing here and there a whiter figure as some in the mountains as well as on the sea-coast, we boat, laden with produce from the farms above, looked out from the door of the Oakland House, drifted with the ebb-tide toward San Francisco. in the village of that name, and gave the final The savannas of Contra Costa spread away to directions to the brisk little hostler of the hotel the left, intersected with tiny streams flowing as to the saddling of the horses for our contem- toward the bay, their courses marked by a few plated jaunt. To go back a moment and ex- scattered trees. From Oakland, through the plain this rather abrupt introduction: Know, entire valley-bounded by the bay on the one good reader, that Oakland is a rural village em- hand, and the hills on the other—this plain exbowered in the only trees deserving the name of tends to San José, and forms one of the most woods within many miles of San Francisco, and valuable agricultural districts of the State. situated opposite that city, on the eastern shore Toward evening we pulled up at the Mission of the bay. It has been called the “Hoboken" of San José, where we passed the night; and of San Francisco. An hourly ferry is estab- on the following morning, leaving its venerable lished between the two places. Wrought into church to the left, we pursued our way to the desperation by the distant prospect of green fields southward, and a few hours' ride brought us to and flowery hill-sides, and weary of San Fran- the pueblo of San José, once the capital, and cisco's dust-pelted streets, we had taken our still the principal agricultural dépôt of Califorhorses across in the ferry the evening previous, nia. It is situated thirteen miles south of the and were now bound on an equestrian trip in head of San Francisco Bay, near the middle of search of novelties and adventures.

the beautiful valley of Santa Clara, which at The whole of California was at our disposal this point has a width of eighteen miles. The for an exploring expedition; but out of the sev- general course of this valley is nearly parallel to eral interesting localities it was difficult to the Pacific coast, from which it is separated by choose. There was Monte Diablo, with its the Santa Cruz mountains, while another range wild and sublime scenery; Martinez, on the (the Contra Costa mountains) forms its northStraits of Carquinez; San Pablo, where might eastern boundary, and divides it from the valley be seen the original primitive California style of of San Joaquin. The town communicates with living illustrated by the descendants of the old the bay through a little "embarcadero,” or port, Spanish families; the wheat-growing locality of called Alviso, standing at the head-waters of a the Mission of San José, with its quaint old creek flowing from the southward. San Jose, Catholic church, orchards, and hot - springs; in many respects, is the most interesting town and, lastly, the famous New Almaden Quick- in California, being supported entirely by the silver Mine, beyond San José, of which we had products of the surrounding agricultural region, heard accounts alunost as fabulous as those re- and appropriately styled the “farming headlating to the gold mines.

quarters” of the State. It is steadily increasing “We'll toss up," exclaimed F- “between in population. Society in San José is decidedly Martinez and the quicksilver mine!"

“Pike" in its character, but there are many famNo sooner said than done. The mine had it; ilies of refinement and education residing there. and settling our score with the landlord of our Here is the celebrated Catholic Female Seminared-wood hotel, we mounted and cantered away ry, the oldest and wealthiest educational institoward the base of the Contra Costa range, tution in the State; and among the buildings which rises abruptly from the extensive plains are the court-house, several churches, and hotels, bordering the bay to the eastward.

very New England in their appearance, and a Once clear of the little town we wheeled our great number of handsome private residences. horses to the southward, and having a distance The following engraving gives but one half of thirty-five miles to perform to the time-hon- the town, there being no point from the plain ored Mission of San José, through which we which will include a view of the whole. must pass, we pushed forward at a rapid pace. San José differs from most of the towns toOur horses vied with ourselves in spirits, and as ward the ocean in being nearly embowered in they snuffed the fresh morning air, and sprang the deepest and greenest foliage, and laid our along through the great expanse of clover and into spacious fruit and flower gardens. In fact, flowers, they seemed to enjoy the wild free-l it approaches nearer to an old-fashioned Eastern

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